Science Quiz / Developmental Biology 3

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Can you name the Developmental Biology 3?

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an RNA strand is first reverse transcribed into its DNA complement (complementary DNA, or cDNA) using the enzyme reverse transcriptase, and the resulting cDNA is amplified, can be
surface ectoderm, NCC and the neural tube are the result of this process
using gfp and fluorescense, he visualised neurons
Said a neuron is an anatomical and functional unit of the nervous system
neurons express a ___ part of the genome and have ___ metabolism
___ cells offer support and protection to the neurons and supply nutrients and oxygen
these cell participate in neural transmission and destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons
the ___ nervous system is involuntary
the ___ nervous system is voluntary
these are two parts to the autonomic NS
the spinal cord is composed of 3 zones:
In the spinal cord the___ contains the cell bodies
in the spinal cord the __ __ contains the axons
in the spinal cord the __ cell bodies become innervate muscles and control motion
neural (dorsal) cell bodies become ___
neural cell bodies form ___ with sensory neurons from the dorsal root ganglion
the cell bodies of sensory neurons are located outside the spinal cord in the ___
sensory information is relayed to motor neurons via ___
in mammals, ___ is a homolog to Hh
The three signaling molecules that pattern the spinal cord are
Shh is excreted by this structure
BMP4 and BMP7 are part of this family of peptides
the TGF induce formation of this structure
Shh from notochord induces cells in the ____ of neural tube to express and secrete __
BMP4 from the __ induce cells in the __ of the neural tube to express ___
Shh from floor plate and BMP4 from roof plate create a ___ in the neural tube
the second mitotic layer in the neural tube forms the ___ layer
in neural tube, neuroblasts migrate back to the intermediate zone and form the ___ layer
filopodial ___ are extended by the growing axon towards the highest concentration of ___ signals
gradients of TF stimulate and coordinate ___
the ___ zone is the only source of neurons/glial cells
the study of neurulation in this course has based on this species
a simple neural epithelium is a ___ structure
the ventricular layer lines the ___ of the NT
in neural tissue development only cells in the ___ divide
cells from th VZ migrate radially from the __ to the ___
neurons are guided from VL to outer cortex by ___ cells
new neurons are ___ to glial cells
___ inhibits nerve groth
___ injection into cancer patients revealed neuronal stem cells in hippocampus
Once the ___ is complete there is no new neurogenesis
NSC found in region of ___ formation
NCC undergo an ___
fate of NCC dependent on where they originate in the ___
the five main types of NCC (alphabetically)
Cranial NCC are from the region that forms the ___
contributes to the dermis and skull
NCC from midbrain and forebrain migrate to first ___
cells from first pharyngeal arch form ___ and some bones of the middle ___
cells from ___ populate second pharyngeal arch
first pharyngeal arch cells form thes two bones in the ear
NCC from second pharyngeal arch forms these two bones in the middle ear
Cells that migrate into the third and fourth pharyngeal arches are from __
cells from the third and fourth pharyngeal arches form the
mice with genes substituted for others are termed
To demonstrate Wnt signaling in cranial NCC, Wnt gene is fused to
___ controls Wnt enhancer
__ and __ are expressed dorsaly and __ is expressed ventraly in the skull and brain
the front of the head is derived from __, the back of the head is derived from ___ and ___
FGF, BMPs and Shh are ___ factors
border between epidermis and neural ectoderm forms cranial NCC and ___
the local thickening of ectoderm cells caused by the migration of NCC form
cranial placodes give rise to neuraons relanted to __
___ form from the region between somite 1-3
__ involved in the formation of blood vessels around the heart and in making the division between the aorta and pulminary artery
___ form from somite 6 to the end
___ give rise to the sensory and sympathetic nervous sysytem, the adrenal medula, the melanocyte
___ originates from region of NT near somites 1-7
___ NCC originates from region of NT posterior to somite 28
vagal and sacral NCC give rise to the ___ and the innervating gut
___ attracts vagal and sacral NCC to the gut
attracks trunk NCC to adrenal medula
the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of cells that secrete epinephrine, norepinephrine, and a small amount of dopamine in response to stimulation by sympathetic preg
closest relative to vertebrates
urochordates and cephalochordates do not have
neural plate and epidermal border contain cells that express similar genes to invertebrates, but in invertebrates these cells do not undergo___ or differentiation
the ___ enhancer drives transgene expression in the NCC of chick embryos
gene regulatory sequences are ___ between vertebrates and cephalochordates
lipophilic dye injected into embryonic cells
in tunicates, tracing studies revealed migrating NCC-like cells into the ___ and siphon primordia
migratory cell populations in ascidians synthesize two NCC markers, these cells make pigment and skeleton
__ and __ cause neural folds to differentiate into NCC, they are secreted from the __
BMP4 and BMP7 induce the expression of __ and __ proteins in the pre-NCC
promotes actin polymerization and reorginization of cytoskeleton, GTP binding
E2-box-binding repressor protein
slug/snail inhibits __ in NCC, causing cells to ___ and become ___
regulate intracellular signal transduction
when Rho proteins are competent effector molecules
a molecule that binds to a protein and thereby alters the activity of that protein
when rho proteins are inactive for signalling
activation of Rho proteins leads to enhanced invasion and motility and can give rise to
in response to ___ signalling, NCC at neurla plate border detatch and the neural plate migrates underneath the ectoderm
this is a gene!
in the trunk NCC, neurons divide into 2 blocks of mesodermal tissue
trrunk NCC taht migrate ventraly through the ___ become sensory nerves, sympathetic nerves and adrenal medula cells
Trunk NCC that migrate dorso-lateraly over the top of the dermamyotome become ___
receptors that mediate attachment between a cell and the tissues surrounding it
a substance that binds to a protein
NCC produces integrins to bind to ECM through ___, allows ___ along specific pathways
collagen and fibronectin are secreted into the ECM by ___
___ impedes migration of NCC, negative regulation
Eph is expressed on the posterior half of each ___
trunk NCC migrate along ___ pathway through ___ half of each somit
N-CAM is a
N-CAM mediates ___ cell adhesion
NCCs ___ N-CAM before migration, than have ___ expression once they reach their targets
The cells surrounding the NCC have ___ N-CAM leves during migration and ___ N-CAM levels when cells reach their targets and stop moving
Factors that contribute to NCC migration: proteins of ECM
Factors that contribute to NCC migration: proteins of the NGF family
Factors that contribute to NCC migration: protein growth factors
Factors that contribute to NCC migration: cell surface and secreted proteins, act over short distances
transcription factors that regulate activity of other genes in sensory neurons
NCC are ___ stem cells
NCC can be labelled with ___ to show pluripotency
___ primes cells to repomd to nerve growth factor
___ dictates differentiation of endoderm
___ instruct gene expression in surrounding tissue
transplantation of chick endoderm at the level of the ___ arch results in the formation of a second lower back in the host
a quail can develop a duck beak through ___ and vice-versa
new trait that arises as a group evolves, like lack of teeth in birds
defects in migration can result in __ syndrome, hearing loss and inconsistent pigmentation
peripheral nerve tumours
tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines (adreneline and noradreneline)
also known as axial mesoderm, is a type of mesoderm that lies along the central axis, under the neural tube
the area of mesoderm that forms just lateral to the neural tube on both sides
type of mesoderm that gives rise to somites and connective tissue
type of mesoderm that forms genital urinary tract, kidneys and somatic part of the gonad
Splanchic , somatic and extra-embryonic mesoderm are all examples of this type of mesoderm
___ give rise to the bones and cartillage of the spinal column and ribs
type of mesoderm that gives rise to the heart, peritoneum and internal layer of connective tissue that holds gut together
in chick somites, cells from myotome form ___ which migrate and form the deep muscles in the back
type of mesoderm that gives rise to extraembryonic membrane, chorion, umbilical cord
somites are ___ structures that form in the __ direction
in chick somites, cells from ___ form cartillage and bone of spinal cord and ribs
in chick somites, cells from myotome form ____ superficial muscles of the body wall, intercostals, limbsa and tongue
in chick somites, cells from ___ form connective tissue of back epidermis
cell fate is ___ if when transplanted it still forms what it would have in the donor embryo
the periodicity of somite formation is called the ___ mechanism
clock is provided by __ and __ signaling
wave portion: rostral to caudal (beak to posterior) gradient of ___ which set somite boundaries
in chicks new somite is formed every __ minutes
the formation of muscular tissue
in myogenesis, dividing myotomes remain motile and do not __, they form ___
when myotome division stops, __ are expressed
Myoblasts adhere and align into long chains, rhey join together and their cell membranes dissolve forming ___, the developing skeletal muscle fibre
myoblasts secrete ___ into ECM and link to myoblast skeleton
a high-molecular weight (~440kDa) extracellular matrix glycoprotein that binds to membrane-spanning receptor proteins called integrins
two muscle specific proteins
the basic unit of a muscle's cross-striated myofibril
cells that express ___ TFs are commited to form myocytes
a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the flow (or transcription) of genetic information from DNA to mRNA
nerumuscular junction of neurons with muscles
in the formation of the neuromuscular junction: ___ released by growth cone induces ___ receptors on muscle cells to cluster near axon
neuromuscular junction forms ___ ECM which secretes __
___ binds ___ and acts as a stop signal for axonal growth
neurites that grow along the initial axon following intial neuromucular junction, part of the transient stage
during synapse refinement, all but the most active __ die
after the extensive neuronal cell death, ___ form and protect the remaining axon
Schwann cells form from differentiated ___
defects with these are associated with convulsions, paralysis and MS
formation of bones
the cartillage forming cells
bone forming cells
bone removing cells
___ form axial skeleton
___ form limb skeleton
___ form bones/cartillage of face and cranium
the direct conversion of mesenchyme into bone is called
this is the process that forms the flat bones of the skull
in this process condrocytes are formed from mesoderm and than bone is formed from chondrocytes
In endochondrial ossification: NCC differentiate into osteoblasts when they are exposed to __
In endochondrial ossification: bone morphogenic proteins are secreted by the ___
In endochondrial ossification: osteoblasts condense together into nodules and secrete a prebone matrix composed of ___, which binds
In endochondrial ossification: calcified osteoblasts become ___ (bone cells)
In endochondrial ossification: mesenchymal cells migrate to the location of the future bone, condense, and are now called:
In endochondrial ossification: group of chondrocytes stop dividing and become ____ (increase in volume)
In endochondrial ossification: ossification spreads ___ from centre of bone
In endochondrial ossification: ___ leads to death of the hypertrophic chondrocytes
In endochondrial ossification: mesenchyme cells surrounding cartilaginous model differentiate and form
In endochondrial ossification: mesenchyme cells surrounding cartilaginous model differentiate and replace ___ with bone matrix and calcium carbonate
after ossification, ___ then invade interior of cartilage
after ossification, zones of proliferating chondrocytes remain at the ends of bones and form ___ which produces a zone of ossifying cartilage
growth plates are under ___ control
___ deposit new matrix and ___ degrade and remove new material
___ oppesses osteoclast development
fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) disease causes fibrous tissue to be ossified when damaged due to increased levels of ___ in non-bone tissue
all cartilage is replaced by bone at the end of ___

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