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Can you name the Developmental Biology 2?

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DefinitionTerm
pattern of cell divisions during development, __ __
In this type of development seen in sea urchins, balstomeres can be separated and each will produce a complete larva
another word for indeterminat development
type of development where each part of the surface of the embryo leads t a specific structure in the adult
another word for determinate development
with determinate development, an ___ cell lineage is produced
The two factors associated with cell fate are:
an ___ cell lineage is determined by internal cytoplasmic factors
a ___ cell lineage is determined by interactions with neighbouring cells
__ __ are incorporated into membranes and then followed during development
__ __: diagram that allows for a description of cell lineages
In sea urchin most of the embryonic cell fates are determined by the 64-cell stage but cells are not ___ committed
transplanted ___ induce cells to produce skeleal rods and a 2nd archenteron
___ can induce ectodermal cells to acquire other fates
isolated __ __ becomes ciliated ball of ectodermal cells
B-catenin is part of this family of signalling molecules
B-catenin is expressed in the __
over expression of ___ = endoderm biased development
lack of expression of ___ = ectoderm biased development
__ cleavage determines the axis of symmetry in the sea squirt
process of cellular rearrangement
cells that are brought inside to form 2 inner layers are from these 2 germ layers
cells to form outer germ layer are spread over the surface of the embryo
germ layer that gives rise to epidermis and nervous system
germ layer that gives rise to muscles, bones, connective tissue, circulatory system and urogenital system (including somatic tissue of gonad and kidney)
germ layer that gives rise to gut lining derivatives and th epithelial portion of liver, pacreas and lungs
Changes in cell shape, cell adhesion, cell division rate and cell migration all occur during ths process
cell ___: binding of cells together
changes in pattern of __ __ lead to altered cellular behaviour (differentiation)
changes in __ __ plays a role in epithelial to mesenchyme transition
process where sheet of tissue extends and forms a hollow tube inside a structure
expanding outer layer of tissue moves inward and spreads over the internal surface of outer cell layer
migration of individual cells from the surface layer into an interior space
splitting of a multi-layered sheet of cells into 2 layers that become independent from one another
migration of epithelial sheets that spread to enclose the deeper layers of the embryo
during gastrulation there is a ___ in cell cycle length
zone where active and fast cell divisions occur
___ is the process of programmed cell death
___ is the premature death of cells and living tissue
another word for primary mesenchyme
In sea urchins, cells derived from ___ ingress into blastocoel
In the beginning of sea urchin gastrualtion: __ __ __ ingress from ventral floor of the blastula by losing adhesion to surrounding cellular layers
In sea urchin: PMC fuse to form the larval __
In sea urchin: the vegetal plate invaginates and advances into the blastocoes forming the ___
opening of archenteron at vegetal region is the blastopore which becomes the ___
In sea urchin: cells ___ to narrow width of archenteron
__ __: elongation and intercalation of cells moves the archenteron toard the oral surface of embryo
In sea urchin: __ __ cells form on tip or archenteron
In sea urchins the secondary mesenchyme cells extend ___ to look for target cells on the oral surface of the gastrula which fuse and form the mouth
primitive oral cavity of embryo
when archenteron meets the blastocoel wall, __ __ cells disperse into blastocoel and form muscle, urogenital system and pigment cells
___ specifies fate of secondary mesenchyme cells in sea urchin embryo
notch signalind is essential for normal __ __ specification
In notch signaling the inducing __ remains bound to plasma membrane
In Notch signalling the inducing proteins in the activator cells are (3):
in notch signaling the inducing protein in the receivor cell is:
__ __ results in the release of the cytoplasmic domain, the process of breaking the peptide bonds between amino acids in proteins
notch enters nucleus and activates transcription via binding to __ __ __ __
rearrangement of germ layers during gastrulation leads to the __ __ of germ layers
Gastrulation in Xenopus begins on the dorsal side in the region called the __ __
In Xenopus: region surrounding the equator where animal and vegetal pole meet
Gastrulation in Xenopus starts with the elongation and involution of the __ __ __
In Xenopus the endoderm cells beneath the DBL, __ __
cells from different layers lose contact with their neighbours and rearrange into a single layer which increases surface area
DefinitionTerm
Intercalation causes __ __
In Xenopus animal cells expand by __ towands blastopore which forms the ectoderm
blastopore forms a ring around the endodermal cells of the vegetal pole which forms the __ __
the remaining endoderm which is not yet internalized is called the __ __
In Xenopus mesodermal cells that intercalate into a rod that extends along the top inner surface of the animal pole will give rise to the ___
In Xenopus ingressing ___ cells from the roof of the archenteron
InXenopus when the ectoderm covers the embryo this is known as __ __
In Xenopus at complete epiboly the endoderm is located __ the embryo
In Xenopus at complete epiboly the __ is positioned between the endoderm and ectoderm
In Xenopus at complete epiboly the __ has been obliterated
__ intercalation contributes to epiboly
convergent extension results from __ __ intercalation
involuting mesodermal cells migrate towards animal pole on a __ __
Gastrulation in fish involves __ of blastoderm cells over yolk
In gastrulation in fish the superficial layer of cells
In gastrulation in fish the deeper layer of cells
In gastrulation in fish the cells of the epiblast and hypoblast intercalate to form the __ __ which contains the organizer
The activity in the dorsal yolk syncytial layer is to fis what the __ __ is to Xenopus
Cells that develop in the region of the gray crescent migrate into the Xenopud embryo during gastrulation and form the ___
gray crescent also known as the __ and __ organizer
In Xenopus the gray crescent determines the __ side of the future embryo
The gray cresent contains the __
If embryo is divided through centre of gc two __ embryos develop
If embryo is divided below the gc only 1 hlf form a normal embryo and the other half forms a __ piece
tissue competence in early gastrulation is higher and shows __ specification, response dependent upon surrounding inductions
Tissues in late gastrulation have decreased competence to respond to regional inductions and show __ specification
Grey cresent region gives rise to cells of the __ __ __
Spemann's experiment showed that early blastula cells are __
During ___ embryogenesis B-catenin is uniformly spread throughout the embryo
In later stages of of embryogenesis, proteins are trasported to the dorsal sied that prevent the degradation of ___
In late embryo there is a higher B-catenin concentration in the __ region of the embryo
Genes activated by ___ in the endoderm cause the activation of genes in the primary organizer
dorsal signal from vegetal cells of Nieuwkoop centre induces formation of __ __
___ mRNA is located in the organizer and later in the notochord
Noggin is a __ signaling inhibitor
__ concentration influences binding of BMP genes to epidermal ectoderm
__ overexpression can induce a new body axis
Primary organizer produces genes that prevents ___ expression in neural tube region to facilitate formation of notochord
differentiation is ___
A differentiated cell is characterized by the ___ it contains
___ cells show no clear structural features to predict later devleopment
__ is a Wnt binding protein, it is expressed in chondrocytes making it important in skeletal development in the embryo and fetus
__ is a polypeptide that dorsalizes the developing embryo by binding ventralizing TGFβ proteins such as bone morphogenetic proteins
___ inhibits Wnt signalling pathway
___ gene family responsible for regulation of cell fate and patterning during
supression of both __ and __ signals necessary for brain formation
Siamois (Sia) and Twin (Twn) are expressed in response to ___
Sia and Twn are ___ ___
Sia activates ____
another word for egg white
clear area in chick embryo in which the primary embryonic structures are found
In chick embryo surrounds the area pellucida and is denser, mottled and darkly stained
the thickest and most prominent region in the chick embryo
In primitive streak in chick embryo: the clear line is the __ __
In primitive streak in chick embryo: the two dark lines are the __ __
In primitive streak in chick embryo: at the anterior end of the groove ist the __ __
In primitive streak in chick embryo: just in front of the primitive pit is a thickened accumulation of cells called __ __
the organizer for gastrulation in birds
In birds, the opening for cell migration into blastocoel
In chicks: ___ cells form portions of the external membranes, especially the yolk sac and the stalk that links the yolk mass to the endodermal digestive tube, do not contribute to
In chicks, cells passing through the lateral portions of the primitive streak give rise to the majority of endodermal and ___ tissues
The first cells to migrate through Hensen's node are those destined to become the pharyngial ___ of the foregut
In chicks: While mesodermal ingression continues, the primitive streak starts to regress, moving Hensen's node from near the center of the area pellucida to a more ___ location
In chicks: as Hensen's node moves posteriorly, the ___ is laid down
DefinitionTerm
In mammals gastrulation occurs in the __ __ __
in mammals the inner cell mass __ to form hypoblast and epiblast
in mammals flatter trophoblast cells lie below the hypoblast and will form __ __
In humans the ICM forms a disc on top of the blastocoel filled with ___
in humans the trophoblast divides into the ___ and ___
in humans the amniotic cavity forms in the
in humans the embryo proper comes from this
In humans the Original trophoblast cells -> adheres to endometrium
In humans undergoes Nuclear divisions w/o cell division
in humans, synctiotrophoblast responsible for the expansio of ___ into uterine wall
extra embryonic organ consisting of trophoblast and blood vessels
in humans, synctiotrophoblast gives rise to the embryonic portion of the ___
in mammals the movement of epiblast cells throught the __ __ and Hensen's node replace the hypoblast cells and become endoderm
in mammals the displaced hypoblast will form the __ __
the aggregation of two or more early cleavage embryos are __ __, form a composite embryo
A ___ mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been turned off through a targeted mutation
this gene may be essential for mesoderm formation and subsequent organization of left-right axial structures in early embryonic development, specifies Spemann organizer
___ is involved in stem cell maintenance
cancer can be caused by mutation in the __ signaling pathway
Wnt signaling is controled by __ __ regulation
abnormally expressed wnt can activate ___ expression
when a gene is expressed abnormally
___ are inhibitors of ealry Wnt/ B-catenin sginaling
formation of the __ __ is the first step in neurulation, happens when cells elongate and thicken
neural plate folds up and over forming the __ __
Neural groove folds and fuses into the __ __
during neurulation the internilized __ __ forms the brain and spinal cord
in neurulation the externalized ___ forms the skin and other structures and the neural crest cells
neural tube is composed of __
in amniotes induction occurs in the head ___ the trunk
in the late neurula __ __ __ are migrating through embryo
__ __ __ give rise to perpheral nervous system, melanocytes, bone structures and adrenal medula
cells at crest of neural tube undergo
notochord is formed from ___ from the endoderm
notochord becomes the __
the five steps in cellular change in neurulation are (in order):
in neurulation process by which neural plate cells elongate and thicken, and the midline constricks and forms wedge cells
in shaping, microtubules and microfilaments in wedge cells respond to signals from ___
in bottle cells ___ are at apex and __ are along the longitudinal axis
addition of cytochalasin results in inhibition of ___, results in no neurulation
addition of colchicine results in inhibition of __, no neurulation
___ is caused by epidermal cells on either side of the neural plate migrating towards midline
elevation is caused by the midline becoming anchored to the ___
in ___ dorso-lateral cells become hinge shaped and form DLHP which allow epidermis to bend
cells at the margin of neural plate are released as __ __ __ during closure
after closure the neural tube is independent of ___
___ neurulation: the cells surrounding the neural plate direct the neuralplate cells to proliferate, invaginate and pinch off from the surface to form a hollow tube
___ neurulation: the neural tube arises from a solid cord of cells that sinks into the embryo and subsequently hollows out to form a hollow tube
during brain formation the neural tube at the base of the brain undergoes a temporary ___
when the neural tube is temporarily closed at the base of the brain fluid is pumped into the vesicle lumen which puts pressure on the NT walls and causes the brain to __
the forebrain
the midbrain
the hindbrain
the cerebral brain hemisphere
the optic vesicles, thalenbric and hypothalamic region
the cerebellum
periodic swelling of the rhombencephalon
__ __ __ above rhombomere form ganglia
clusters of neuronal bodies whose axons form a nerve
anterior NT does not close properly, lethal
anterior neuropore does not close at right time and anterior occlusion mis-timed
posterior neuropore does not close

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