Science Quiz / Gemstones Studying

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Gemstones Studying

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HintAnswer
Oxidation state affects _____
Any evidence of ancient life (at least 11,700 years old)
Largest Diamond Producers Today
Bending of light as it passes from one substance (air) into another (gem)
Specific Gravity of Diamond
A gem gravel is a form of ________ deposit
How are pearls formed?
Streak of Jet
CZ, Moissanite, YAG, Strontrium titanite, GGG, Glass
Formed by De Beers & African gov't; formulates policy & sets quotas
Needed to achieve brilliance & sparkle
Gem cut with round upper surface
Deep blue star sapphire - 182 carats
What causes fire?
An irregular break that looks like a clam shell
Gem materials can be synthesized in the lab or simulated by various lab-synthesized materials
Resistance to Scratching
Cutting & polishing a diamond commonly results in loss of about ___% of the original crystal
4 major mineral forming elements
Refers to a gem that appears inclusion-free at 10x
Most common mineral on earth's surface?
When rock is weathered at the Earth's surface, crystals are released as grains
 
RI of Quartz
Angle at which total internal reflection is achieved
simulate the appearance of a diamond (Not made of Carbon)
Color of powdered mineral
Bought by Subway founder & named after his late wife
Amorphous substances include
Diamonds, Garnet, Gold, Silver, & Platinum - have this type of symmetry
Other factors that contribute to value of a gem?
Gems concentrated in alluvial (gravel) deposits weathered from igneous or metamorphic rocks
Wood fossilized with silica
Metallic hues
Same mineralogy as natural diamond, but created in a laboratory
Sapphires, Rubies, Emeralds, Aquamarine, Quartz - have this type of symmetry
Light diffraction of Opal
Material that is sufficiently attractive & durable to be used for personal adornment
HintAnswer
Primary Source of Rubies & Sapphires
An electronic diamond tester is used for
Bort, Ballas, Carbonado - are what?
Secondary Source of Rubies & Sapphires
Are determined from the RI of the gem
At least 4 3-fold axes of symmetry
Alloys increase what?
Who is the Hope Diamond named after?
Star Effect, silk-like texture caused by needles of rutile
breakage along a surface that is not related to its internal atomic structure
no axes
This gemstone's color disappears when exposed to UV light
Bluish white glow like a full moon
Luminescence under UV radiation
Stolen in 'The Great Jewelry Robbery'
opaque, black or gray, tough & compact, Brazil & West Africa - meteorites?
preferential breakage along some surfaces where atomic bonds are weaker
Largest-known deep-blue diamond
Resistance to color loss due to heat, light, chemicals
Key attribute of a gemstone
Structural imperfections in crystals causing selective absorption of light
UNGA passed a resolution that sought to break the link between the illicit transaction of rough diamonds & armed conflict
Bouncing of light off a surface (facet)
Poorly crystallized; black, gray, or brown; translucent to opaque
Rainbow-like flashes of color in gem
The degree to which light is bent as it passes from air into a gem
Mineral, gas, or fluid contained in crystal
SG of Amber
at least 1 2-fold axis of symmetry
Are precious metals hard or soft?
A mined-out volcanic neck
Synthetic star sapphires & rubies
Group of marketing companies - diamond producers cooperatively sell diamonds
3-fold or 6-fold symmetry
List the 4 Cs
Emission of Visible light under the influence of certain light rays
Silicate minerals include:
Separation of white light into its component colors
HintAnswer
gems colored by impurities (ex. Corundum)
Amber floats in _____ _____
Appearance of light as it reflects off the surface of a gem
Spherical aggregates of many small diamond crystals
Resistance to Chipping & Fracture
Luminescence that continues after irradiation has ceased
Refractive Index of Diamond
Faces on a crystal have a _______ because of the arrangement of atoms
Olive-green gem
Minerals having the same chemical composition but different crystal structures
1 4-hold axis of symmetry
at least 3 2-fold axes of symmetry
Amount of pure gold present in the alloy
Most gems have this type of symmetry
Play-of-Colors
Color resulting from internal & chemical composition
Having colors such as pink, blue, and yellow
'self-colored' gems
List in order from top to bottom the facet names
Caused by light reflecting from numerous tiny inclusions in a mineral
Gold, Silver, and Platinum are _____
Dispersion of Diamond
Cat's eye effect
Unusual igneous bodies containing large crystals
A solid having flat faces
Major Groups of Minerals
Alluvial deposits of metals
Color change in different lights
used to change the color; only changes the surface of the stone
flat, polished surface
Tests heat conductivity and electrical conductivity
Sometimes used to distinguish between stones: harder/softer or more valuable/less
Rainbow like colors in pearls
3 factors of Durability
Founded by Cecil Rhodes in 1870; formalized process of equating the supply to demand
Synthetic crystal formed by flame fusion or flux growth
How much does 1 carat weight in grams?

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