Science Quiz / Gemstones Studying

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QUIZ: Gemstones Studying

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How are pearls formed?
preferential breakage along some surfaces where atomic bonds are weaker
Synthetic star sapphires & rubies
Faces on a crystal have a _______ because of the arrangement of atoms
List in order from top to bottom the facet names
Formed by De Beers & African gov't; formulates policy & sets quotas
3 factors of Durability
Stolen in 'The Great Jewelry Robbery'
A mined-out volcanic neck
An electronic diamond tester is used for
RI of Quartz
Angle at which total internal reflection is achieved
Gems concentrated in alluvial (gravel) deposits weathered from igneous or metamorphic rocks
used to change the color; only changes the surface of the stone
Key attribute of a gemstone
Bought by Subway founder & named after his late wife
Bending of light as it passes from one substance (air) into another (gem)
breakage along a surface that is not related to its internal atomic structure
Sometimes used to distinguish between stones: harder/softer or more valuable/less
Bluish white glow like a full moon
What causes fire?
Needed to achieve brilliance & sparkle
Appearance of light as it reflects off the surface of a gem
Star Effect, silk-like texture caused by needles of rutile
SG of Amber
Silicate minerals include:
Bort, Ballas, Carbonado - are what?
Minerals having the same chemical composition but different crystal structures
Luminescence under UV radiation
Having colors such as pink, blue, and yellow
Streak of Jet
Bouncing of light off a surface (facet)
Most common mineral on earth's surface?
Gem cut with round upper surface
How much does 1 carat weight in grams?
Major Groups of Minerals
This gemstone's color disappears when exposed to UV light
Mineral, gas, or fluid contained in crystal
Refers to a gem that appears inclusion-free at 10x
Luminescence that continues after irradiation has ceased
1 4-hold axis of symmetry
Cat's eye effect
Refractive Index of Diamond
Gem materials can be synthesized in the lab or simulated by various lab-synthesized materials
Resistance to Chipping & Fracture
A solid having flat faces
Alluvial deposits of metals
Caused by light reflecting from numerous tiny inclusions in a mineral
CZ, Moissanite, YAG, Strontrium titanite, GGG, Glass
Tests heat conductivity and electrical conductivity
Amorphous substances include
Largest Diamond Producers Today
Rainbow like colors in pearls
A gem gravel is a form of ________ deposit
Structural imperfections in crystals causing selective absorption of light
Secondary Source of Rubies & Sapphires
The degree to which light is bent as it passes from air into a gem
no axes
When rock is weathered at the Earth's surface, crystals are released as grains
Light diffraction of Opal
Most gems have this type of symmetry
Poorly crystallized; black, gray, or brown; translucent to opaque
Are precious metals hard or soft?
Oxidation state affects _____
Rainbow-like flashes of color in gem
Color of powdered mineral
Cutting & polishing a diamond commonly results in loss of about ___% of the original crystal
Color resulting from internal & chemical composition
Unusual igneous bodies containing large crystals
Resistance to Scratching
Amount of pure gold present in the alloy
flat, polished surface
Dispersion of Diamond
Synthetic crystal formed by flame fusion or flux growth
Specific Gravity of Diamond
Separation of white light into its component colors
Resistance to color loss due to heat, light, chemicals
List the 4 Cs
Gold, Silver, and Platinum are _____
gems colored by impurities (ex. Corundum)
An irregular break that looks like a clam shell
Alloys increase what?
UNGA passed a resolution that sought to break the link between the illicit transaction of rough diamonds & armed conflict
Olive-green gem
Deep blue star sapphire - 182 carats
Same mineralogy as natural diamond, but created in a laboratory
Diamonds, Garnet, Gold, Silver, & Platinum - have this type of symmetry
Primary Source of Rubies & Sapphires
Material that is sufficiently attractive & durable to be used for personal adornment
3-fold or 6-fold symmetry
Amber floats in _____ _____
Largest-known deep-blue diamond
Color change in different lights
Other factors that contribute to value of a gem?
Are determined from the RI of the gem
At least 4 3-fold axes of symmetry
at least 1 2-fold axis of symmetry
Who is the Hope Diamond named after?
Spherical aggregates of many small diamond crystals
4 major mineral forming elements
Emission of Visible light under the influence of certain light rays
'self-colored' gems
simulate the appearance of a diamond (Not made of Carbon)
Group of marketing companies - diamond producers cooperatively sell diamonds
Metallic hues
at least 3 2-fold axes of symmetry
Sapphires, Rubies, Emeralds, Aquamarine, Quartz - have this type of symmetry
Founded by Cecil Rhodes in 1870; formalized process of equating the supply to demand
Any evidence of ancient life (at least 11,700 years old)
opaque, black or gray, tough & compact, Brazil & West Africa - meteorites?
Wood fossilized with silica

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