Science Quiz / Gemstones Studying

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Gemstones Studying

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HintAnswer
When rock is weathered at the Earth's surface, crystals are released as grains
preferential breakage along some surfaces where atomic bonds are weaker
Gem cut with round upper surface
Refers to a gem that appears inclusion-free at 10x
Unusual igneous bodies containing large crystals
Alluvial deposits of metals
Most gems have this type of symmetry
Largest-known deep-blue diamond
opaque, black or gray, tough & compact, Brazil & West Africa - meteorites?
Olive-green gem
List the 4 Cs
Amount of pure gold present in the alloy
A gem gravel is a form of ________ deposit
3 factors of Durability
CZ, Moissanite, YAG, Strontrium titanite, GGG, Glass
no axes
List in order from top to bottom the facet names
Color of powdered mineral
Material that is sufficiently attractive & durable to be used for personal adornment
Refractive Index of Diamond
Structural imperfections in crystals causing selective absorption of light
used to change the color; only changes the surface of the stone
Stolen in 'The Great Jewelry Robbery'
Bort, Ballas, Carbonado - are what?
Bouncing of light off a surface (facet)
Play-of-Colors
Are determined from the RI of the gem
Formed by De Beers & African gov't; formulates policy & sets quotas
What causes fire?
Primary Source of Rubies & Sapphires
Most common mineral on earth's surface?
Oxidation state affects _____
Largest Diamond Producers Today
Luminescence under UV radiation
Deep blue star sapphire - 182 carats
An irregular break that looks like a clam shell
Synthetic crystal formed by flame fusion or flux growth
Rainbow like colors in pearls
HintAnswer
Color change in different lights
Emission of Visible light under the influence of certain light rays
Angle at which total internal reflection is achieved
A mined-out volcanic neck
Major Groups of Minerals
Gold, Silver, and Platinum are _____
Key attribute of a gemstone
At least 4 3-fold axes of symmetry
Minerals having the same chemical composition but different crystal structures
Resistance to Chipping & Fracture
4 major mineral forming elements
simulate the appearance of a diamond (Not made of Carbon)
Streak of Jet
A solid having flat faces
Specific Gravity of Diamond
gems colored by impurities (ex. Corundum)
Poorly crystallized; black, gray, or brown; translucent to opaque
Having colors such as pink, blue, and yellow
Sometimes used to distinguish between stones: harder/softer or more valuable/less
Group of marketing companies - diamond producers cooperatively sell diamonds
Silicate minerals include:
Founded by Cecil Rhodes in 1870; formalized process of equating the supply to demand
Gems concentrated in alluvial (gravel) deposits weathered from igneous or metamorphic rocks
Wood fossilized with silica
Tests heat conductivity and electrical conductivity
Synthetic star sapphires & rubies
Faces on a crystal have a _______ because of the arrangement of atoms
1 4-hold axis of symmetry
Are precious metals hard or soft?
Sapphires, Rubies, Emeralds, Aquamarine, Quartz - have this type of symmetry
 
Separation of white light into its component colors
Appearance of light as it reflects off the surface of a gem
SG of Amber
Amorphous substances include
Caused by light reflecting from numerous tiny inclusions in a mineral
Other factors that contribute to value of a gem?
Same mineralogy as natural diamond, but created in a laboratory
HintAnswer
The degree to which light is bent as it passes from air into a gem
Amber floats in _____ _____
Spherical aggregates of many small diamond crystals
flat, polished surface
Rainbow-like flashes of color in gem
Metallic hues
Diamonds, Garnet, Gold, Silver, & Platinum - have this type of symmetry
Cat's eye effect
Color resulting from internal & chemical composition
Cutting & polishing a diamond commonly results in loss of about ___% of the original crystal
breakage along a surface that is not related to its internal atomic structure
at least 1 2-fold axis of symmetry
'self-colored' gems
How are pearls formed?
Mineral, gas, or fluid contained in crystal
Light diffraction of Opal
Who is the Hope Diamond named after?
3-fold or 6-fold symmetry
Star Effect, silk-like texture caused by needles of rutile
Secondary Source of Rubies & Sapphires
This gemstone's color disappears when exposed to UV light
UNGA passed a resolution that sought to break the link between the illicit transaction of rough diamonds & armed conflict
at least 3 2-fold axes of symmetry
An electronic diamond tester is used for
Dispersion of Diamond
Gem materials can be synthesized in the lab or simulated by various lab-synthesized materials
Alloys increase what?
Bending of light as it passes from one substance (air) into another (gem)
Bought by Subway founder & named after his late wife
Bluish white glow like a full moon
Any evidence of ancient life (at least 11,700 years old)
Needed to achieve brilliance & sparkle
How much does 1 carat weight in grams?
RI of Quartz
Luminescence that continues after irradiation has ceased
Resistance to Scratching
Resistance to color loss due to heat, light, chemicals

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