Science Quiz / Gemstones Studying

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Gemstones Studying

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Group of marketing companies - diamond producers cooperatively sell diamonds
gems colored by impurities (ex. Corundum)
Bending of light as it passes from one substance (air) into another (gem)
Having colors such as pink, blue, and yellow
Largest Diamond Producers Today
at least 1 2-fold axis of symmetry
Specific Gravity of Diamond
Alloys increase what?
Any evidence of ancient life (at least 11,700 years old)
Amber floats in _____ _____
Separation of white light into its component colors
'self-colored' gems
Same mineralogy as natural diamond, but created in a laboratory
Primary Source of Rubies & Sapphires
Bort, Ballas, Carbonado - are what?
Sometimes used to distinguish between stones: harder/softer or more valuable/less
Color of powdered mineral
Luminescence that continues after irradiation has ceased
A mined-out volcanic neck
Material that is sufficiently attractive & durable to be used for personal adornment
Most gems have this type of symmetry
Unusual igneous bodies containing large crystals
A solid having flat faces
Diamonds, Garnet, Gold, Silver, & Platinum - have this type of symmetry
RI of Quartz
Major Groups of Minerals
Largest-known deep-blue diamond
Resistance to Scratching
Bouncing of light off a surface (facet)
flat, polished surface
Other factors that contribute to value of a gem?
Spherical aggregates of many small diamond crystals
Synthetic star sapphires & rubies
Star Effect, silk-like texture caused by needles of rutile
3-fold or 6-fold symmetry
Refers to a gem that appears inclusion-free at 10x
What causes fire?
Gems concentrated in alluvial (gravel) deposits weathered from igneous or metamorphic rocks
Mineral, gas, or fluid contained in crystal
Amount of pure gold present in the alloy
Dispersion of Diamond
preferential breakage along some surfaces where atomic bonds are weaker
Rainbow like colors in pearls
Resistance to Chipping & Fracture
At least 4 3-fold axes of symmetry
Streak of Jet
Are precious metals hard or soft?
Who is the Hope Diamond named after?
Emission of Visible light under the influence of certain light rays
Color resulting from internal & chemical composition
Light diffraction of Opal
at least 3 2-fold axes of symmetry
List in order from top to bottom the facet names
opaque, black or gray, tough & compact, Brazil & West Africa - meteorites?
An irregular break that looks like a clam shell
Cat's eye effect
Amorphous substances include
used to change the color; only changes the surface of the stone
Gold, Silver, and Platinum are _____
Metallic hues
A gem gravel is a form of ________ deposit
Faces on a crystal have a _______ because of the arrangement of atoms
Deep blue star sapphire - 182 carats
Alluvial deposits of metals
Formed by De Beers & African gov't; formulates policy & sets quotas
Silicate minerals include:
Minerals having the same chemical composition but different crystal structures
Founded by Cecil Rhodes in 1870; formalized process of equating the supply to demand
Angle at which total internal reflection is achieved
When rock is weathered at the Earth's surface, crystals are released as grains
An electronic diamond tester is used for
UNGA passed a resolution that sought to break the link between the illicit transaction of rough diamonds & armed conflict
Wood fossilized with silica
no axes
Resistance to color loss due to heat, light, chemicals
Olive-green gem
CZ, Moissanite, YAG, Strontrium titanite, GGG, Glass
The degree to which light is bent as it passes from air into a gem
Needed to achieve brilliance & sparkle
3 factors of Durability
4 major mineral forming elements
Sapphires, Rubies, Emeralds, Aquamarine, Quartz - have this type of symmetry
How much does 1 carat weight in grams?
Color change in different lights
List the 4 Cs
Poorly crystallized; black, gray, or brown; translucent to opaque
Most common mineral on earth's surface?
Oxidation state affects _____
1 4-hold axis of symmetry
SG of Amber
Are determined from the RI of the gem
Appearance of light as it reflects off the surface of a gem
simulate the appearance of a diamond (Not made of Carbon)
Structural imperfections in crystals causing selective absorption of light
Caused by light reflecting from numerous tiny inclusions in a mineral
Bought by Subway founder & named after his late wife
breakage along a surface that is not related to its internal atomic structure
Gem materials can be synthesized in the lab or simulated by various lab-synthesized materials
How are pearls formed?
Cutting & polishing a diamond commonly results in loss of about ___% of the original crystal
Refractive Index of Diamond
This gemstone's color disappears when exposed to UV light
Key attribute of a gemstone
Synthetic crystal formed by flame fusion or flux growth
Secondary Source of Rubies & Sapphires
Gem cut with round upper surface
Rainbow-like flashes of color in gem
Tests heat conductivity and electrical conductivity
Stolen in 'The Great Jewelry Robbery'
Bluish white glow like a full moon
Luminescence under UV radiation

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