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Gemstones Studying

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HintAnswer
simulate the appearance of a diamond (Not made of Carbon)
3-fold or 6-fold symmetry
4 major mineral forming elements
UNGA passed a resolution that sought to break the link between the illicit transaction of rough diamonds & armed conflict
breakage along a surface that is not related to its internal atomic structure
preferential breakage along some surfaces where atomic bonds are weaker
This gemstone's color disappears when exposed to UV light
Emission of Visible light under the influence of certain light rays
no axes
Separation of white light into its component colors
Luminescence under UV radiation
Structural imperfections in crystals causing selective absorption of light
Having colors such as pink, blue, and yellow
Group of marketing companies - diamond producers cooperatively sell diamonds
Secondary Source of Rubies & Sapphires
Other factors that contribute to value of a gem?
Cat's eye effect
A mined-out volcanic neck
Rainbow like colors in pearls
Who is the Hope Diamond named after?
Wood fossilized with silica
Spherical aggregates of many small diamond crystals
Largest-known deep-blue diamond
Stolen in 'The Great Jewelry Robbery'
RI of Quartz
An irregular break that looks like a clam shell
What causes fire?
Sapphires, Rubies, Emeralds, Aquamarine, Quartz - have this type of symmetry
Bluish white glow like a full moon
Synthetic star sapphires & rubies
List in order from top to bottom the facet names
Silicate minerals include:
Star Effect, silk-like texture caused by needles of rutile
 
Gold, Silver, and Platinum are _____
Play-of-Colors
How much does 1 carat weight in grams?
Streak of Jet
HintAnswer
Bouncing of light off a surface (facet)
Most gems have this type of symmetry
Amorphous substances include
List the 4 Cs
Bort, Ballas, Carbonado - are what?
'self-colored' gems
Appearance of light as it reflects off the surface of a gem
Angle at which total internal reflection is achieved
gems colored by impurities (ex. Corundum)
CZ, Moissanite, YAG, Strontrium titanite, GGG, Glass
Oxidation state affects _____
flat, polished surface
1 4-hold axis of symmetry
Same mineralogy as natural diamond, but created in a laboratory
The degree to which light is bent as it passes from air into a gem
Unusual igneous bodies containing large crystals
Founded by Cecil Rhodes in 1870; formalized process of equating the supply to demand
Metallic hues
used to change the color; only changes the surface of the stone
3 factors of Durability
Luminescence that continues after irradiation has ceased
Deep blue star sapphire - 182 carats
SG of Amber
Resistance to Scratching
Refractive Index of Diamond
Poorly crystallized; black, gray, or brown; translucent to opaque
Alloys increase what?
Cutting & polishing a diamond commonly results in loss of about ___% of the original crystal
Tests heat conductivity and electrical conductivity
Any evidence of ancient life (at least 11,700 years old)
Olive-green gem
Bought by Subway founder & named after his late wife
at least 1 2-fold axis of symmetry
at least 3 2-fold axes of symmetry
Most common mineral on earth's surface?
Formed by De Beers & African gov't; formulates policy & sets quotas
Key attribute of a gemstone
Rainbow-like flashes of color in gem
HintAnswer
Resistance to Chipping & Fracture
An electronic diamond tester is used for
How are pearls formed?
Amount of pure gold present in the alloy
Caused by light reflecting from numerous tiny inclusions in a mineral
Refers to a gem that appears inclusion-free at 10x
Primary Source of Rubies & Sapphires
Synthetic crystal formed by flame fusion or flux growth
At least 4 3-fold axes of symmetry
Minerals having the same chemical composition but different crystal structures
Resistance to color loss due to heat, light, chemicals
Color change in different lights
Alluvial deposits of metals
Mineral, gas, or fluid contained in crystal
Color of powdered mineral
Are precious metals hard or soft?
Largest Diamond Producers Today
opaque, black or gray, tough & compact, Brazil & West Africa - meteorites?
Are determined from the RI of the gem
Light diffraction of Opal
Gems concentrated in alluvial (gravel) deposits weathered from igneous or metamorphic rocks
Gem cut with round upper surface
Needed to achieve brilliance & sparkle
Diamonds, Garnet, Gold, Silver, & Platinum - have this type of symmetry
Dispersion of Diamond
Gem materials can be synthesized in the lab or simulated by various lab-synthesized materials
Specific Gravity of Diamond
Sometimes used to distinguish between stones: harder/softer or more valuable/less
Material that is sufficiently attractive & durable to be used for personal adornment
A solid having flat faces
Color resulting from internal & chemical composition
Faces on a crystal have a _______ because of the arrangement of atoms
Amber floats in _____ _____
Major Groups of Minerals
When rock is weathered at the Earth's surface, crystals are released as grains
Bending of light as it passes from one substance (air) into another (gem)
A gem gravel is a form of ________ deposit

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