Science Quiz / Clinical Correlations

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Can you name the Clinical Correlations?

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Descriptions, symptomsClinical CorrelateAnatomy
failure of anterior neuropore to close, brain exposed
failure of posterior neuropore to close
meninges and spinal cord protrude
only meninges protrude
absence of vertebral arch, marked by a patch of hair
lateral curvature of vertebrae
failure to break down mesenchyme between digital rays
absence of one or more limbs
absence of part of a limb
excess digits
fusion of digits involving bone and/or nail
pleuroperitoneal folds don't fully close off pleuropericardial canal, abdominal structures move to thoracic cavity
heart on right side of body
organs on wrong side of body
incomplete fusion of septum primum and secundum, usually clinically insignificant
only partial development of aorticopulmonary septum, one large vessel leaves the heart
aorticopulmonary septum grows in straight line instead of spiral, aorta exits from right ventricle, pulmonary artery exits from left ventricle
truncus arteriosum not divided equally; pulmonary stenosis, overriding aorta, ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular hypertrophy
arteriopulmonary septum does not fuse with ventricular ridge
endocardial cushions fail to fuse with interventricular and interatrial septa
tracheoesophageal folds close incompletely, unusual connections between larynx and foregut
blind end esophagus
Descriptions, symptomsClinical CorrelateAnatomy
surfactant deficiency
failure of esophagus to completely recanalize, associated with polyhydramnios
pyloric smooth muscle hypertrophies; small knot in right costal region
incomplete recanalization of duodenum
failure of duodenum to recanalize; 'double bubble'
ventral pancreatic bud fuses with dorsal pancreatic bud on dorsal and ventral side
persistence of midgut herniation in umbilical cord
midgut herniation reduces, but herniates through imperfectly closed umbilicus; remains under epidermis
abdominal viscera exude through abdominal wall without involvement of umbilical cord; result of incomplete embryological folding
persistent yolk stalk; may lead to ulceration and bleeding because of presence of gastric mucosa; presents like appendicitis
rectum ends too far superior; either blindly or via fistula
fistula between rectum and bladder
fistula between rectum and urethra
fistula between rectum and vagina
fistula between rectum and entrance to vagina
herniated disc around L4/L5; radiating pain from butt to feet
inferior dislocation of shoulder
injury to long thoracic nerve-- you'd better get this one
inflammation in synovial sheath; weakness and tingling on lateral 3.5 fingers
connective tissue buildup between parietal and visceral pericardium
inflammation of pericardium
extensive fluid in pericardial cavity; veins of face and neck engorged
Descriptions, symptomsClinical CorrelateAnatomy
blood in pleural cavity
opening in chest wall; air taken in with every breath, but can't get out; puts pressure on other lung causing inadequate ventilation
no opening in chest wall to external environment, lung collapse
open passageway between pleural cavity and external environment; may lead to tension pneumothorax
teste lodged in abdomen, inguinal canal, prescrotal region
tunica vaginalis patency, fluids drain down to testicle
abdominal contents push through deep and superficial inguinal ring; processus vaginalis is patent; contents inside spermatic cord
abdominal contents push through only superficial inguinal ring; contents on exterior of spermatic cord
herniation below and lateral to pubic tubercle
inflammation of peritoneum
excess fluid in peritoneum
fibrin forms in injured regions of peritoneum, makes scars, and causes two parts of peritoneum to stick together
enlargement of paraumbilical/epigastric veins
enlargement of esophageal veins
enlargement of rectal vessels
solid crystal aggregates formed in kidneys; flank, lower abdomen, and groin pain; blood in urine
damage to median nerve; cannot move thumb outside plane of palm
median nerve damage at level of elbow or upper arm; inability to flex digits 2-3 at MP/IP joints
inability to extend wrist; radial nerve damage
digits 4-5 drawn toward back of hand at first proximal IP joint and curled toward palm at distal two IP joints; damage to ulnar nerve

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