Science Quiz / Goljan 3 of X: Vitamins

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Can you name the Vitamins

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Microcytic hypochromic anemia + osteoprosis + skin depigmentation
Cofactor for the production of ATP
Required for metabolism of a-ketoglutarate
Cofactor for formation of methylmalonyl CoA
Deficient in Hartnup disease
Scurvy = deficiency of...
Niacin is synthesized from...
Supplementation required in pregnancy
Toxic levels cause hypercalcemia
Deficiency causes decreased proprioception and hyporeflexia
Periosteal proliferation causing bone pain
Tea and toast diet causes deficiency in...
MCC1 deficiency WW = non-enriched grain
Cofactor for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
Cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase
Required for homocysteine conversion to cystathionine
Binds osteoblasts to mineralize bone and cartilage
Deficiency caused by isoniazid
Deficiency caused by Hartnup disease
Irregular keratin deposits in the cornea
Bear liver consumption
Congestive cardiomyopathy with biV failure
Lemon-colored elderly white woman with dementia
Supplementation needed after gastric bypass
Loss of sebaceous glands
Cancer that causes niacin deficiency
Deficiency causes microcytic anemia + aortic dissection + poor healing
Osteomalacia
Homocystinuria treated with...
Increases Ca++ and PO4- resorption
Protects cell membranes from lipid peroxidation
Peripheral neuropathy 2/2 demyelination
Corneal neovascularization + glossitis + cheilosis + stomatitis
Diphyllobothrium latum
Required for conversion of NE to Epi
Hemolytic anemia + peripheral neuropathy
Needed to convert pyruvate to oxaloacetate
MCC1 cobalamin deficiency?
y-carboxylates glutamate residues
HintAnswer
Cofactor for ALA synthetase
Needed to convert dopamine to NE
Primary source is intestinal flora
Required for homocysteine conversion to methionine
Deficiency = megaloblastic anemia + neurologic Sx
Required for DNA synthesis + odd-chain fatty acid metabolism
Location of formation of 1,25-OH Vitamin D
Needed for final step of incorporating odd-chain FAs into TCA
Location of formation of 25-OH Vitamin D
Corn-based diet causes this vitamin deficiency
Impaired night vision
Essential component of Coenzyme A
Needed to convert pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
Cofactor in carboxylase reactions
Diarrhea + dermatitis + dementia
Component of glutathione peroxidase
Cofactor for pyruvate carboxylase
Prevents LDL oxidation
Deficiency damages medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus and mammillary bodies
Uric acid calculi 2/2 excess of...
Important in immune Fn + mucus secreting epithelium + growth
Reduces tetrahydrofolate
Schilling's test concerns...
Deficiency causes decreased adult hair + predisposition to EtOH cirrhosis
Present only in animal products
CNS bleeding + ecchymosis in a newborn
Lip scaling + fissures at the corners
Deficiency causes sideroblastic anemia + peripheral neuropathy
Prolonged PT and PTT
 
Follicular hyperkeratosis
Deficiency causes microcytic anemia 2/2 loss of Fe3+ reduction to Fe2+
Deficiency often caused by broad spectrum Abx
Vitamin K function
Deficiency caused by phenytoin, valproate, Sulfas, MTX...
Riboflavin important in what process
Squamus metaplasia of corneal epithelium
Active forms = FAD and FMN
In excess, synergistic with warfarin (blocks Vit K factor synthesis)
HintAnswer
Hydroxylates lysine and proline
Perifollicular hemorrhages + corkscrew hairs + bleeding gums
Papilledema + seizures 2/2 ICP
Deficiency causes muscle weakness and dilated cardiomyopathy
Deficiency causes RBC fragility and weakness
MCC1 vitamin deficiency in the US
MCC1 thiamine deficiency in the US
Storage form of vitamin A
Deficiency caused by strict vegan diet
Cofactor for dopamine b-hydroxylase
Bitot's spot
Assists in clearance of free radicals from cytosol
Deficiency causes spinocerebellar ataxia + pigmented retinopathy
Cofactor for transketolase
Tetany
Deficiency in CF or abetalipoproteinemia
Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord
Assists in clearance of free radicals from membranes
Cofactor for homocysteine methyltransferase
Needed for transaminase reactions
Deficiency caused by eating raw eggs
Rachitic rosary
Deficiency causes dysgeusia + anosmia + perioral rash with poor healing
Seen in pernicious anemia or chron's
Cofactor for AcCoA to malonyl CoA conversion
Active forms of vitamin B2
Reaction type that requires biotin
Bow legs ┬▒ craniotabes
What are the active forms of vitamin B3
Deficiency causes impaired glucose tolerance + neuropathy
Found in outer layer of grain/seed
Increased in sarcoidosis
Required for transamination to derive glucose from alanine
Used to treat measles
Neutralizes free radicals, also renews Vitamin E
Excess causes flushing
Supplementation needed after gastrojejunostomy
MCC1 vitamin D deficiency
Pseudotumor cerebri

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