Science Quiz / Neuroscience: Chapters 6 & 7

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Can you name the key terms from Chapters 6 & 7?

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DescriptionTerm
Cells that have receptive fields that can be divided into antagonistic 'on' and 'off' regions and are thus unresponsive to diffuse light
The process of adjusting the configuration of the lenses to bring images into focus on the retina
The simultaneous analysis of a signal in different ways by the multiple parallel pathways of a neural network
Where each level of the visual system is organized like a map of the retina
Flows from primary visual cortex to the dorsal prestriate cortex to the posterior parietal cortex ('Where' pathway)
Largest single area of association cortex that recieves visual input
The fact that even when you are focusing so intently on one conversation that you are totally unaware of the content of another conversation going on around you, but the mention of
A long, coiled tube with an internal membrane running almost to its tip
The small bones of the middle ear (malleus, incus, and stapes)
The two bottom layers of lateral geniculate nuclei, composed of neurons with large cell bodies
Any area of cortex that recieves input from more than one sensory system
The top four layers of lateral geniculate nuclei composed of neurons with small cell bodies
Flows from primary visual cortex to the ventral prestriate cortex to the inferotemporal cortex ('What' pathway)
The phenomenon where the visual system highlights edges of objects so we can see them better
Largest and deepest cutaneous receptors, onion-like, they adapt rapidly and respond to sudden displacements of the skin but not to constant pressure
The ear drum
The idea that signals descending from the brain can activate neural gating circuits in the spinal cord to block incoming pain signals
Auditory receptors in the organ of corti
Clusters of ~50 taste receptors on the tongue
Cone-mediated vision; predominates in good lighting and provides high acuity (finely detailed) color perceptions of the world
A theory of color perception where there are three different kinds of color receptors, each with a different spectral sensitivity and the color of a particular stimulus is presumed
When we consciously percieve only a small subset of the many stimuli that excite our sensory organs at any one time and largely ignore the rest
The simplest of cutaneous receptors; neuron endings with no specialized structures on them and are particularly sensitive to temperature change and pain
DescriptionTerm
An indentation at the center of the retina; specialized for high acuity vision
Where olfactory receptor cell axons synapse onto neurons that project via the olfactory tracts to the brain
The difference in the position of the same image on the 2 retinas
A layer of mucus-covered tissue located in the upper part of the nose that holds olfactory receptor cells
The internal membrane of the cochlea that acts as the auditory receptor organ
Cells that have rectangular receptive fields and are not divided into static 'on' and 'off' regions
The ability to detect the presence of dimly lit objects
Carries information about the direction and intensity of head movements, which helps us maintain our balance
The phenomenon when you are intently focused on one aspect of a situation that you are ignorant of a significant change in another apect of a situation
Receptive organs of the vestibular system
Red pigment in rods
Damage to an area of the primary visual cortex causing an area of blindness in the corresponding area of the contralateral visual field of both eyes
The area of the body that is innervated by the left and right dorsal roots of a given segment of the spinal cord
Rod-mediated vision; predominates in dim illumination with not enough light to excite the cones
An area of the cortex that recieves most of its input from the visual relay nuclei of the thalamus
A theory of color perception where there are two different classes of cells in the visual system for encoding color and another class for encoding brightness
The ability to see details of objects
'Filling in'; When the visual system uses information provided by the receptors around the blind spot to fill in the gaps in your retinal images
The area of a visual field within which it is possible for a visual stimulus to influence the firing of that neuron
The fact that the percieved color of an object is not a simple function of the wavelengths reflected by it
Each of the three levels of cerebral cortex in each sensory system contains functionall distinct areas that specialize in different kinds of analysis
A gap in the receptor layer

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