Science Quiz / Anthro Exam 3

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anterior foramen magnum, reduced canines, less prognathic, U-shaped dental arcade, huge browridges, small cranial capacity, sagittal crest; 7 mya
erectus v. ergaster: thin cranial board, less pronounced browrdiges
different traits have different distributions that are not always correlated
reduced facial size, more parabolic plate differences in canines, smaller canines, larger front teeth relative to back, moderate-small browridge, larger encephalization; 2.4 mya
guy who thought genotypic and phenotypic variation are distributed along geographic gradiations
'southern ape'
large face, projected browridges (arched not straight), low forehead, increased brain size, more rounded braincase, more vertical nose; 850-200 kya
has reduced cranial cresting, is less prognathic, 500-530 cc; 2 mya
guy who divided population into w/in populations, between populations w/in race, and between races, and found that 94% of genetic variation occurs within human populations; conclud
guy who wrote Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race
1.4 mya: bifacial, handaxes and cleavers
erectus v. ergaster: thick cranial board, more pronounced browrdiges
a Middle Paleolithic toolkit; H. neanderthalensis/heidelbergensis
theory where domination of an inferior society by a dominant one is the result of natural law
guy who developed eugenics
a new production method, more uniform tools, greater control over flake size/shape
femur anatomy supports bipedalism, thick dental enamel, large upper canine, curved finger bones, upper arm morphology indicating arboreal climbing; 6 mya
has anterior foramen magnum, less flared cheek bones, 500-530 cc; 1-2 mya
guy who split H. sapiens into four subgroups (europaeus, americanus, etc)
1.8-1.5 mya: unifacial; simple cores, flakes, hammerstone
small cranial capacity, moderately prognathic, megadont, relatively long arms, opposable toes, small canine, anteriorly positioned foramen magnum, longitudinal arch in foot, relati
geographic variant of Heidelbergensis: increased cranial capacity, more rounded cranium (slight upper vault expansion), reduced tooth size
theory where aspects of behavior are governed by genetic factors and some groups are naturally superior to others
has a sagittal crest, dished face, flared zygomatics, megadont, and a small cranial capacity; 2.5 mya
how modern humans came about: African origin, European and Asian populations replaced by African dispersal, speciation event
guy who replicated Lewontin's findings using different genetic markers and found similar results
H. sapiens: warming trend, exploitation of fish and foul
how modern humans came about: African origin, interbreeding with resident premodern populations throughout the Old World, 'mostly out of Africa' hypothesis
idea that some races reached H. sapien stage in evolution faster than other races, so they're more complex; human races evolving as separate lines for the past million years
larger cranial capacity than humans, large long lower cranial shape, occipital bun, more vertical forehead, projected midface, arched browridges, robust & heavily built, barrel-che
the philosophy of race improvement through selective breeding; minorities passing on bad genes faster than whites
geographic variant of Neanderthals: huge cranial capacity, some deliberate burials
an Upper Paleolithic toolkit; blade technology
groups of organisms that share similar adaptive patterns; includes biological and cultural features that are unique to this group
has a larger face, larger molars, minimal browridges, and a significantly larger cranial capacity; 1.8 mya
guy who had an evolutionary approach and ranked societies on an evolutionary scale, simple -> complex; based on tech, econ, social structure
the species that used Solutrean and Magdalenian industries
guy who came up with the Candelabra model
hierarchial arrangement of the world; categories into discrete, immutable steps descending from God; races are primordial, flexed, non-overlapping, ranked
increased body size, brain within range of H. sapiens, efficient scavenger and likely hunter, est. more permanent living sites, culture as an adaptive strategy; 2 mya
guy who opposed social Darwinism , thought cultural differences = historical, social, & geogrpahical conditions, thought environmental conditions influence morphological characteri
geographic variant of Neanderthals: back of cranium bun-shaped, buried in flexed position surrounded by animal remains, with Mousterian and Chatelperronian industries
idea that races are composed of people who conform to idealized type and that interbreeeding between races causes contamination
guy who classified humans into 5 races based on classifications other than skin color
how modern humans came about: local populations evolved from premodern forms to fully modern humans, interbreeding, no taxanomic distinction between us and earlier hominins
extremely small-bodied and small-brained, about 3 feet tall, the result of extreme isolation pressures; 13-18 kya
geographic variant of Heidelbergensis: robust supraorbital torus (arched), low vault, prominent nuchal crest
geographic variant of Heidelbergensis: large cranial capacity, thin walls of braincase, sagittal keel

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