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QUIZ: Can you name the Anthro Exam 1?

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study of man
study of global patterns of belief and behavior found in human cultures both past and present
emphasis on ritual, myth, and religion
lifestyle, behaviors
suspending one person's judgement in order to understand and appreciate another's culture
study of earlier cultures and lifestyle by anthropologists who specialize in recovery, analysis, and interpretation of material remains from past scieties
study of human speech and language, specific languages, and language in general
study of human/primate biology, with emphasis on evolution, adaptation, physical variation, and behavioral characteristics
change in genetic makeup of a population over time
study of anatomical and behavioral human evolution as shown in fossil record
mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture - idea that biology makes culture possible and developing culture influences direction of bio evolution
study of skeletal material
measurement of human body parts
behavioral studies of nonhuman primates
study of disease/trauma in archaeological remains (nutritional, age-related, disease development)
population genetics, how human groups differ, looking at ancient DNA and forensic implications
application of anthropological techniques to legal issues
approach to science: problem, hypothesis, test, analysis
untested solution
tested and verified solution
tendency to relate all other ethnic or cultural groups back to one's own
argued for geocentrism
established time and date of creationism (Oct 23, 4004 BC)
empirical approach, put together heliocentric theory through logic and early scientific method
introduced concept of species and reproductive isolation; categorized plants and animals by their ability to mate with one another and produce fertile offspring
taxonomy, binomal nomenclature
external environment as an agent of change
identified the sea as the origin of life; competition, common ancestors, and vast time of Earth
coined 'biology'; argued that acquired characteristics could be passed on (giraffe example)
opposed Lamarck and insisted on fixity of species; catastrophism; religion
proposed theory that human population is growing, limited resources
introduced uniformtarianism and gradualism (while aspects are varible, what comprises them are constant) and held the belief that the earth was older than suspected
outlined fundamentals of evolution: (1) trait must be inheritable to be applicable, (2) cannot occur without variation, (3) fitness is relative to particular environment, (4) can o
came after/during C. Darwin, believed species descended from other species and the appearance of a new species was influenced by environmental factors
a species, once created, can never change
groups of organisms that, mainly bc of genetic differences, are prevented from mating and producing offspring with members of other groups
branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships
genus and species names are used to refer to species
traits that are used will continue to develop, traits that aren’t used will disappear (Lamarck)
study of all living organisms
earth's landscape is a result of violent cataclysmic events
geological processes are everpresent
traits become more or less common based on survival and reproductive success
measure of relative reproductive success of individuals
number of offspring an individual produces
applies selective pressures (in moth example, birds)
forced in the environment that influence reproductive success in individuals
study of how genes work and how traits are transmitted from one generation to the next
parts of the cell
found in all eukaryotic cells, contains the chromosomes
double-stranded molecule that contains genetic code
directs energy conversion within mitochondria
all body cells, except those related to reproduction, 46 chromosomes
reproductive cells (egg in females, sperm in males), 23 chromosomes
made up of a base, sugar, and a phosphate
enzymes break apart the nucleotide
the fusion of unattached bases
assembly of amino acid chains
single-stranded molecule, similar in structure to DNA, essential to protein synthesis
carries DNA code to ribosomes during protein synthesis
DNA converted into mRNA
converts mRNA into amino acids
assists in translation
sequence of DNA bases that specifies order of amino acids in protein
genes that act solely to control expression of other genes
important regulatory genes that direct early segmentation
cell with 46 chromosomes
cell with 23 chromosomes
change in DNA
loose, diffuse form of DNA seen when cell isn't dividing
discrete structures composed of DNA and protein found only in nuclei of cells
all chromosome except sex chromosomes
in mammals, X and Y chromsomses
simple cell division, somatic cells
sex cell division
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromsomes during meiosis
chance distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells during meiosis; along with recombination, the source of variation resulting from meiosis
failure of partner chromosome strands to separate during cell division
genes occur in pairs, because chromosomes split and combine with a different chromsome
distribution of one pair alleles into gametes does not influence the distribution of another pair, genes controlling different traits are inherited independently
having same alleles at same locus on members of a pair of chromosomes (TT, tt)
having different alleles at same locus on members of a pair of chromosomes (Tt)
genetic makeup of an individual
observable or physical characteristics of an organism, detectable expressions of genotypes
expression not influenced by environment, influenced by one genetic locus
expression of two alleles in heterozygotes, neither allele is dominant or recessive
diagram showing family relationships
expression may be much influenced by environment, influenced by two or more genetic loci
situation that occurs when the action of a single gene influences several seemingly unrelated phenotypic events
within a species, a community of individuals where mates are usually found
small changes within a species (ex. allele frequencies)
changes accumulated over many generations (ex. speciation event)
exchange of genes between populations
evolutionary changes produced by random factors - result of small population size
allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from, or are remnants of, larger populations
infertile offspring of two species
place where allele is on chromosome; gene
change in frequency of alleles from one generation to the next
in a population, the percentage of all alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele
within a species, community of individuals where mats are usually found
total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population
species have to keep evolving to stay ahead of parasites
ordering of organisms into categories to show evolutionary relationships
animals with segmented bony spinal columns
similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor
similarities between organisms based strictly on common function - no assumed common evolutionary descent
process that leads to the development of similarities between organisms not based on common ancestry
classification focusing on specifically chosen derived characters
characteristics inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and this not diagnostic of the groups that diverged later; primitive
characteristics that are modified from the ancestral condition and thus diagnostic of particulary evolutionary lineages
group of organisms sharing a common ancestor includes common ancestor and all descendants
chart showing evolutionary relationships determined by cladistic analysis - based solely on interpretation of shared derived characteristics (no time component and doesn't imply an
chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by evolutionary systematics (contains time component and implies ancestor-descendant relationships)
a depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding but reproductively isolated from other groups
process by which new species evolves from earlier species
ability of individuals to identify members of their own species for purposes of mating
behavioral differences that interfere with courtship
habitat/environment dictated, focuses on natural selection - a species is a group of organisms exploiting a niche (island dwarfing)
species based on parental patterns of ancestry
most widely accepted hypothesis of speciation: geographic separation causes reproductive isolation
differences in physical characteristics between males and females of same species (ex. human males are taller)
choosing mates based on how fit they appear
individual variation within species
meaningful variation between species
four quarters of mouth paralleled and the same; typical of mammals
movement of continents on sliding plates of the earth's surface - positions of large landmasses have shifted drastically during the earth's history
position of a species within its physical and biological environments, defined by diet, terrain, vegetation, predators, etc.
mammals have a number of different kinds of teeth
able to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells
relatively rapid expansion and diversification of life-forms into new ecological niches
long periods of stasis punctuated with rapid periods of change/speciation
change accumulated over time, finely graded transnational differences

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