History Quiz / Nobel Winner from Citation

Random History or Biography Quiz

Can you name the Nobel Laureates given an excerpt from their prize citation?

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'...her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium...' 
'for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances' [via his electronegativity scale] 
'for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements' 
'in recognition of his work in thermochemistry' [such as his namesake equation giving the voltage of an electrochemical cell] 
'for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin' 
'for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa' 
'for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change...' 
'for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East' [prize awarded in 1994] 
'in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents' [Organization founded by a group of French doctors] 
'for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland' 
Economic Sciences
'for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy' 
'...penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena' [including the latter's 'The Road to Serfdom'] 
'for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory' [including the latter's 'impossibility theorem'] 
'for a new method to determine the value of derivatives' [Fischer Black died prior to the prize] 
'for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy' 
'for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea...' 
'for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values' [such as his six volume history of World War II] 
'for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces' 
'for his important achievement...in the field of the great Russian epic tradition' [He was forced to decline the prize] 
'for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation' 
'...especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect' 
'in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy' 
'...the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him' [The rays are now known as X-rays] 
'for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect'. 
'for the discovery of the neutron' 
Physiology or Medicine
'for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases' 
'for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material' 
'for the discovery of insulin' 
'for his discovery of the citric acid cycle' 
'for her discovery of mobile genetic elements' [now known as transposons, or 'jumping genes'] 

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