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Can you name the most important Supreme Court cases in United States history?
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Fathers, But of What?
The Court's ruling upheld the constitutionality of the creation of the Bank of the US and denied to the states the power to tax the bank. Decision showed 'national supremacy.'
Happened in 1819
Slave travels to non slave state and says that he is now free. The courts disagreed. This decision stated that slaves are not citizens of any state or of the United States.
Happened in 1857
The Supreme Court ruled that state laws enforcing segregation by race are constitutional if accommodations are equal as well as separate. Subsequently overturned by Brown v. BOE.
Happened in 1896
A black student was required to walk 21 blocks to an all black school rather than attend a school that was four blocks from her house. Case called for desegregation of schools.
Happened in 1954
Police raid home of suspect without search warrant / find incriminating material. Judge rules that the 'exclusionary rule' prevents use of illegally obtained evidence in trials.
Happened in 1961
This case established judicial review as a power of the Supreme Court to check the powers of Congress and the President.
Happened in 1803
Decision forbidded 'building a foundation of religion in public schools'. In a country of many religions, imposing a majority religion was unconstitutional.
Happened in 1963
Supreme Court decides- state courts are required (6th Amendment) to provide a lawyer in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford their own attourneys.
Happened in 1963
Connecticut's law prohibited any form of preventing conception. When a doctor was arrested after giving a married couple information on contraception, the SC overturned arrest.
Happened in 1965
Man was arrested and questioned before he confessed to crime. Man appealed his conviction and won, saying that he was unaware of his rights (right to remain silent, etc.)
Happened in 1966
The Court ruled state laws prohibiting abortion unconstitutional, because the 14th Amendment provides for a woman's freedom to make decisions about her reproductive practices.
Happened in 1973
This case defined broadly Congress's right to regulate interstate commerce. (Commerce Clause of Constitution)
Happened in 1824
Two students wore black arm bands to school to protest Vietnam war. School didnt like that. Students took case to court and won.
Happened in 1969
During WW2, Japanese Americans were forced in to internment camps. A Japanese man sued. Ruling said that actions of USA were legal.
Happened in 1944
Affirmative Action Ruling- ruling allowed a university to admit students on the basis of race (rather than judging solely on grades) if the school's aim is to combat discrimination
Happened in 1978
The Court ruled that a state could legislate maximum working hours based on evidence compiled by attorney Louis Brandeis.
Happened in 1908
The Court upheld WWI Espionage Act. In a landmark decision dealing with free speech, Judge said- person who encourages draft resistance during war is 'clear and present danger'
Happened in 1919
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