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Those 2nd and 3rd century groups that laid the foundation for what later became the Orthodox and Catholic churches
Macedonian ruler who conquered the Persian Empire in 331BCE to spread Hellenism all the way to India and down to Egypt. Also developed an emphasis on the city-state (polis)
Year of the civil war in Palestine; Rome sends Pompey to conquer Palestine, and the region is ruled by Rome as a client kingdom, so they are able to maintain autonomy
Year of the 2nd (final) destruction of the temple; Romans re-conquer Jerusalem and rule Palestine directly. Synagogues begin to be established. Also, the gospel of Mark
A school of philosophical thought with these markers: materialism, pantheism, allegory, asceticism
Leading Christian thinker in logos theology, which says 'Christ' and 'God' are different. Logos/sophia/Christ is God's active agent in the world; draws on the ideas of the Timaeus
Father of Western Theology; Christian theologian, apologist, and lawyer; lays the foundation for later trinitarian doctrine; good at one liners; traducianism.
Governor of Bythinia. Writes a letter in 110CE to Emperor Trajan asking advice on what to do about these Christians. Proposes that the government not seek out Christians
Document in which the Emperor declares that Rome is failing because of the decline of the traditional religion; that everyone must sacrifice to the traditional gods and receive a c
Lawyer who is converted and made Bishop of his town; goes into hiding during persecution, when he returns becomes part of a conversation about the authority of the lapsed
Christian heretic who argues that the God of the Hebrew Bible is the origin of evil. Highly exegetical conclusions. Develops the idea of a canon
An eclectic belief system that shares the following beliefs: humans have a divine spark that is imprisoned in our bodies; that spark can only be released by certain knowledge
A mechanism of proto-orthodoxy to create and maintain structure, which says that each Christian community has one absolute authority in the bishop - apostolic succession
2nd-3rd century CE
Christian thinker who is the chief architect of proto-orthodoxy and orthodox ecclesiology. Wrote Against All Heresies, where he says not to let gnostics worship in the church
Presbyter in Alexandria who objects to the claim that the logos was co-eternal with God. Felt that any such claim was an attack on the oneness of God.
Secretary to Alexander, furthers what is now orthodox belief in response to another thinker in his town. Says that logos is co-eternal, and if he's not, it's idolatry
Year of the Council of Nicaea, which is the first ecumenical council. It is called and funded by Constantine, organized to answer the logos question: homoousios or homoiousios?
Bishop of Constantinople, who argues that Jesus had two centers of operation: logos and human, acting distinctly in him. Schizo Jesus
Bishop of Alexandria. Fundamentally disagrees with other thinkers on the logos issue. Says logos and human nature are inseparable. Engaged in theotokos debate, pro-Mary
Council that reaffirms the Council of Ephesus, supporting Cyril's Christology and clarifying the roles of Jesus/Christ/logos/God
Emperor of Rome. Instituted a major persecution of Christians in 303CE: burning the scriptures, imprisoning bishops, and then imprisoning parishioners. Establishes tetrarchy
Emperor of Rome. Conquers Maxentius and then Licinius to rule the whole Empire. Claims to convert to Christianity, supports the development and growth of the Christian religion
Battle in which Constantine defeats Maxentius to become the sole ruler of the Western portion of the Empire. Constantine credits his victory to the Christian God
Year of the Edict of Milan, which grants toleration to all religions in the Empire and pledges reparations to the Christians.
Emperor of Rome who converts from Christianity to paganism and puts the altar of Victory back in the Senate. However, he doesn't call for the persecution of Christians
Emperor of Rome who makes paganism illegal and persecutes non-Christians. Submits to the authority of Bishop Ambrose of Milan after the Massacre at Thessalonica
Year in which the Emperor makes Nicaean orthodoxy the legal religion of the Roman Empire.
Christian thinker from the same time period as Augustine; says that if God commanded humans to behave a certain way, then God has given humanity the ability to follow them
Problem with a heresy regarding the ability of traitorous bishops to offer sacraments
Bishop of Rome. Writes an authoritative text in regards to arguments over theotokos and the divinity of Jesus
Bishop of Rome and Christian theologian
Fourth century ascetic and biblical scholar
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