Science Quiz / Soils and the Critical Zone I

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Soils and the Critical Zone revision quiz?

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HintAnswer
Elements which the critical zone can include
 
 
 
Boundaries of the critical zone
 
What things may the critical zone affect
 
 
 
 
 
Core processes of the critical zone
Central component of the critical zone
Nature of the above
Components of the above
 
 
 
 
Lowest layer of soil
Interbedded components of the above
 
 
Study proposing the above 3 elements
What is the R horizon
What is the C horizon
What is the B horizon
What is the A horizon
What is the O horizon
What does the A and B horizons comprise
Paper examining critical zone CO2 over time
What is the above's definition of soil
What was the paper's study area
Bedrock type in the above
What made the soil acidic despite this
Since when have soil and ecosystems coevolved
Why has the C horizon classically been ignored
Most primitive type of soil
Next type of soil
What defines the above
Next soil type
What defines the above
Final soil type
What defines the above
What does the C horizon control
 
 
 
Result of the paper's analysis
What changes with grain size
What properties to 1mm particles and below display
What keeps colloids in suspension
What property do they have
What occurs to SOM under aerobic conditions
What occurs to SOM under anaerobic conditions
What does SOM increase
 
 
 
 
Attraction to a particle surface
Uptake into a particle, including plants
Roots grow into nutrients
Nutrients flow to particles
Other method of nutrient movement
Optimal air:water ratio
What are the differences between bedrock and critical zone
 
 
 
 
Modes of physical weathering
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
What compound do the above produce
Modes of chemical weathering
 
HintAnswer
 
 
 
 
 
What charts weathering susceptibility
Ferromagnesian order of the above
 
 
 
 
Alternative name for the above
Felsic order of dissolution
 
 
 
 
Controls on pedogenesis
 
 
 
 
Characteristic of saprolite
 
 
What will occur to the above under humid conditions
Stages of peat formation and colonisation
 
 
 
 
Soil formed from rock fall debris
Characteristic of alluvial and deltaic soil
Deposited glacial material
Ice deposited material
Melt water deposited material
Coarse aeolian deposit
Silty aeolian deposit
What forms andisols
What processes do organisms affect
 
 
 
 
By what process does vegetation solubilise metals
What increases weathering depth
 
What does more water flow through soil cause
 
 
 
What elements are easily lost in solution
 
What elements are enriched as such
 
Mass transfer coefficient
What does 0 indicate
What does
What does >0 indicate
Dramatic enrichment due to plants
Paper looking at limitations of critical zone science
What perspective d they say is lacking
What produces a regolith geochemical profile
5 types of profile described in the above
 
 
 
 
What marks the last of these
Modes of depletion
 
How does the reaction front move under low weathering
How does the reaction front move under high weathering
How can the problem of scale be resolved
Basic unit of soil structure
What characteristics does the above influence
 
 
 
Form common in A horizon
Form arising from pedogenesis/compaction
Form common in B horizon
Form resulting from clay swelling
HintAnswer
What promotes aggregation
 
 
 
 
 
Bulk density equation
% pore space equation
What process decreases SOM
What process breaks up clods and increases short term fertility
Increase in mineral grain size with time
Example of a mineral transition due to the above
 
Change from 2:1 to 1:1 clay layering
Hydrous, highly impure clay
Volcanically derived from of the above
Examples of 2:1 clays
 
Property of the above
Example of a 1:1 clay
Sum total of the exchangeable cations a soil can adsorb
Unit of the above
What do clays and organics have
what do oxides and hydroxides have
What organisms can digest lignin
Fungi prevalent in soil
Primary mode of organic decay
What will determine the balance of organisms in a soil
R strategist on fresh material
K strategist on background material
Transient binding agents
 
Temporary binding agents
 
Persistent binding agents
Study defining the above categories
What reduces element availability
What increases element availability
Alfisol characteristic
Andisol characteristic
Aridisol characteristic
Entisol characteristic
Gelisol characteristic
Histosol characteristic
Inceptisol characteristic
Mollisol characteristic
Oxisol characteristic
Spodosol characteristic
Ultisol characteristic
Surface layer of a soil type
Dark layer with high base saturation
Dark layer with low base saturation
Light, low organic layer
Dark high organic layer
Wet, very high organic layer
Human modified soil
Sod-like, manured soil
Equilibrium constant equation
Logarithmic form of the above which accounts for temperature
Main source of soil CO2
Activity coefficient x K
SI > 0
 
SI < 0
 
Modes of water movement
 
 
 
 
 
 
What may excess leaching cause in water bodies
Soil above the water table
Soil below the water table
What allows water movement
 
 
Point where capillary pores are saturated
Crucially what in the above are unsaturated
Point where water films are thin around particles

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