Science Quiz / Sedimentology I

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Sedimentology Revision Quiz I

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HintAnswer
Clastic rock composition plot
Tectonic origin of a grain
4 volcanic mineralogical indicators
 
 
 
Barrovian metamorphic indicators
 
 
 
 
 
Extinction types in monocrystalline quartz
 
Optical cause of the above
Environment in which the above occur
Non undulatory quartz indicates what origin
 
Striated forms of quartz
 
Environment in which the above occur
Other indicator of plutonic origins
Bright blue cathodoluminence indicates what
 
 
Intense red cathodoluminescence indicates what
Bright red cathodoluminescence indicates what
 
Additional feature of the last of these
Type of twinning in orthoclase
Type of twinning in microcline
Type of twinning in plagioclase
Plagioclase identification using extinction angle average
Under 30 average angle indicates what
Above 30 average angle indicates what
Plagioclase alteration mineral which grows between twins
Boundary type in low metamorphic polycrystalline quartzt
Boundary types in medium/high metamorphic polycrystalline quartz
 
3 types of erosion setting
 
 
Ternary classification plot for the above
2 modes of bedload transport
 
What determines flow regime and bedforms
Retarded and stationary layers of a flow
Free moving flow layer
Re0-1 flow around an object
Re1-10 flow around an object
Re10-10^5 flow around an object
Re aboe 10^5 flow around an object
What determines rough/smooth flow regime
Grain size boundary separating the two
Rough beds prevent what
Ejection of the boundary layer into the external layer
Elongate low velocity regions close to the solid surface
What produces the above two phenomena
Ripple wavelength equation from grain size
Aqueous ripple wavelengths
Ballistic ripple wavelengths
Wave ripples are what shape
Current ripples are what shape
Maximum height of ripple cross bedding
Rough flow regime bedforms
 
 
 
Wavelength equation for subaqueous dunes
Height equation for subaqueous dunes
D is depth between what values
Single unit of cross bedding
Genetically related sets of cross bedding
Transgression stages of the Devonian
 
 
 
What changed Devonian terrestrial environments
What processes do the above promote
 
 
 
When do meandering channels appear
When do fixed channels appear
Study showing the above two dates
When does rooting appear
When do forests appear
Study showing the above two dates
Floodplain deposit sequence
 
 
 
Particles under 50 microns settle under what law
Particles above 50 microns settle uder what law
Particles above 10% concentration settle under what law
Critical boundary stress is given by what equation
Volumetric bedload transport is given by what law
Particle size below which suspended transport occurs
Source of suspending power
Approximate value of supporting stress
HintAnswer
Empirical relationship of bedload + suspended transport rate is given by what law
Characteristics of a debris flow
 
 
Characteristics of a sheet flood deposit
 
 
Characteristics of mudflows
 
Characteristics of grain flows
Mechanism for the above
Characteristics of lahars
 
 
Lahars transition into what flow type
Particle concentration for the above
Conditions below which diagenesis occurs
 
Depositional environment controls what
 
 
Tectonics controls what
pH/ of rainwater
pH of meteoric water
pH/ of seawater and connate water
Eh of rainwater, meteoric water and seawater
Eh of connate water
3 types of diagenetic environment
 
 
Marine eogenetic anoxic mud cement order
 
Marine eogenentic anoxic pore water cement order
 
 
 
Marine eogenetic oxic pore water cement order
 
 
 
Continental warm wet eogenentic anoxic mud cement order
 
Continental warm wet eogenentic anoxic pore water cement order
 
 
Continental warm wet eogenetic oxic pore water cement order
 
 
Oxidation of formaldehyde produces what
 
Anoxic sulphate reaction of formaldehyde
 
Fermentation of formaldehyde with water
 
 
Depth below which the last process occurs
Cementation type from 0-500m
Range of mechanical compaction
Range of intergranular pressure solution
Cementation type from 1500-5000m
What forms from 2000-4000m
What forms from 2500m onwards
Range of dolomite cement formation
High porosity grain packing
Low porosity grain packing
Shift between the above causes how much porosity reduction
4 types of grain contact
 
 
 
What determines the above 4 types
Concentration at which Fe and Mg dehydrate
As such what minerals will they not enter
Ion removal by fine sediment and clay
Temperature at which bacteria die
Stages of organic degradation
 
 
 
Temperature at which oil migrates to a source rock
Sources of silica
 
 
3major detrital clay types
 
 
Common source of the last of these
Alteration product of such clays
Carbonates with trigonal systems
 
Carbonate with orthorhombic system
Rock with above 75% dolomite
50:50% Ca:Mg
Non 50:50/Sr-Na substituted
Factors inhibiting dolomite formation
 
 
 
 
Environment in which dolomite is common
HintAnswer
Fabric retentive dolomite
Rhombohedral overgowth dolomite
Fabric destructive dolomite
What causes the above form
What optical effect does it display
Most stable form of calcite
Calcite with more than 4 molar % Mg
Chemicals used to stain carbonates
 
 
Purple pink colour indicates
Pink colour indicates
Turquoise colour iindicates
No colour change indicates
Compositional carbonate classification scheme
Textural carbonate classification scheme
Gaps in sediment subsurface due to algal decay
Parallel, cemented subsurface layers
Fabric resulting from cavity infill
Fabric resulting from upward expansion of layers
Potential mechanism for the above
Large, cemented subsurface layer
Ion ratios useful for palaeotemperature
 
Ions small than Ca2+ can enter what carbonates
 
Coordination number in the above
Coordination number in aragonite
Decribes how much of a trace element in a fluid can enter a crystal precipitating from that fluid
Stable isotope standards
 
high 18O:16O indicates what temperature
Low 13C:12C in soil cement indicates what
Low Mg calcite-secreting taxa
 
Depth below which carbonate dissolution increases rapidly
Depth of aragonite lysocline
Depth of calcite lysocline
Cement type in meteoric environments
Cement type in calm water
 
Diagenesis above the water table
Diagenesis below the water table
Carbonate texture formed from pressure solution
Micrite neomorphoses to what
The above process occurring around nuclei
The same process occurring pervasively
Landscape formed during carbonate telogenesi
Stratigraphy based on event division
Low amplitude, short term sediment-accomodation fluctuation
Space for sediment accumulation
Processes affecting the above
 
Sediment supply = accommodation
Sediment supply bigger than accommodation
Alternative name for the above
Sediment supply smaller than accommodation rate
Alternative name for the above
Decreasing accomodation space defines what
Falling sea level creates what
Further sea level fall defines what
Rising water table defines what
Parasequence upper boundary created by
 
 
Parasequence lower boundary created by
 
 
What is the R:V ratio in estuaries?
 
R:V determines estuary type: what are these, listed high to low R:V
 
 
 
Two processes which retain sediment in estuaries
 
Three sets of beds in estuarine/deltaic sequences
 
 
Rapid factors affecting sea level
 
 
 
Slow factors affecting sea level
 
 
Processes which accelerates the last of these
Cycles of mantle plumes/cold subducting slabs which affect sea level
Increasing rainfall and decreasing pH produce duricrust palaeosols in this order
 
 
 
 
Crystallisation/weathering series
Tectonic controls on climate
 
 
Which Cretaceous flood basalts increased CO2 by 400%
 
Minimum temperature typically required for ooid formation

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