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Geobiology revision quiz

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5 lines of evidence for evolution
Method to infer evolutionary history
Character present in all members of a clade
Character present in some members of a clade
Character present in just one member of a clade
Fast-evolving molecular sequence
Slow-evolving molecular sequence
Genes arising by divergence
Genes arising by duplication
Standard form of rooting
Rooting using gene duplication prior to the root
Example genes of the above
What are the roles of the above two
Carl Woese's phylogeny
Jim Lake's phylogeny
Clades comprising the above
Horizontal transfer by environmental stress
Horizontal transfer by viruses
Horizontal gene transfer by plasmid sharing
Phylogenetic information accessible by traditional genomics
Methods to access more phylogenetic infromation
Astromical event from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga
Theory supporting replication first
Theory supporting metabolism first
Theory supporting membranes first
Reactions which give evidence for the above
Number of universal genes
Characteristics of LUCA
Metabolic substrates of LUCA
Metabolic pathway of LUCA
Which nucleotides are enriched in thermophiles
What did the nucleotide temperature study not control for
Dating method using genes/proteins
What mutation type does the above use
What causes non-linear rate extrapolation
Two types of nucleotide change
What determines which of the above occur
What to the above factors allow to be made
What compounds is terrestrial organic matter enriched in
As such what does terrestrial matter have compared to marine organic matter
Carbon sources in increasing 13C
Elements of the biological pump
What organisms perform the last of the above
Changing, dominant form of respiration with depth
What decreases throughout the above reactions
When does biochemical degradation occur
When does thermal degradation occur
When does carbonisation occur
Insoluble organic matter in rocks
Soluble organic matter in rocks
Source specific molecule
What can be used to infer ancient water depth
Compound indicative of animals
Compound indicative of higher plants
Compound indicative of plants/cyanobacteria
Compound indicative of diatoms
Compound indicative of haptophytes
Compound indicative of phaeophytes
Compound indicative of bacteria
Compound indicative of purple sulphur bacteria
Where has the above been found in 1.64 Ga rocks
Study showing the above
Compound indicative of green sulphur bacteria
Study showing fixed ratio of the above relative to other algal lipids
Ratios of what compounds are a good thermometer for 250 Ma onwards
What compounds can survive diagenesis and catagenesis
Unmetamorphosed rocks on Pilbara craton
2.7 Ga compounds from the above, possibly cyanobacterial
Study showing the above
Study showing isotopic discrepancy relative to kerogen in those rocks
Study showing methylase genes in other types of bacteria
Temperature dependant fractionation, decreases with temperature
Temperature independant fractionation by mass transfer
Fractionation by chemical reaction
13C ppt in sedimentary organic carbon
13C ppt in sedimentary carbonate
What care the above indicative of
What is enriched in marine sediment during glaciation
Test for microfossil authenticity
5 important elements in the above
Isotope excursion associated with methanotrophs
13C ppt value associated with the above
Isotope excursion during the Great Oxidation Event
13C ppt value associated with the above
Isotope excursion during the Ediacaran
3C ppt value associated with the above
33S/34S mass dependant fractionation value
Modes of mass independant 33S/34S fractionation
Age of the fossiliferous Dresser formation
Study showing good supporting sulphur isotope evidence
Study showing nickel fractionation by methogens
In what geological structure does the Apex chert lie
As such PT conditions may generate light carbon ratios by what reactions
Study showing selective photography of specimens
Study showing structures were vermiculite
What was the vermiculite altered from
What was the source of the Ba and C enrichment in the structures
What may happen to biomarkers when heated
As such what might they be
Name of Archaean pillow basalt with possible fossils
Age of the above
What modern day locality were they similar to
Oldest undisputed fossil locality
Age of the above
Locality with the correct mix of carbon signatures
Age of the above
Study looking at the Dresser Formation
What did it show
One theory of eukaryote origins
Theory proposing origin of eukaryotes from bacterial consortia
Study proposing the above
Study looking at energy available per gene
Other theory of eukaryote origins
What do some archaea have, which supports the above
Study showing 2.7 Ga steranes were exogenous, not eukaryotic
2.1 Ga possible eukaryote fossils
What are the alternative explanations of the above
Where have rolling marks been identified
Age of the above
Possible maker of the traces
Modern day example of the above
Locality with oldest unequivocal eukaryotes
Age of the above
Name of the eukaryote
Type of eukaryote fossil of the above
Oldest fungus
Age of the above
Oldest red alga
Age of the above
Locality of the alga
What does Bangiamorpha show
What physical process draws down carbon dioxide
What halted the above process
Post glacial deposit derived from renewed carbon dioxide draw dow
Two clades within eumetazoa
Glaciation even during the Cryogenian
Glaciation event during the Ediacaran
What supercontinent fragmented during the Ediacaran
What do generally negative 13C values at the time indicate
Characteristics of the biosphere prior to the Ediacara biota
haracteristics of the biosphere after the Ediacara biota
Study showing the above characteristics
Possible Ediacaran agglutinating foram
What comprises the total group
Oldest group of Ediacarans
Characteristic of the above
Next oldest group of Ediacarans
Characteristic of the above
Most advanced group of Ediacarans
Characteristic of the above
Group of Ediacarans with placozoan affinities
Final, most morphologically unusual group of Ediacarans
Mode of preservation of most Ediacarans
As such, what does a bedding plane represent
What indicates multiple generation on the same bedding plane
Trend seen throughout the Ediacaran
What destroyed the microbial mats
What event did the above facilitate
Possible explanations for end Ediacaran extinction
What drove the last of the above
Age of the oldest animal trace fossils
Possible maker of the traces
Study showing the above
What do peristaltic trace fossils indicate
Age of the above
What do faeces at the end Ediacaran indicate
Oldest body fossils
What do phylogenies predict in the fossil record
What mineral indicates anoxia in the Burgess Shale
What protected the Burgess Shale from tectonism
What charge stabilised fossil organic matter
What allowed deep gene homologies to be identified
Hypothesis proposing Hox gene duplication and coercion
Hypothesis proposing altered spatial/temporal Hox gene expression
What are the major flaws in the above two hypotheses
Hypothesis showing homologous families of gene interactions
What group of organisms have these been identified in
Protozoan with a dynamic regulatory genome
What geological feature exists at the base of the Cambrian
What does the above represent
What do neodymium ratios indicate up to the base of the Cambrian
What piece of evidence predicts the fossil record's incompleteness
What assumes a constant mutation rate
What allows for inherited mutation rates
What allows mutation rates to vary freely
Origin date for metazoans using the above method
Origin date for bilaterians
Paper proposing the above dates
What do many bilaterian larvae produce
What does the above develop into
What occurs to the larva
Hypothesis which resolved fossil and molecular dates using larval rudiments
How many times must rudiments have evolved to support the above
What do some fossil embryos preserve
What do the above indicate
Possible Ediacaran eumetazoans
What is the only preservable feature of the last metazoan common ancestor
Study showing the above

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