Science Quiz / Behavioural Ecology I

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Behavioural ecology revision quiz I

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Tinbergen's 4 questions
Two model explanations for a behaviour
Species which removes white, conspicuous eggshell
What does this make the nests
What does removal after 15-20 mins prevent
Model of diminishing returns with increased investment
Two components of the above
Study showing dung fly mating time vs fertilization %
Study showing foraging distance vs number of worms taken
Varying reward and handling time for a resource
Study showing partial choice in the Great Tit
Flaws of simple choice models
Alternate name for the above
Options for predator awareness
Types of competition
Examples of the latter in the above
Prediction of distribution when habitats and resources differ
Ideal means...
Free means...
Equation for the above
Alternate name for the above situation
Assumption of the above
Method to deal with violations of the above
Equation for the above
What determines the value of a territory
Territories surrounding your own
Study looking at wagtail territoriality
When were wagtails more territorial
Why where they more territorial
When did they share more territories
What may act against natural selection
Trade off seen in the Tungara frog
The above within the same gender
The above between genders
Who proposed male choosiness when they invest highly
Species where males are choosy
What does it provide
Study showing this
Another species where males are choosy
What does it provide
Study showing this
Conditions where sexual selection will be intense
Phenomenon under which large harems will occur
Monogamous species without size dimorphism
Two types of monogamy
% of bastards under the above condition
% of bastards in the Superb fairy wren
Example of non-heritable female choice
Example of heritable female choice
Two types of heritable advantages resulting from female choice
Class of viability looking at advantage
Sexy sons spread choosy and attractive genes simultaneously
Origins of female preference for a trait
Sexy sons spread choosy and attractive genes
Study showing a threshold level of preference required for the above
Starting point for the exaggerated trait
What is added to the above during runaway
Class of viability where a trait is a detrimental, cheat-proof signal
Study presenting the above
Issues for handicap models
Resolution for handicap
Resolution for genetic diversity
Study proposing the above two solutions
Another mechanism for trait exaggeration
What is the premium for this mechanism
Study proposing the above
Unintentional information transfer
Intentional information transfer
Three types of communicated information
Species with individual-specific whistle
Species with gender-specific electrical frequency
Species with species-specific call pitch
Species with predator-specific warning call
What does exaggeration increase
Three modes of the above
What do they help overcome
What is usually the cause of the above
What do signallers develop
What do receivers develop
What helps maintain signalling honesty
What may a social cheat experience
Principle of uncheatable, honest signalling
Examples of dishonest signalling
Example of a species which performs the above
Species which is stolen from
What maintains low level of dishonesty
Same signal given by multiple individuals at once
Species with duetting pairs to defend territory
Species with laughing groups to deter predators
Organisms which only reproduce once then die
All other organisms have to balance what during mating
What is such balancing representative of
Optimal number of offspring a parent can rear and feed
What does the above maximise only
What results in the lower observed clutch sizes
Study showing individuals do best wiht their own clutch, not the LCS
Species used in the above study
What causes parental conflict
4 types of parental care/lack of
What promotes the last of the above
Species where mouth brooding benefits males
Study showing the above
Species where babysitting benefits males
Offspring want more food, parents are unwilling
What correlated with degree of extra pair paternity
What does the above demonstrate
Species where the female tricks the male into remaining
How do females achieve this
What does it exemplify
4 types of mating system
Monogamy is favoured by what
What favours monopolisation of mates
Defending resources to attract females
Species exemplifying the above
Defending a cluster of females
Specie exemplifying the above
Defense of a resourceless, display territory
What benefits males and costs females
Species where mating system varies
What factors determine which system occurs
Example where there is no female choice; males are polyterritorial
4 outcomes of an interaction
What is the last of the above vulnerable to
What thought experiment outlines this problem
State where changing a behaviour brings no benefit
One situation where cooperation is an ESS
5 elements of the above
Alternative name for the above strategy
Study showing the above in vampire bats
Another situation which can cause cooperation
Species which punishes uncooperative cheats
Study showing the above
Study showing only partial compensation under desertion and so disadvantaged young
Study which handicapped parents to disadvantage offspring
Indicator of overwinter survival potential
Rule relating altruism and relatedness
Form of the above
What does r signify
Selfishness maximises what
Altruism maximises what
Mode of selection operating in the above
Species where this is taken to the extreme (eusociality)
Benefits of gregariousness
Species exemplifying the last of the above
Uncheatable cue used in the above
Study showing the above
Study showing cheating, non-vigilant gazelles were attacked more frequently
Costs of gregariousness
Solitary sight feeding bird
Gregarious touch feeding bird
Bird which varies feeding mode by group size
Why are groups often larger than the optimum
What does spatial position affect/signify
Types of cooperative breeding
What will occur if obligate cooperative breeders defect
Extreme example of cooperative breeding
Reasons for offspring helping parents breed
Bird species transplanted to islands for conservation purposes
Which type of female were the least successful breeders
Which types of females were more successful
Reasons for offspring not defecting
Three elements of eusociality
Taxa showing eusociality
Two possible origins of eusociality
Species showing a primitive version of the last of the above
What can favour eusociality
What may limited nests promote
What is the ovipositor adapted to in hymenoptera
Who proposed relatedness asymmetry
Genetic system in hymenoptera
Worker sister relatedness
Worker offspring relatedness
Worker brother relatedness
Sex-determinign system in termites
Other explanation of eusociality
Who proposed the above
Who produce more sons
What does this bias
Under Fisher's sex ratio who produces more daughters consequently
Subsequently altruism arises from what
Primitive form of eusociality seen in some bees
How many broods per year do such bees have
Which brood is more valuable
What does this produce
As such what do second brood daughters produce more of

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