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Cause of stroke in young people
Lesion here causes disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation, judgment, may have re-emergence of primitive reflexes
Can compress optic chiasm or cavernous sinus, cause hyperprolactinemia
Lateral medullary syndrome, PICA occluded
Medial geniculate nucleus output
Soap bubble cysts
Output nerve fiber of the cerebellum
Lobar intracerebral hemorrhage
Distal subararachnoid hemorrhage
MCC of fungal meningitis
Lesion here causes left hemineglect
Vacuolar myelopathy, looks like B12 deficiency
MCC of bacterial meningitis in children
Increase in ICP, elevated optic disk w/ blurred margins, bigger blindspot
Bilateral loss of pain and thermal sense at that level
Area in the brain where Alzheimer's usually begins
Rosenthal fibers
Destructive, hemorrhagic lesions in temporal and frontal lobes
Fluctuating cognitive ability, visual hallucinations, extrapyramidal signs
Cerebellum receives contralateral cortical input via the
MCC of multiple intracranial mass in AIDS
Verocay body
Mickey Mouse midbrain
CD20 stains B-cells in this tumor
Seizure of quick, repetitive jerks
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in anxiety, depression
Primary CNS lymphoma
Diffuse petechial hemorrhages in white matter
Supraoptic nucleus makes
Alzheimer's is associated with what chromosome?
Lesion here causes nonfluent aphasia with intact comprehesion
Many small gyri that only have 2 layers
Axons get incorporated into this tumor, usually on peripheral nerves and roots
Lesion of the subthalamic nucleus results in
Commonly found at gray-white junction
Lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine are what type of esters?
Ground glass inclusions, pleimorphic astrocytes
Reversible, acute confusion, nystagmus, ataxia
Connects amygdala with hypothalamus, mammillary body
Carbon monoxide causes bilateral necrosis of the
Drug used to treat malignant hyperthermia
Degeneration of dorsal and lateral white matter columns with demyelination, macrophage infiltration and axonal loss
Part of the hypothalamus responsible for thermoregulation
Photopigment present in ganglion cells in the retina whose axons transmit info to the suprachiasmatic nucleus
Hairlike astrocytic processes
MC fungal infxn found at autopsy
Pleiomorphism, but no angiogenesis
Nucleus of visceral sensory information (e.g. taste, baroreceptors, gut distention)
Global loss of cortex
Nucleus that synthesizes NE
Lesion here causes internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Globose tau tangles
MLD enzyme
CSF: Increased lymphocytes, increased pressure, slightly increased protein. What kind of meningitis?
Separation of neurosensory layer of retina from pigment epithelium, degeneration of photoreceptors, vision loss
Butterfly endothelial proliferation, pleiomorphism, necrosis, astrocytic hypercellularity
Treatment of Wilson's disease
MLD genetics
Wilson's disease genetics
Lateral geniculate nucleus input
Connects hippocampus with hypothalamus, mammillary body
Distal muscle weakness, NO pain
Floppy infant, nonprogressive weakness, normal serum muscle enzymes
Paralysis of vertical gaze, absence of convergence, pupillary disturbance, non-communicating hydrocephalus
Pick's body protein
From embryonal stem cells, arises from Rathke's pouch
Kayser-Fleischer rings
Cowdry B inclusions
Loss of bilateral pupillary constriction when light is shone in affected eye, due to optic nerve damage or retinal detachment
Causes thiamine deficiency, hepatic failure, hyponatremia, central pontine myelonecrosis, cerebellar degeneration, necrosis of corpus callosum
Treatment of ALD
Causes retinal edema and ganglion cell degeneration, blindness
Band of grey matter underneath the white
ALD genetics
Huntington's drug, dopamine receptor antagonist
Nucleus that synthesizes ACh
Defects in prosencephalic cleavage
Central pontine myelonecrosis caused by rapid correction of
Obligate intracellular, calcified granulomas
Retinoic acid analog, teratogenic
Destruction of a piece of germinal matrix causing part of the cortex to fail to develop
MCC of bacterial meningitis in adults
Methanol causes necrosis of the
Lesion here causes alexia and agraphia
Lesion here causes truncal ataxia, dysarthria
Linked to von Hippel Lindau disease
Neural tube defects are detectable by
Nucleus that synthesizes GABA
GI complaints, cutaneous features, Mees' lines on the nails, severe axonal neuropathy
Neurotransmitter INCREASED in schizophrenia, DECREASED in Parkinson's and depression
Seizure of alternating stiffening and movement
Seizure of stiffening
Lesion here causes Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (confusion, ophthalmoplegia, memory loss, confabulation)
Cerebellum receives ipsilateral proprioceptive information via the
Cholinesterase inhibitor to treat Alzheimer's
Neurotransmitter synthesized by the arcuate nucleus
Nucleus that synthesizes 5HT
Extracellular beta-amyloid plaques and secondary intracellular tau tangles
Huntington's disease chromosome
Large, often wedge shaped, large caliber atrial and venous channels, gliotic and hemosider-stained tissue between channels
Lesion here causes Kl├╝ver-Bucy syndrome (hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior)
Impaired muscle relaxation, distal wasting, frontal bald hatchet face, and endocrine abnormalities
Center of conjugate vertical gaze
Tumor lined with ciliated cells
Autosomal recessive defect in frataxin
Amorphous exudate around microvessels
Complex malformation of anterior and posterior neuropores
Focal loss of previously formed cortex
Alzheimer type II astrocytes, Opalski cells
Acute, painless monocular loss of vision; pale retina and cherry-red macula
Replicates in skeletal muscle and ascends to CNS via retrograde transport
Tumor that occurs in the ventricles
Proximal muscle weakness, pain
Lesion here causes anterograde amnesia
Huntington's chorea result of loss of what neurotransmitter?
Drug-induced Parkinsonism
Hypertension causes thickening but paradoxical weakening of perforating areas
Lesion here causes eyes to look away from side of lesion
Knife-edge gyri, disinhibition, dementia
'Drop' seizure, commonly mistaken for fainting
Floppy infant, normal enzymes
Appearance of increased CSF in atrophy
Parkinsonism, ataxia, autonomic dysfunction
Friedrich's ataxia patients have poor handling of what?
Nemaline myopathy autosomal recessive form mutation
NMDA blocker to treat Alzheimer's
Co-deletion of 1p19q linked to survival of 120 months (vs. 12)
Binds endothelial enzymes and disrupts BBB
Can cause Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Lewy body protein
Krabbe's disease accumulation
Dorsal columns damage, loss of fine touch and position sense
Paraventricular nucleus makes
Guillain-Barre of the CNS
Treatment of thrombotic focal ischemia
Integrative center that controls homeostasis
Synuclein inclusions of PSP found where?
Internal nuclei at biopsy
Psammoma bodies
Treatment of Guillain-Barre
Medial geniculate nucleus input
Cowdry A inclusions
MC intracranial PNET
Lesion here results in reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (e.g. coma)
MCC sporadic encephalitis
Hemorrhagic necrosis on crests of cortical surface
Nemaline myopathy autosomal dominant form mutation
Lesion here causes ipsilateral limb ataxia, falling to side of lesion
Connects mammillary bodies with anterior thalamus
Wilson's disease patients have defect of handling what?
Painless, bilateral opacification of the lens, loss of vision
Lateral geniculate nucleus output
Lesion of the arcuate fasciculus causes
Neurofibromatosis type I mutation
Can cause watershed zone stroke between territories, usually from cardiopulmonary arrest or severe shock
Lymphocytic perivascular cuffing. What kind of meningitis?
Permanent memory disturbance and confabulation
Dementia, myoclonus, periodic EEG, rapid progression
Connects brainstem nuclei (aminergic) and hypothalamus, PFC
Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophies have x-linked recessive defect in
Parieto-occipital demyelination
Protein inclusions in Parkinson's disease
Multinuclear macrophage (globoid cell)
Epilepsy drug that auto-induces its own metabolism
ALS treatment
Procaine, cocaine, tetracaine are what type of anesthetics?
Neurotransmitter INCREASED in anxiety, DECREASED in depression
Lesion of both Broca's and Wernicke's areas causes
Lesion here causes fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension
Periventricular plaques and lymphocytes
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in anxiety, Huntington's
Proximal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Supranuclear ophthalmoparesis, rigidity, gait disturbance
Area between ACA/MCA, PCA/MCA; damaged in severe hypotension causing 'man in a barrel' syndrome
Defects in gyral formation
Homer Wright rosettes
Ipsi loss of fine touch/position, ipsi spastic paresis, contra loss of pain/temp, ipsi flaccid paresis at level of lesion
Pituitary tumor causes this visual defect
Caseating granulomata along vessels in meninges and brain parenchyma
Parkinson's drug that selectively inhibits MAO-B
In closed/narrow angle glaucoma, what should you NOT give to the pt?
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and REM sleep
CSF: Elevated PMNs, low glucose, elevated protein. What kind of meningitis?
Tumor of endothelial precursors
Varying caliber vessels without intervening neural parenchyma, oozes blood
Meningioma may have deletion of what chromosome?
First histological feature of ischemic brain disease
Lesion here causes eyes to look toward lesion

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Created Jun 19, 2012ReportNominate
Tags:extra, review, term

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