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Alzheimer type II astrocytes, Opalski cells
Fluctuating cognitive ability, visual hallucinations, extrapyramidal signs
Ipsi loss of fine touch/position, ipsi spastic paresis, contra loss of pain/temp, ipsi flaccid paresis at level of lesion
Permanent memory disturbance and confabulation
Dementia, myoclonus, periodic EEG, rapid progression
Proximal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Lateral medullary syndrome, PICA occluded
MLD enzyme
Replicates in skeletal muscle and ascends to CNS via retrograde transport
MCC sporadic encephalitis
Focal loss of previously formed cortex
Autosomal recessive defect in frataxin
Treatment of ALD
Lesion here causes nonfluent aphasia with intact comprehesion
ALD genetics
Distal muscle weakness, NO pain
Carbon monoxide causes bilateral necrosis of the
Seizure of stiffening
Band of grey matter underneath the white
Separation of neurosensory layer of retina from pigment epithelium, degeneration of photoreceptors, vision loss
Large, often wedge shaped, large caliber atrial and venous channels, gliotic and hemosider-stained tissue between channels
Causes retinal edema and ganglion cell degeneration, blindness
Axons get incorporated into this tumor, usually on peripheral nerves and roots
MCC of bacterial meningitis in children
Floppy infant, normal enzymes
Loss of bilateral pupillary constriction when light is shone in affected eye, due to optic nerve damage or retinal detachment
Lobar intracerebral hemorrhage
Degeneration of dorsal and lateral white matter columns with demyelination, macrophage infiltration and axonal loss
Varying caliber vessels without intervening neural parenchyma, oozes blood
Lymphocytic perivascular cuffing. What kind of meningitis?
Huntington's drug, dopamine receptor antagonist
Retinoic acid analog, teratogenic
Kayser-Fleischer rings
Complex malformation of anterior and posterior neuropores
NMDA blocker to treat Alzheimer's
Parieto-occipital demyelination
Tumor of endothelial precursors
Knife-edge gyri, disinhibition, dementia
Painless, bilateral opacification of the lens, loss of vision
Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophies have x-linked recessive defect in
Lesion here causes eyes to look toward lesion
Neural tube defects are detectable by
Neurotransmitter INCREASED in schizophrenia, DECREASED in Parkinson's and depression
Co-deletion of 1p19q linked to survival of 120 months (vs. 12)
Can cause Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in anxiety, depression
Treatment of thrombotic focal ischemia
Supranuclear ophthalmoparesis, rigidity, gait disturbance
MCC of fungal meningitis
Neurofibromatosis type I mutation
Lateral geniculate nucleus output
Cowdry A inclusions
Lesion here causes left hemineglect
Lateral geniculate nucleus input
Connects brainstem nuclei (aminergic) and hypothalamus, PFC
Seizure of quick, repetitive jerks
Lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine are what type of esters?
CSF: Increased lymphocytes, increased pressure, slightly increased protein. What kind of meningitis?
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in anxiety, Huntington's
Primary CNS lymphoma
Mickey Mouse midbrain
Huntington's chorea result of loss of what neurotransmitter?
Causes thiamine deficiency, hepatic failure, hyponatremia, central pontine myelonecrosis, cerebellar degeneration, necrosis of corpus callosum
Tumor lined with ciliated cells
Periventricular plaques and lymphocytes
Connects amygdala with hypothalamus, mammillary body
Pleiomorphism, but no angiogenesis
Pituitary tumor causes this visual defect
Homer Wright rosettes
CSF: Elevated PMNs, low glucose, elevated protein. What kind of meningitis?
Huntington's disease chromosome
Nemaline myopathy autosomal dominant form mutation
Seizure of alternating stiffening and movement
Destructive, hemorrhagic lesions in temporal and frontal lobes
Destruction of a piece of germinal matrix causing part of the cortex to fail to develop
Defects in prosencephalic cleavage
Floppy infant, nonprogressive weakness, normal serum muscle enzymes
Lesion here causes Kl├╝ver-Bucy syndrome (hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior)
Protein inclusions in Parkinson's disease
Cerebellum receives ipsilateral proprioceptive information via the
Cholinesterase inhibitor to treat Alzheimer's
Psammoma bodies
Treatment of Wilson's disease
First histological feature of ischemic brain disease
Nucleus of visceral sensory information (e.g. taste, baroreceptors, gut distention)
Globose tau tangles
Tumor that occurs in the ventricles
Treatment of Guillain-Barre
Vacuolar myelopathy, looks like B12 deficiency
Reversible, acute confusion, nystagmus, ataxia
Lesion of both Broca's and Wernicke's areas causes
Guillain-Barre of the CNS
Global loss of cortex
Area between ACA/MCA, PCA/MCA; damaged in severe hypotension causing 'man in a barrel' syndrome
Parkinsonism, ataxia, autonomic dysfunction
Lesion here causes internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Appearance of increased CSF in atrophy
Lesion of the subthalamic nucleus results in
Medial geniculate nucleus output
Increase in ICP, elevated optic disk w/ blurred margins, bigger blindspot
Parkinson's drug that selectively inhibits MAO-B
Nucleus that synthesizes 5HT
Dorsal columns damage, loss of fine touch and position sense
Methanol causes necrosis of the
Rosenthal fibers
Impaired muscle relaxation, distal wasting, frontal bald hatchet face, and endocrine abnormalities
Amorphous exudate around microvessels
Paraventricular nucleus makes
Lesion here causes Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (confusion, ophthalmoplegia, memory loss, confabulation)
Drug used to treat malignant hyperthermia
Wilson's disease patients have defect of handling what?
Bilateral loss of pain and thermal sense at that level
Lesion here causes alexia and agraphia
Supraoptic nucleus makes
Nucleus that synthesizes NE
Alzheimer's is associated with what chromosome?
Lesion here results in reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (e.g. coma)
Lesion of the arcuate fasciculus causes
Diffuse petechial hemorrhages in white matter
Lesion here causes truncal ataxia, dysarthria
Cause of stroke in young people
Neurotransmitter synthesized by the arcuate nucleus
Lewy body protein
Internal nuclei at biopsy
Ground glass inclusions, pleimorphic astrocytes
Defects in gyral formation
Krabbe's disease accumulation
Extracellular beta-amyloid plaques and secondary intracellular tau tangles
Center of conjugate vertical gaze
Lesion here causes eyes to look away from side of lesion
Integrative center that controls homeostasis
Friedrich's ataxia patients have poor handling of what?
Acute, painless monocular loss of vision; pale retina and cherry-red macula
Commonly found at gray-white junction
Part of the hypothalamus responsible for thermoregulation
Connects hippocampus with hypothalamus, mammillary body
Wilson's disease genetics
Meningioma may have deletion of what chromosome?
'Drop' seizure, commonly mistaken for fainting
Proximal muscle weakness, pain
Drug-induced Parkinsonism
Central pontine myelonecrosis caused by rapid correction of
Linked to von Hippel Lindau disease
Connects mammillary bodies with anterior thalamus
CD20 stains B-cells in this tumor
Binds endothelial enzymes and disrupts BBB
Can compress optic chiasm or cavernous sinus, cause hyperprolactinemia
MC fungal infxn found at autopsy
Synuclein inclusions of PSP found where?
Soap bubble cysts
Multinuclear macrophage (globoid cell)
Lesion here causes disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation, judgment, may have re-emergence of primitive reflexes
Lesion here causes fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension
Verocay body
Distal subararachnoid hemorrhage
Butterfly endothelial proliferation, pleiomorphism, necrosis, astrocytic hypercellularity
MCC of bacterial meningitis in adults
Lesion here causes anterograde amnesia
Hypertension causes thickening but paradoxical weakening of perforating areas
Hemorrhagic necrosis on crests of cortical surface
Epilepsy drug that auto-induces its own metabolism
Procaine, cocaine, tetracaine are what type of anesthetics?
Pick's body protein
Nucleus that synthesizes ACh
Nemaline myopathy autosomal recessive form mutation
Many small gyri that only have 2 layers
Cerebellum receives contralateral cortical input via the
Neurotransmitter INCREASED in anxiety, DECREASED in depression
Can cause watershed zone stroke between territories, usually from cardiopulmonary arrest or severe shock
Medial geniculate nucleus input
Hairlike astrocytic processes
From embryonal stem cells, arises from Rathke's pouch
MC intracranial PNET
In closed/narrow angle glaucoma, what should you NOT give to the pt?
Area in the brain where Alzheimer's usually begins
Obligate intracellular, calcified granulomas
GI complaints, cutaneous features, Mees' lines on the nails, severe axonal neuropathy
Photopigment present in ganglion cells in the retina whose axons transmit info to the suprachiasmatic nucleus
ALS treatment
MLD genetics
Cowdry B inclusions
Output nerve fiber of the cerebellum
MCC of multiple intracranial mass in AIDS
Paralysis of vertical gaze, absence of convergence, pupillary disturbance, non-communicating hydrocephalus
Caseating granulomata along vessels in meninges and brain parenchyma
Nucleus that synthesizes GABA
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and REM sleep
Lesion here causes ipsilateral limb ataxia, falling to side of lesion

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