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Cowdry B inclusions
MCC of bacterial meningitis in adults
Causes retinal edema and ganglion cell degeneration, blindness
Lesion here causes nonfluent aphasia with intact comprehesion
Mickey Mouse midbrain
Vacuolar myelopathy, looks like B12 deficiency
Connects brainstem nuclei (aminergic) and hypothalamus, PFC
Parkinson's drug that selectively inhibits MAO-B
Huntington's chorea result of loss of what neurotransmitter?
Rosenthal fibers
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in anxiety, Huntington's
Defects in prosencephalic cleavage
ALS treatment
Reversible, acute confusion, nystagmus, ataxia
Dorsal columns damage, loss of fine touch and position sense
Nemaline myopathy autosomal dominant form mutation
Treatment of thrombotic focal ischemia
Can cause watershed zone stroke between territories, usually from cardiopulmonary arrest or severe shock
Neural tube defects are detectable by
Tumor lined with ciliated cells
Nemaline myopathy autosomal recessive form mutation
Alzheimer's is associated with what chromosome?
Supraoptic nucleus makes
From embryonal stem cells, arises from Rathke's pouch
Integrative center that controls homeostasis
Part of the hypothalamus responsible for thermoregulation
MCC sporadic encephalitis
Verocay body
Fluctuating cognitive ability, visual hallucinations, extrapyramidal signs
Seizure of quick, repetitive jerks
'Drop' seizure, commonly mistaken for fainting
Neurotransmitter synthesized by the arcuate nucleus
Treatment of Wilson's disease
Hemorrhagic necrosis on crests of cortical surface
Distal muscle weakness, NO pain
Huntington's disease chromosome
Axons get incorporated into this tumor, usually on peripheral nerves and roots
MC intracranial PNET
Lesion here causes left hemineglect
Cause of stroke in young people
Knife-edge gyri, disinhibition, dementia
Dementia, myoclonus, periodic EEG, rapid progression
Lesion here causes ipsilateral limb ataxia, falling to side of lesion
Destruction of a piece of germinal matrix causing part of the cortex to fail to develop
Central pontine myelonecrosis caused by rapid correction of
Lesion here causes Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (confusion, ophthalmoplegia, memory loss, confabulation)
Synuclein inclusions of PSP found where?
Autosomal recessive defect in frataxin
Obligate intracellular, calcified granulomas
Lesion of the arcuate fasciculus causes
Diffuse petechial hemorrhages in white matter
Methanol causes necrosis of the
Lewy body protein
CSF: Increased lymphocytes, increased pressure, slightly increased protein. What kind of meningitis?
Can cause Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Pleiomorphism, but no angiogenesis
Seizure of stiffening
Caseating granulomata along vessels in meninges and brain parenchyma
Separation of neurosensory layer of retina from pigment epithelium, degeneration of photoreceptors, vision loss
Krabbe's disease accumulation
Acute, painless monocular loss of vision; pale retina and cherry-red macula
Distal subararachnoid hemorrhage
Guillain-Barre of the CNS
MC fungal infxn found at autopsy
Hypertension causes thickening but paradoxical weakening of perforating areas
Pituitary tumor causes this visual defect
Extracellular beta-amyloid plaques and secondary intracellular tau tangles
MCC of bacterial meningitis in children
Lesion of the subthalamic nucleus results in
Treatment of ALD
Area in the brain where Alzheimer's usually begins
Causes thiamine deficiency, hepatic failure, hyponatremia, central pontine myelonecrosis, cerebellar degeneration, necrosis of corpus callosum
Tumor that occurs in the ventricles
MLD enzyme
Many small gyri that only have 2 layers
Cholinesterase inhibitor to treat Alzheimer's
MCC of fungal meningitis
Lateral geniculate nucleus output
Friedrich's ataxia patients have poor handling of what?
Lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine are what type of esters?
Can compress optic chiasm or cavernous sinus, cause hyperprolactinemia
Parieto-occipital demyelination
Lesion here causes internuclear ophthalmoplegia
ALD genetics
Huntington's drug, dopamine receptor antagonist
Linked to von Hippel Lindau disease
Homer Wright rosettes
Alzheimer type II astrocytes, Opalski cells
Permanent memory disturbance and confabulation
Lesion here results in reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (e.g. coma)
Globose tau tangles
Treatment of Guillain-Barre
First histological feature of ischemic brain disease
Seizure of alternating stiffening and movement
Floppy infant, nonprogressive weakness, normal serum muscle enzymes
Cowdry A inclusions
Internal nuclei at biopsy
Nucleus that synthesizes GABA
Ground glass inclusions, pleimorphic astrocytes
Meningioma may have deletion of what chromosome?
Psammoma bodies
Drug-induced Parkinsonism
Wilson's disease genetics
Output nerve fiber of the cerebellum
Focal loss of previously formed cortex
Co-deletion of 1p19q linked to survival of 120 months (vs. 12)
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in anxiety, depression
Proximal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Nucleus that synthesizes ACh
Complex malformation of anterior and posterior neuropores
Carbon monoxide causes bilateral necrosis of the
Butterfly endothelial proliferation, pleiomorphism, necrosis, astrocytic hypercellularity
Lobar intracerebral hemorrhage
In closed/narrow angle glaucoma, what should you NOT give to the pt?
Area between ACA/MCA, PCA/MCA; damaged in severe hypotension causing 'man in a barrel' syndrome
Medial geniculate nucleus input
Proximal muscle weakness, pain
Binds endothelial enzymes and disrupts BBB
Nucleus of visceral sensory information (e.g. taste, baroreceptors, gut distention)
Degeneration of dorsal and lateral white matter columns with demyelination, macrophage infiltration and axonal loss
Lesion here causes anterograde amnesia
Periventricular plaques and lymphocytes
Wilson's disease patients have defect of handling what?
Painless, bilateral opacification of the lens, loss of vision
Tumor of endothelial precursors
Procaine, cocaine, tetracaine are what type of anesthetics?
NMDA blocker to treat Alzheimer's
Global loss of cortex
Paraventricular nucleus makes
Lesion here causes fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension
Photopigment present in ganglion cells in the retina whose axons transmit info to the suprachiasmatic nucleus
Floppy infant, normal enzymes
Lesion here causes Kl├╝ver-Bucy syndrome (hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior)
Connects mammillary bodies with anterior thalamus
Lateral medullary syndrome, PICA occluded
Neurofibromatosis type I mutation
CSF: Elevated PMNs, low glucose, elevated protein. What kind of meningitis?
Parkinsonism, ataxia, autonomic dysfunction
Soap bubble cysts
Bilateral loss of pain and thermal sense at that level
Nucleus that synthesizes 5HT
Varying caliber vessels without intervening neural parenchyma, oozes blood
Drug used to treat malignant hyperthermia
Lymphocytic perivascular cuffing. What kind of meningitis?
Lesion here causes disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation, judgment, may have re-emergence of primitive reflexes
Supranuclear ophthalmoparesis, rigidity, gait disturbance
Paralysis of vertical gaze, absence of convergence, pupillary disturbance, non-communicating hydrocephalus
Hairlike astrocytic processes
Destructive, hemorrhagic lesions in temporal and frontal lobes
Defects in gyral formation
Cerebellum receives ipsilateral proprioceptive information via the
Primary CNS lymphoma
Band of grey matter underneath the white
Impaired muscle relaxation, distal wasting, frontal bald hatchet face, and endocrine abnormalities
Increase in ICP, elevated optic disk w/ blurred margins, bigger blindspot
Medial geniculate nucleus output
Lesion here causes alexia and agraphia
MCC of multiple intracranial mass in AIDS
Lesion here causes eyes to look toward lesion
MLD genetics
Lesion here causes eyes to look away from side of lesion
Retinoic acid analog, teratogenic
Lesion of both Broca's and Wernicke's areas causes
Loss of bilateral pupillary constriction when light is shone in affected eye, due to optic nerve damage or retinal detachment
Protein inclusions in Parkinson's disease
Cerebellum receives contralateral cortical input via the
Ipsi loss of fine touch/position, ipsi spastic paresis, contra loss of pain/temp, ipsi flaccid paresis at level of lesion
CD20 stains B-cells in this tumor
Multinuclear macrophage (globoid cell)
GI complaints, cutaneous features, Mees' lines on the nails, severe axonal neuropathy
Pick's body protein
Large, often wedge shaped, large caliber atrial and venous channels, gliotic and hemosider-stained tissue between channels
Nucleus that synthesizes NE
Lateral geniculate nucleus input
Kayser-Fleischer rings
Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophies have x-linked recessive defect in
Neurotransmitter INCREASED in anxiety, DECREASED in depression
Connects amygdala with hypothalamus, mammillary body
Amorphous exudate around microvessels
Epilepsy drug that auto-induces its own metabolism
Connects hippocampus with hypothalamus, mammillary body
Commonly found at gray-white junction
Replicates in skeletal muscle and ascends to CNS via retrograde transport
Lesion here causes truncal ataxia, dysarthria
Neurotransmitter INCREASED in schizophrenia, DECREASED in Parkinson's and depression
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and REM sleep
Center of conjugate vertical gaze
Appearance of increased CSF in atrophy

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