Science Quiz / Big Neuro Review

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Defects in gyral formation
MC intracranial PNET
Lesion here causes disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation, judgment, may have re-emergence of primitive reflexes
Reversible, acute confusion, nystagmus, ataxia
Vacuolar myelopathy, looks like B12 deficiency
Co-deletion of 1p19q linked to survival of 120 months (vs. 12)
Parieto-occipital demyelination
Dorsal columns damage, loss of fine touch and position sense
Hairlike astrocytic processes
Integrative center that controls homeostasis
Huntington's chorea result of loss of what neurotransmitter?
Seizure of stiffening
Lesion here causes nonfluent aphasia with intact comprehesion
Lateral geniculate nucleus output
Photopigment present in ganglion cells in the retina whose axons transmit info to the suprachiasmatic nucleus
Cowdry B inclusions
Band of grey matter underneath the white
Butterfly endothelial proliferation, pleiomorphism, necrosis, astrocytic hypercellularity
MLD genetics
Guillain-Barre of the CNS
Neurotransmitter INCREASED in anxiety, DECREASED in depression
Varying caliber vessels without intervening neural parenchyma, oozes blood
Alzheimer's is associated with what chromosome?
Seizure of alternating stiffening and movement
Loss of bilateral pupillary constriction when light is shone in affected eye, due to optic nerve damage or retinal detachment
Multinuclear macrophage (globoid cell)
Krabbe's disease accumulation
Connects amygdala with hypothalamus, mammillary body
Synuclein inclusions of PSP found where?
Extracellular beta-amyloid plaques and secondary intracellular tau tangles
Binds endothelial enzymes and disrupts BBB
Meningioma may have deletion of what chromosome?
Autosomal recessive defect in frataxin
Tumor that occurs in the ventricles
MCC of bacterial meningitis in children
Tumor of endothelial precursors
Nemaline myopathy autosomal recessive form mutation
Treatment of ALD
GI complaints, cutaneous features, Mees' lines on the nails, severe axonal neuropathy
Defects in prosencephalic cleavage
Parkinson's drug that selectively inhibits MAO-B
Lesion here causes Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (confusion, ophthalmoplegia, memory loss, confabulation)
MC fungal infxn found at autopsy
Complex malformation of anterior and posterior neuropores
Lesion of the subthalamic nucleus results in
Center of conjugate vertical gaze
Part of the hypothalamus responsible for thermoregulation
Mickey Mouse midbrain
Retinoic acid analog, teratogenic
Commonly found at gray-white junction
Treatment of Wilson's disease
Nemaline myopathy autosomal dominant form mutation
MCC of fungal meningitis
Internal nuclei at biopsy
Output nerve fiber of the cerebellum
Lesion of both Broca's and Wernicke's areas causes
Obligate intracellular, calcified granulomas
Nucleus that synthesizes 5HT
Periventricular plaques and lymphocytes
Lesion here causes internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Global loss of cortex
Cause of stroke in young people
Neurotransmitter INCREASED in schizophrenia, DECREASED in Parkinson's and depression
Axons get incorporated into this tumor, usually on peripheral nerves and roots
Connects hippocampus with hypothalamus, mammillary body
Proximal subarachnoid hemorrhage
ALD genetics
Neurofibromatosis type I mutation
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in anxiety, depression
Lesion here causes eyes to look toward lesion
Huntington's disease chromosome
Supraoptic nucleus makes
Pleiomorphism, but no angiogenesis
CSF: Elevated PMNs, low glucose, elevated protein. What kind of meningitis?
Separation of neurosensory layer of retina from pigment epithelium, degeneration of photoreceptors, vision loss
In closed/narrow angle glaucoma, what should you NOT give to the pt?
Area between ACA/MCA, PCA/MCA; damaged in severe hypotension causing 'man in a barrel' syndrome
Pick's body protein
NMDA blocker to treat Alzheimer's
Lesion here causes anterograde amnesia
Friedrich's ataxia patients have poor handling of what?
Impaired muscle relaxation, distal wasting, frontal bald hatchet face, and endocrine abnormalities
Supranuclear ophthalmoparesis, rigidity, gait disturbance
Degeneration of dorsal and lateral white matter columns with demyelination, macrophage infiltration and axonal loss
Central pontine myelonecrosis caused by rapid correction of
Wilson's disease genetics
Bilateral loss of pain and thermal sense at that level
Wilson's disease patients have defect of handling what?
MLD enzyme
Ipsi loss of fine touch/position, ipsi spastic paresis, contra loss of pain/temp, ipsi flaccid paresis at level of lesion
Nucleus of visceral sensory information (e.g. taste, baroreceptors, gut distention)
Distal muscle weakness, NO pain
Ground glass inclusions, pleimorphic astrocytes
CD20 stains B-cells in this tumor
Lesion here causes fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension
Painless, bilateral opacification of the lens, loss of vision
Kayser-Fleischer rings
'Drop' seizure, commonly mistaken for fainting
Huntington's drug, dopamine receptor antagonist
Many small gyri that only have 2 layers
Medial geniculate nucleus input
Neural tube defects are detectable by
Globose tau tangles
MCC of bacterial meningitis in adults
Acute, painless monocular loss of vision; pale retina and cherry-red macula
Lesion here causes left hemineglect
MCC sporadic encephalitis
Cowdry A inclusions
Cerebellum receives ipsilateral proprioceptive information via the
Area in the brain where Alzheimer's usually begins
Neurotransmitter synthesized by the arcuate nucleus
Soap bubble cysts
Verocay body
Lesion here causes truncal ataxia, dysarthria
Replicates in skeletal muscle and ascends to CNS via retrograde transport
Lesion here results in reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (e.g. coma)
Amorphous exudate around microvessels
Caseating granulomata along vessels in meninges and brain parenchyma
Lateral geniculate nucleus input
Can cause Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Methanol causes necrosis of the
Treatment of Guillain-Barre
Epilepsy drug that auto-induces its own metabolism
Proximal muscle weakness, pain
Lobar intracerebral hemorrhage
Lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine are what type of esters?
Linked to von Hippel Lindau disease
Paralysis of vertical gaze, absence of convergence, pupillary disturbance, non-communicating hydrocephalus
Drug-induced Parkinsonism
Appearance of increased CSF in atrophy
Floppy infant, normal enzymes
Permanent memory disturbance and confabulation
Dementia, myoclonus, periodic EEG, rapid progression
Protein inclusions in Parkinson's disease
Medial geniculate nucleus output
Increase in ICP, elevated optic disk w/ blurred margins, bigger blindspot
Lesion here causes alexia and agraphia
MCC of multiple intracranial mass in AIDS
Nucleus that synthesizes ACh
Large, often wedge shaped, large caliber atrial and venous channels, gliotic and hemosider-stained tissue between channels
From embryonal stem cells, arises from Rathke's pouch
Primary CNS lymphoma
Paraventricular nucleus makes
Cholinesterase inhibitor to treat Alzheimer's
Psammoma bodies
Knife-edge gyri, disinhibition, dementia
Can compress optic chiasm or cavernous sinus, cause hyperprolactinemia
ALS treatment
Hypertension causes thickening but paradoxical weakening of perforating areas
Nucleus that synthesizes GABA
Causes retinal edema and ganglion cell degeneration, blindness
Floppy infant, nonprogressive weakness, normal serum muscle enzymes
Lesion of the arcuate fasciculus causes
Lymphocytic perivascular cuffing. What kind of meningitis?
Rosenthal fibers
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and REM sleep
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in anxiety, Huntington's
Diffuse petechial hemorrhages in white matter
Lewy body protein
Drug used to treat malignant hyperthermia
Lateral medullary syndrome, PICA occluded
Nucleus that synthesizes NE
Distal subararachnoid hemorrhage
Homer Wright rosettes
Parkinsonism, ataxia, autonomic dysfunction
Connects brainstem nuclei (aminergic) and hypothalamus, PFC
Fluctuating cognitive ability, visual hallucinations, extrapyramidal signs
CSF: Increased lymphocytes, increased pressure, slightly increased protein. What kind of meningitis?
Lesion here causes eyes to look away from side of lesion
Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophies have x-linked recessive defect in
Lesion here causes ipsilateral limb ataxia, falling to side of lesion
Carbon monoxide causes bilateral necrosis of the
First histological feature of ischemic brain disease
Cerebellum receives contralateral cortical input via the
Pituitary tumor causes this visual defect
Tumor lined with ciliated cells
Causes thiamine deficiency, hepatic failure, hyponatremia, central pontine myelonecrosis, cerebellar degeneration, necrosis of corpus callosum
Treatment of thrombotic focal ischemia
Can cause watershed zone stroke between territories, usually from cardiopulmonary arrest or severe shock
Seizure of quick, repetitive jerks
Connects mammillary bodies with anterior thalamus
Destructive, hemorrhagic lesions in temporal and frontal lobes
Hemorrhagic necrosis on crests of cortical surface
Destruction of a piece of germinal matrix causing part of the cortex to fail to develop
Alzheimer type II astrocytes, Opalski cells
Procaine, cocaine, tetracaine are what type of anesthetics?
Lesion here causes Kl├╝ver-Bucy syndrome (hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior)
Focal loss of previously formed cortex

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Created Jun 19, 2012ReportFavoriteNominate
Tags:extra, review, term

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