Science Quiz / Big Neuro Review

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Alzheimer's is associated with what chromosome?
MCC sporadic encephalitis
Dorsal columns damage, loss of fine touch and position sense
Area in the brain where Alzheimer's usually begins
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and REM sleep
Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophies have x-linked recessive defect in
Mickey Mouse midbrain
Hypertension causes thickening but paradoxical weakening of perforating areas
Cowdry A inclusions
Central pontine myelonecrosis caused by rapid correction of
Loss of bilateral pupillary constriction when light is shone in affected eye, due to optic nerve damage or retinal detachment
Fluctuating cognitive ability, visual hallucinations, extrapyramidal signs
Amorphous exudate around microvessels
Nucleus that synthesizes GABA
Proximal muscle weakness, pain
Distal muscle weakness, NO pain
GI complaints, cutaneous features, Mees' lines on the nails, severe axonal neuropathy
Neurofibromatosis type I mutation
Can cause Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Medial geniculate nucleus input
MCC of fungal meningitis
Parkinson's drug that selectively inhibits MAO-B
Paralysis of vertical gaze, absence of convergence, pupillary disturbance, non-communicating hydrocephalus
Defects in prosencephalic cleavage
Nucleus that synthesizes NE
Lesion here causes alexia and agraphia
Soap bubble cysts
Lesion here causes ipsilateral limb ataxia, falling to side of lesion
Global loss of cortex
Paraventricular nucleus makes
Lesion here causes anterograde amnesia
Floppy infant, nonprogressive weakness, normal serum muscle enzymes
Focal loss of previously formed cortex
Destruction of a piece of germinal matrix causing part of the cortex to fail to develop
Nucleus of visceral sensory information (e.g. taste, baroreceptors, gut distention)
Lateral medullary syndrome, PICA occluded
Neurotransmitter synthesized by the arcuate nucleus
Lesion here causes nonfluent aphasia with intact comprehesion
ALS treatment
Nemaline myopathy autosomal dominant form mutation
Pleiomorphism, but no angiogenesis
Seizure of stiffening
Homer Wright rosettes
Causes thiamine deficiency, hepatic failure, hyponatremia, central pontine myelonecrosis, cerebellar degeneration, necrosis of corpus callosum
Proximal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Pick's body protein
Supranuclear ophthalmoparesis, rigidity, gait disturbance
Lesion here causes eyes to look away from side of lesion
Cholinesterase inhibitor to treat Alzheimer's
Knife-edge gyri, disinhibition, dementia
Vacuolar myelopathy, looks like B12 deficiency
Increase in ICP, elevated optic disk w/ blurred margins, bigger blindspot
MLD genetics
Wilson's disease genetics
Band of grey matter underneath the white
Drug used to treat malignant hyperthermia
Caseating granulomata along vessels in meninges and brain parenchyma
Lesion here causes Kl├╝ver-Bucy syndrome (hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior)
Verocay body
Periventricular plaques and lymphocytes
Hairlike astrocytic processes
'Drop' seizure, commonly mistaken for fainting
Causes retinal edema and ganglion cell degeneration, blindness
Lesion here causes Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (confusion, ophthalmoplegia, memory loss, confabulation)
Friedrich's ataxia patients have poor handling of what?
Lesion here causes fluent aphasia with impaired comprehension
ALD genetics
Large, often wedge shaped, large caliber atrial and venous channels, gliotic and hemosider-stained tissue between channels
Neurotransmitter INCREASED in schizophrenia, DECREASED in Parkinson's and depression
First histological feature of ischemic brain disease
Co-deletion of 1p19q linked to survival of 120 months (vs. 12)
Parkinsonism, ataxia, autonomic dysfunction
NMDA blocker to treat Alzheimer's
Cowdry B inclusions
Lesion here causes internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Tumor lined with ciliated cells
Guillain-Barre of the CNS
Separation of neurosensory layer of retina from pigment epithelium, degeneration of photoreceptors, vision loss
Can compress optic chiasm or cavernous sinus, cause hyperprolactinemia
Bilateral loss of pain and thermal sense at that level
Cerebellum receives contralateral cortical input via the
Lymphocytic perivascular cuffing. What kind of meningitis?
Treatment of Guillain-Barre
Lesion here causes truncal ataxia, dysarthria
Treatment of thrombotic focal ischemia
Lateral geniculate nucleus output
Photopigment present in ganglion cells in the retina whose axons transmit info to the suprachiasmatic nucleus
Many small gyri that only have 2 layers
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in anxiety, Huntington's
Defects in gyral formation
Lesion here causes eyes to look toward lesion
Connects mammillary bodies with anterior thalamus
Parieto-occipital demyelination
Part of the hypothalamus responsible for thermoregulation
Nemaline myopathy autosomal recessive form mutation
Lesion of the subthalamic nucleus results in
Complex malformation of anterior and posterior neuropores
Axons get incorporated into this tumor, usually on peripheral nerves and roots
Lesion of the arcuate fasciculus causes
Butterfly endothelial proliferation, pleiomorphism, necrosis, astrocytic hypercellularity
Linked to von Hippel Lindau disease
Krabbe's disease accumulation
Binds endothelial enzymes and disrupts BBB
CSF: Elevated PMNs, low glucose, elevated protein. What kind of meningitis?
Lesion here causes disinhibition and deficits in concentration, orientation, judgment, may have re-emergence of primitive reflexes
Neurotransmitter INCREASED in anxiety, DECREASED in depression
Appearance of increased CSF in atrophy
Distal subararachnoid hemorrhage
Painless, bilateral opacification of the lens, loss of vision
MCC of bacterial meningitis in adults
Protein inclusions in Parkinson's disease
Huntington's drug, dopamine receptor antagonist
Neural tube defects are detectable by
Lesion of both Broca's and Wernicke's areas causes
Cerebellum receives ipsilateral proprioceptive information via the
Lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine are what type of esters?
Extracellular beta-amyloid plaques and secondary intracellular tau tangles
Lobar intracerebral hemorrhage
Destructive, hemorrhagic lesions in temporal and frontal lobes
Varying caliber vessels without intervening neural parenchyma, oozes blood
Permanent memory disturbance and confabulation
Lewy body protein
Nucleus that synthesizes ACh
Hemorrhagic necrosis on crests of cortical surface
Procaine, cocaine, tetracaine are what type of anesthetics?
Drug-induced Parkinsonism
Seizure of quick, repetitive jerks
Connects brainstem nuclei (aminergic) and hypothalamus, PFC
Lateral geniculate nucleus input
Primary CNS lymphoma
Cause of stroke in young people
MC intracranial PNET
Neurotransmitter DECREASED in anxiety, depression
Commonly found at gray-white junction
Replicates in skeletal muscle and ascends to CNS via retrograde transport
Ground glass inclusions, pleimorphic astrocytes
Tumor of endothelial precursors
Center of conjugate vertical gaze
Supraoptic nucleus makes
Lesion here causes left hemineglect
Reversible, acute confusion, nystagmus, ataxia
Methanol causes necrosis of the
Epilepsy drug that auto-induces its own metabolism
MCC of multiple intracranial mass in AIDS
Degeneration of dorsal and lateral white matter columns with demyelination, macrophage infiltration and axonal loss
Kayser-Fleischer rings
In closed/narrow angle glaucoma, what should you NOT give to the pt?
Huntington's disease chromosome
Obligate intracellular, calcified granulomas
Connects amygdala with hypothalamus, mammillary body
Treatment of Wilson's disease
Autosomal recessive defect in frataxin
CSF: Increased lymphocytes, increased pressure, slightly increased protein. What kind of meningitis?
Rosenthal fibers
Meningioma may have deletion of what chromosome?
Carbon monoxide causes bilateral necrosis of the
Area between ACA/MCA, PCA/MCA; damaged in severe hypotension causing 'man in a barrel' syndrome
Integrative center that controls homeostasis
Connects hippocampus with hypothalamus, mammillary body
Retinoic acid analog, teratogenic
Seizure of alternating stiffening and movement
Alzheimer type II astrocytes, Opalski cells
Globose tau tangles
Internal nuclei at biopsy
Nucleus that synthesizes 5HT
Ipsi loss of fine touch/position, ipsi spastic paresis, contra loss of pain/temp, ipsi flaccid paresis at level of lesion
From embryonal stem cells, arises from Rathke's pouch
Multinuclear macrophage (globoid cell)
Huntington's chorea result of loss of what neurotransmitter?
Psammoma bodies
MLD enzyme
MCC of bacterial meningitis in children
Synuclein inclusions of PSP found where?
Impaired muscle relaxation, distal wasting, frontal bald hatchet face, and endocrine abnormalities
Dementia, myoclonus, periodic EEG, rapid progression
CD20 stains B-cells in this tumor
Tumor that occurs in the ventricles
Lesion here results in reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness (e.g. coma)
Can cause watershed zone stroke between territories, usually from cardiopulmonary arrest or severe shock
Treatment of ALD
Pituitary tumor causes this visual defect
MC fungal infxn found at autopsy
Medial geniculate nucleus output
Output nerve fiber of the cerebellum
Diffuse petechial hemorrhages in white matter
Floppy infant, normal enzymes
Acute, painless monocular loss of vision; pale retina and cherry-red macula
Wilson's disease patients have defect of handling what?

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