Science Quiz / Human Health and Physiology Glossary of Terms

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Can you name the Human Health and Physiology Glossary of Terms?

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Surrounds the cytoplasm and controls movement of materials in and out of the cell
Organisms which cause disease
Open up or get wider
Flaps to prevent backflow in circulation
Treatment using radiation
Cell structure containing chromosomes and controls cell activities
Hormone produced by the pancreas which causes an increase in blood sugar
Lack of food
Removal of waste materials produced by the cells
Description of a person that has two different alleles for a characteristic
LH, produced by the pituitary gland
The liquid part of the blood
Blood cell containing haemoglobin
Part of the eye that contains light sensitive cells
Lower chamber in the heart
Hormone which reduces loss of water in urine
Speeds up a chemical reaction
Cell structures which release energy in aerobic respiration
Cell division which produces two identical cells
Sugar-based food providing energy
Flap which covers the opening of the trachea (windpipe) when swallowing
Pain felt when blood flow is restricted in coronary arteries
The main hormone produced by the adrenal gland
Altered shape of an enzyme so it cannot work
The position of the body
The genes present to control a characteristic
A genetic disorder where the person produces very sticky mucus
Endocrine gland in the neck
Two or more atoms joined together
Breakdown of fat into droplets
Transfer of organs or tissues from donor to recipient
Cell structures which make protein
Food used for growth and repair
Waves of muscle contraction
Small 'strings' which are attached to the eye lens
An action which involves thinking by the brain
A characteristic which is masked when the dominant allele is present
Organs which contain receptor cells to detect external stimuli
Hormone produced by testis
Poisonous substances
Damage to ligaments
Nerves which carry impulses from receptors to the central nervous system
Joins muscle to bone
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain
Removal of waste from the rectum
Upper chamber in the heart
The process by which the body maintains a constant internal environment
Release of energy from food when oxygen is present
Fat-based food used for insulation and energy storage
Hormone produced by an ovary that maintains the uterus lining
Produced by white blood cells to attack antigens
Cell division which halves the number of chromosomes to make gametes
Condition caused by lack of iron
The physical appearance of a characteristic
Sticky layer on the teeth containing bacteria
Cell fragments in blood needed for clotting
A chemical messenger produced by endocrine glands
Muscles or glands which respond to stimuli
The chemical reactions which take place in the body
Fluid produced by cells to lubricate body tubes
Minute blood vessels which form a network close to the cells
Release of energy from food in the absence of oxygen
The characteristic which is shown when two different alleles are present
A fluid which lubricates joints and reduces friction
Tiny hair-like structures on the surface of cells of airways
Net movement of particles (solute or gas) from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
Transfer of blood or blood products to a patient
Condition resulting in high blood sugar if not controlled
Descriptive of a person that has two identical alleles for a characteristic
White blood cell which engulfs pathogens
Alkaline fluid containing amylase
Folds on cells on the surface of villi
A version of a particular gene
Protein and iron compound which carries oxygen
White blood cell which produces antibodies
The gene that is situated on the X chromosome
Glands which secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
Chemical produced in anaerobic respiration
Nerves which carry impulses from the central nervous system to effectors
Chemicals which cause cancer
Joints which contain synovial fluid and can move easily
Chemical made from excess amino acids found in urine
A section of DNA which codes for the production of a protein
Net movement of water from a region of high water concentration to low water concentration
Smooth tissue which covers ends of bones
Operations where very tiny incisions are made
A simple sugar, the most common form of energy source used in respiration
Control of body temperature
Barrier between the blood of a mother and a fetus which allows materials to diffuse across
Focuses light into the retina
A biological catalyst made of protein
Treatment of blood in dialysis machines
Structures which detect stimuli
A group of similar cells
Chemicals used to kill pathogens outside the body
A carrier of disease-causing organisms
Enzyme which digests protein
Methods to prevent sperm reaching an egg or prevent implantation
Breakdown of surplus amino acids to form urea
Glands in the cheeks and under the tongue
An abnormal growth of cells
Muscles which alter the shape of the eye lens for focusing
Condition caused by extreme dieting due to negative self image
Process where blood cells are trapped in fibrin to stem blood flow
Threads of genetic material in the nucleus
Essential inorganic compounds needed for healthy growth
Folds on the surface of the gut lining
A partially permeable membrane used in dialysis machines
Hormone produced by the ovary that builds up the uterus lining
Deoxyribose nucleic acid, the chemical which carries the genetic code
Damage to bones
An automatic response to a stimulus
Transport medium containing cells and plasma
Control of water in the body
A substance which dissolves in water
A group of organs with a shared function
The process by which stem cells change to specialised cells
Allows selected substances through
A charged atom
The gullet, the pipe which carries food from the mouth to the stomach
Clouding of the eye lens
Sex cells
Region of the brain containing temperature and pressure receptors
Release of an egg from the ovary
Blood vessels which carry blood to the heart
A structure made from several tissues with a particular function
Insoluble fibres which form a clot
The method that the body digests food
Clear covering of the eye
Blood vessel which carries blood away from the heart
Process when red blood cells stick together
Gland which produces insulin, glucagon and digestive enzymes
Enzyme in the mouth which digests starch
A condition where the immune system attacks the gut lining, triggered by gluten
Insoluble food material found in vegetables
The age when the secondary sexual characteristics develop
Condition caused by a lack of vitamin D
Hormone produced by the thyroid gland which controls metabolic rate
A genetic diagram to illustrate crosses
Basic unit of the body
Region of cell in which most chemical reactions take place
Spontaneous change in a gene or chromosome
Chemicals produced by fungi which can kill bacteria
Foreign chemicals, including protein, which trigger an immune response
Hormone produced by the pancreas which causes a reduction in blood sugar
Ring of DNA found in bacteria
An insoluble carbohydrate made from glucose molecules
Too much or too little food or lack of one or more essential nutrients
A condition where the joint cartilage is damaged resulting in pain and lack of movement
Enzyme which digests carbohydrate
Genetically identical cells
The first cell produced when the sperm fertilises the egg
Condition caused by a lack of vitamin C
Release of energy from food
A soluble blood protein which changes to fibrin in clotting
Enzyme which digests lipids
Nutrient needed in small quantities for healthy growth
Any surface which allows substances to pass between the blood and cells or blood and the outside
Damage to muscles
Strong bands of connective tissue which hold bones together
Chemicals produced by the body to counteract poisons
Blood cell of the immune system
FSH, produced by the pituitary gland

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