Science Quiz / Human Health and Physiology Glossary of Terms

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Can you name the Human Health and Physiology Glossary of Terms?

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HintAnswer
Net movement of particles (solute or gas) from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
Insoluble fibres which form a clot
Breakdown of surplus amino acids to form urea
Chemicals used to kill pathogens outside the body
The characteristic which is shown when two different alleles are present
Cell structure containing chromosomes and controls cell activities
Cell division which produces two identical cells
Joints which contain synovial fluid and can move easily
Condition resulting in high blood sugar if not controlled
Blood vessel which carries blood away from the heart
Transfer of blood or blood products to a patient
Release of energy from food in the absence of oxygen
Cell fragments in blood needed for clotting
Descriptive of a person that has two identical alleles for a characteristic
Nerves which carry impulses from receptors to the central nervous system
Cell structures which release energy in aerobic respiration
Chemical made from excess amino acids found in urine
Insoluble food material found in vegetables
The process by which the body maintains a constant internal environment
Essential inorganic compounds needed for healthy growth
Organs which contain receptor cells to detect external stimuli
Two or more atoms joined together
Food used for growth and repair
A section of DNA which codes for the production of a protein
Cell division which halves the number of chromosomes to make gametes
Chemicals produced by fungi which can kill bacteria
Condition caused by extreme dieting due to negative self image
Nutrient needed in small quantities for healthy growth
Condition caused by a lack of vitamin D
Condition caused by a lack of vitamin C
Chemicals produced by the body to counteract poisons
The process by which stem cells change to specialised cells
A substance which dissolves in water
Muscles which alter the shape of the eye lens for focusing
Endocrine gland in the neck
Folds on the surface of the gut lining
A fluid which lubricates joints and reduces friction
Part of the eye that contains light sensitive cells
Nerves which carry impulses from the central nervous system to effectors
A genetic disorder where the person produces very sticky mucus
The gullet, the pipe which carries food from the mouth to the stomach
Any surface which allows substances to pass between the blood and cells or blood and the outside
Threads of genetic material in the nucleus
A soluble blood protein which changes to fibrin in clotting
Pain felt when blood flow is restricted in coronary arteries
White blood cell which produces antibodies
Hormone produced by the thyroid gland which controls metabolic rate
Open up or get wider
Condition caused by lack of iron
Smooth tissue which covers ends of bones
Spontaneous change in a gene or chromosome
Lower chamber in the heart
Transfer of organs or tissues from donor to recipient
A partially permeable membrane used in dialysis machines
Region of cell in which most chemical reactions take place
HintAnswer
Clouding of the eye lens
Allows selected substances through
Lack of food
Gland which produces insulin, glucagon and digestive enzymes
Barrier between the blood of a mother and a fetus which allows materials to diffuse across
Hormone produced by the pancreas which causes a reduction in blood sugar
Hormone produced by testis
The genes present to control a characteristic
Damage to ligaments
Hormone which reduces loss of water in urine
Genetically identical cells
An abnormal growth of cells
Removal of waste materials produced by the cells
A structure made from several tissues with a particular function
Waves of muscle contraction
Enzyme which digests carbohydrate
The position of the body
Sex cells
A chemical messenger produced by endocrine glands
Process when red blood cells stick together
Blood cell of the immune system
An action which involves thinking by the brain
Damage to bones
Damage to muscles
Enzyme in the mouth which digests starch
Too much or too little food or lack of one or more essential nutrients
The method that the body digests food
Hormone produced by the ovary that builds up the uterus lining
Release of energy from food when oxygen is present
Control of body temperature
Upper chamber in the heart
A group of similar cells
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain
Sugar-based food providing energy
Muscles or glands which respond to stimuli
White blood cell which engulfs pathogens
Sticky layer on the teeth containing bacteria
Methods to prevent sperm reaching an egg or prevent implantation
Breakdown of fat into droplets
Treatment using radiation
Release of energy from food
Folds on cells on the surface of villi
Small 'strings' which are attached to the eye lens
The gene that is situated on the X chromosome
Clear covering of the eye
The first cell produced when the sperm fertilises the egg
Process where blood cells are trapped in fibrin to stem blood flow
An automatic response to a stimulus
A simple sugar, the most common form of energy source used in respiration
Altered shape of an enzyme so it cannot work
Region of the brain containing temperature and pressure receptors
Basic unit of the body
FSH, produced by the pituitary gland
Hormone produced by an ovary that maintains the uterus lining
The chemical reactions which take place in the body
HintAnswer
The age when the secondary sexual characteristics develop
Enzyme which digests protein
Treatment of blood in dialysis machines
Chemicals which cause cancer
Operations where very tiny incisions are made
Enzyme which digests lipids
The liquid part of the blood
Control of water in the body
A charged atom
Glands which secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
Minute blood vessels which form a network close to the cells
Fluid produced by cells to lubricate body tubes
Chemical produced in anaerobic respiration
The main hormone produced by the adrenal gland
Strong bands of connective tissue which hold bones together
Net movement of water from a region of high water concentration to low water concentration
The physical appearance of a characteristic
Protein and iron compound which carries oxygen
A group of organs with a shared function
Tiny hair-like structures on the surface of cells of airways
Focuses light into the retina
Flap which covers the opening of the trachea (windpipe) when swallowing
Blood cell containing haemoglobin
Foreign chemicals, including protein, which trigger an immune response
A biological catalyst made of protein
Ring of DNA found in bacteria
Joins muscle to bone
Hormone produced by the pancreas which causes an increase in blood sugar
A characteristic which is masked when the dominant allele is present
Organisms which cause disease
Surrounds the cytoplasm and controls movement of materials in and out of the cell
Description of a person that has two different alleles for a characteristic
Removal of waste from the rectum
Alkaline fluid containing amylase
A condition where the immune system attacks the gut lining, triggered by gluten
A genetic diagram to illustrate crosses
Produced by white blood cells to attack antigens
LH, produced by the pituitary gland
Release of an egg from the ovary
Glands in the cheeks and under the tongue
Structures which detect stimuli
Flaps to prevent backflow in circulation
A carrier of disease-causing organisms
Cell structures which make protein
Speeds up a chemical reaction
Transport medium containing cells and plasma
An insoluble carbohydrate made from glucose molecules
A condition where the joint cartilage is damaged resulting in pain and lack of movement
Poisonous substances
Blood vessels which carry blood to the heart
Deoxyribose nucleic acid, the chemical which carries the genetic code
Fat-based food used for insulation and energy storage
A version of a particular gene

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