Science Quiz / Human Health and Physiology Glossary of Terms

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QUIZ: Can you name the Human Health and Physiology Glossary of Terms?

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Fluid produced by cells to lubricate body tubes
Cell fragments in blood needed for clotting
The age when the secondary sexual characteristics develop
Cell division which produces two identical cells
Deoxyribose nucleic acid, the chemical which carries the genetic code
Joints which contain synovial fluid and can move easily
Hormone produced by an ovary that maintains the uterus lining
Lower chamber in the heart
Glands which secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
Control of body temperature
Release of energy from food
Chemicals used to kill pathogens outside the body
The main hormone produced by the adrenal gland
Breakdown of fat into droplets
Process when red blood cells stick together
Enzyme in the mouth which digests starch
A characteristic which is masked when the dominant allele is present
Pain felt when blood flow is restricted in coronary arteries
The gullet, the pipe which carries food from the mouth to the stomach
Blood vessel which carries blood away from the heart
Gland which produces insulin, glucagon and digestive enzymes
Cell structures which make protein
Removal of waste from the rectum
Sugar-based food providing energy
A biological catalyst made of protein
A charged atom
Damage to muscles
Muscles or glands which respond to stimuli
Chemicals produced by the body to counteract poisons
Transfer of organs or tissues from donor to recipient
Hormone produced by the pancreas which causes an increase in blood sugar
Damage to bones
Barrier between the blood of a mother and a fetus which allows materials to diffuse across
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain
The position of the body
The physical appearance of a characteristic
Chemicals produced by fungi which can kill bacteria
Sex cells
Control of water in the body
Endocrine gland in the neck
Poisonous substances
Joins muscle to bone
The gene that is situated on the X chromosome
Organisms which cause disease
An abnormal growth of cells
Organs which contain receptor cells to detect external stimuli
Release of energy from food in the absence of oxygen
Lack of food
Treatment using radiation
Description of a person that has two different alleles for a characteristic
The characteristic which is shown when two different alleles are present
FSH, produced by the pituitary gland
Alkaline fluid containing amylase
Process where blood cells are trapped in fibrin to stem blood flow
Blood cell containing haemoglobin
Speeds up a chemical reaction
Net movement of water from a region of high water concentration to low water concentration
White blood cell which produces antibodies
Hormone which reduces loss of water in urine
Condition caused by extreme dieting due to negative self image
An automatic response to a stimulus
A chemical messenger produced by endocrine glands
A fluid which lubricates joints and reduces friction
Release of an egg from the ovary
A partially permeable membrane used in dialysis machines
The genes present to control a characteristic
Produced by white blood cells to attack antigens
Chemical produced in anaerobic respiration
A genetic disorder where the person produces very sticky mucus
A genetic diagram to illustrate crosses
Nerves which carry impulses from receptors to the central nervous system
Transfer of blood or blood products to a patient
Insoluble food material found in vegetables
Damage to ligaments
Insoluble fibres which form a clot
Two or more atoms joined together
The process by which stem cells change to specialised cells
Small 'strings' which are attached to the eye lens
Cell structures which release energy in aerobic respiration
Upper chamber in the heart
A group of similar cells
Threads of genetic material in the nucleus
A section of DNA which codes for the production of a protein
Condition caused by a lack of vitamin C
Region of the brain containing temperature and pressure receptors
Net movement of particles (solute or gas) from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
Chemicals which cause cancer
Any surface which allows substances to pass between the blood and cells or blood and the outside
Hormone produced by the pancreas which causes a reduction in blood sugar
Food used for growth and repair
Strong bands of connective tissue which hold bones together
Protein and iron compound which carries oxygen
Blood vessels which carry blood to the heart
Muscles which alter the shape of the eye lens for focusing
Part of the eye that contains light sensitive cells
Release of energy from food when oxygen is present
Condition resulting in high blood sugar if not controlled
A structure made from several tissues with a particular function
The chemical reactions which take place in the body
Enzyme which digests protein
Waves of muscle contraction
Folds on cells on the surface of villi
A condition where the joint cartilage is damaged resulting in pain and lack of movement
A soluble blood protein which changes to fibrin in clotting
Breakdown of surplus amino acids to form urea
A carrier of disease-causing organisms
Genetically identical cells
Region of cell in which most chemical reactions take place
Condition caused by a lack of vitamin D
An insoluble carbohydrate made from glucose molecules
Chemical made from excess amino acids found in urine
Flaps to prevent backflow in circulation
Removal of waste materials produced by the cells
Surrounds the cytoplasm and controls movement of materials in and out of the cell
Open up or get wider
Tiny hair-like structures on the surface of cells of airways
LH, produced by the pituitary gland
Folds on the surface of the gut lining
An action which involves thinking by the brain
Foreign chemicals, including protein, which trigger an immune response
Transport medium containing cells and plasma
The process by which the body maintains a constant internal environment
Treatment of blood in dialysis machines
Smooth tissue which covers ends of bones
The liquid part of the blood
Basic unit of the body
Minute blood vessels which form a network close to the cells
Hormone produced by testis
Focuses light into the retina
A substance which dissolves in water
White blood cell which engulfs pathogens
Sticky layer on the teeth containing bacteria
A simple sugar, the most common form of energy source used in respiration
Enzyme which digests lipids
Clear covering of the eye
A version of a particular gene
Nerves which carry impulses from the central nervous system to effectors
Hormone produced by the ovary that builds up the uterus lining
Nutrient needed in small quantities for healthy growth
A group of organs with a shared function
The method that the body digests food
A condition where the immune system attacks the gut lining, triggered by gluten
The first cell produced when the sperm fertilises the egg
Blood cell of the immune system
Fat-based food used for insulation and energy storage
Descriptive of a person that has two identical alleles for a characteristic
Operations where very tiny incisions are made
Cell division which halves the number of chromosomes to make gametes
Ring of DNA found in bacteria
Clouding of the eye lens
Too much or too little food or lack of one or more essential nutrients
Hormone produced by the thyroid gland which controls metabolic rate
Allows selected substances through
Flap which covers the opening of the trachea (windpipe) when swallowing
Condition caused by lack of iron
Altered shape of an enzyme so it cannot work
Cell structure containing chromosomes and controls cell activities
Enzyme which digests carbohydrate
Glands in the cheeks and under the tongue
Structures which detect stimuli
Essential inorganic compounds needed for healthy growth
Methods to prevent sperm reaching an egg or prevent implantation
Spontaneous change in a gene or chromosome

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