Science Quiz / Paraxial Mesoderm and Musculoskeletal Development

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Can you name the Paraxial Mesoderm and Musculoskeletal Development?

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HintAnswer
makes somite, head, skeletal muscle, cartilage, tendons, endothelial cells, dermis
segment from presomitic mesoderm
derive from somites
form by segmentation
in somite segmentation, epithelial cells transition to
gradients of ____ and ___ regulate segmentation
decision zone that decides where segmental boundaries will form
cycling expression of _____ pathway genes regulates segmentation
forms segment fissures
_____ genes specify rostral-caudal identity of the vertebrae
avascular tissue that is metabollically active
cartilage ECM is composed mostly of ______ and _____
type II collagen fibrils provide
sclerotome mesenchymal cells migrate toward
sclerotome resegment into
cells that make up the _____ migrate preferentially through the _____ toward the _____ part of each somite
somite patterning also affects patterning of
autosomal recessive disorder, SLC26A2 sulfate transporter mutations
autosomal dominant, part of FGFR3 mutation spectrum, deficient endochondral growth
Crouzon and Jackson-Weiss are ____ mutations
_____ is converted into bone through endochondral ossification
HintAnswer
______ contribute most of growth in bone length
Pax1, N-CAM, N-cadherin, Sox9, agrim, Runx2, Dlx5/6, Wnt and collagen II are required for
______ closes the epiphyseal plate
the unit of bone structure
bone is constantly remodeled by
digest bone, originate from lateral mesoderm
deposit bone, originate from paraxial mesoderm
sensors of local bone strains caused by dynamic weight bearing
the bone matrix is composed of
brittle bone disease, genetic disorder of connective tissue, mutation in collagen type I
defect in bone resorption by osteoclasts, increased bone density, increased skeletal mass, decrease in osteoclast activity
DML
VLL
cells migrate _______ from DML to form the ______
express muscle-specific genes
myotome extends ______
ultimately dermomyotome transitions to
deep back muscles attached to dorsal vertebrae, lead to side to side and dorsoventral flexion of the vertebral column
muscles of diverse function that include both axial and appendicular muscles, both dorsal and ventral
epaxial muscles are derived from the ______ and give rise to the _____ half of the myotome
first myoblasts to appear
HintAnswer
hypaxial muscles are derived from the _____ of the dermamyotome and give rise to the _____ half of the myotome
mononucleated proliferative small round cells that express myosin and have no sarcomeres
multinucleated central nuclei non-proliferative tube shape sarcomeric proteins, no sarcomeres
multinucleated peripheral nuclei non-proliferative tube shape, functional sarcomeres and sarcomeric proteins
Symmetric myogenic proliferation produces
asymmetric myogenic proliferation produces
Pax3, Myf5
Myod1, Myog
Skeletal muscle is innervated by _______ at the ______
Myotube formation occurs in
occurs through nearly simultaneous fusion of existing myoblasts to form primary myotubes
fetal myoblasts fuse asynchronously to form secondary myotubes
fusion of secondary myotubes is initiated at the site of
required for secondary myotube formation
express both fast and slow myosin heavy chain isotypes
express only fast myosin heavy chain isotypes
earliest somites are formed at the _____ end
caused by a mutation in a determination front gene
Collagen II mutations would affect
inhibition of osteoclasts would result in
 

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