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General branch of science that deals with living organisms and life processes
Science of naming, describing, and classifying organisms
1st taxonomic rank; includes Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
2nd taxonomic rank; includes Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista
3rd taxonomic rank; known as division in botany
4th taxonomic rank
5th taxonomic rank
6th taxonomic rank
7th taxonomic rank; second most specific
8th taxonomic rank; most specific classification
Phylum commonly referred to as sponges
Phylum which contains the classes Arachnida, Crustacea, and Insecta
Phylum which contains leeches, earthworms, and other segmented worms
Phylum which contains tapeworms, flukes, and other flatworms
Phylum commonly referred to as roundworms
Phylum which contains snails, bivalves, and cephalopods
Phylum which contains starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers
Phylum with subphylums urochordata and vertebrata
Phylum which contains jellyfish, corals, and sea anemones
Class containing sharks and rays
Class containing birds
Class containing lizards, snakes, and turtles
Class containing frogs and salamanders
Class containing marsupials and monotremes
Class containing bony fishes
Science focusing on plants
Study of woody plants
Study of fungi
Non-flowering plant
Flowering plant
All of the petals of a flower
Supports other flower parts
All of the sepals together
All of the female parts of a flower; all of the carpels
General term for the female organ of the flower
Part of the gynoecium which houses the ovules and become the fruit
Receptive part of the gynoecium
Supports the stigma of a flower
All of the male parts of a flower; all of the stamens
General term for the male organ of the flower
Part of the androecium which supports the anther
Part of the stamen which contains the pollen
The stalk or stem that supports the flower
Waxy coating of a leaf
Openings in leaves that allow the passage of carbon dioxide and oxygen
Cells that surround the stomata and regulate gas exchange
Term for both the xylem and the phloem
Woody tissue that provides support and transport of water
Tissue of a plant that transports nutrients and gases
Red, orange, and yellow pigments in a plant
Blue or purple pigment in a plant
Most basic unit of life
Outer layer of a plant cell; made of cellulose
Jelly-like material that houses the organelles
Organelle in a plant cell that stores water and helps maintain the cell's shape
Needle like structures in some plant cells thought to aid in defense
Granular crystals in some plant cells also thought to aid in defense
Organelles that contain chlorophyll and are responsible for photosynthesis
Organelles that produce and store starch in some plant cells
Organelle that converts glucose to ATP for the cell
Organelle that packages proteins and carbohydrates into vesicles for export from the cell
Small organelles responsible for protein synthesis
Organelle that transports materials throughout the cell; has rough and smooth varieties
Spherical organelle that controls the cell's functions
Organelle within the nucleus composed of DNA, RNA, and proteins
Thin layer that surrounds cells; not the outer layer of plant cells
Organelle that stores food and waste material in an animal cell
Organelle that stores the centriole and plays an important role in mitosis
Organelle that contains digestive enzymes
Material that makes up chromosomes
Process in which a cell splits into two identical cells
Phase of mitosis in which the chromatids condense and the nucleolus disappears
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers and align
Phase of mitosis in which the daughter chromosomes move to opposite sides of the cell
Phase of mitosis in which the nuclear membranes reform and the cell continues to grow
Phase of mitosis in which the cytoplasm splits and the daughter cells completely divide
Stage between mitotic cycles
Process in which a cell divides into 4 cells which contain half of the original genetic information
Phase of meiosis I in which the chromosomes condense and pair up
Phase of meiosis I in which the homologous pairs align
Phase of meiosis I in which the homologous pairs begin to move to opposite sides of the cell
Phase of meiosis I in which the chromosomes arrive at the separate poles of the cell
Phase of meiosis II in which the chromatin condenses
Phase of meiosis in II which the spindle fibers connect to the sister chromatids and align them
Phase of meiosis II in which the sister chromosomes are drawn to opposite sides of the cell
Phase of meiosis II in which the sister chromosomes reach the ends of the cell and begin to cleave into 4 cells
Term for the relationship between two interdependent species of organisms
Symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit
Symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits but the other is not affected
Symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is harmed
Naturalist known for his theory of natural selection
Scientist known for creating the science of genetics by studying pea plants
French biologist known for his work in vaccination, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization
Scottish biologist who discovered penicillin
Father of modern taxonomy
Scientist who discovered the cell
Scientist who created the first effective vaccine for smallpox
Greek physician who first introduced medicinal experimentation
Marine biologist who publicized the danger of DDT
Surgeon who pioneered sterile surgery
HintAnswer
General branch of science that deals with the Earth and its atmosphere
The study of the composition, structure, and history of the Earth and its components
System of chronological dating that relates geological strata to time
Supereon that dates from the beginning of the Earth to the Paleozoic era
Eon within the Precambrian time marked by an oxygenic atmosphere and diverse multi-celled organisms
Current eon which started immediately after the Precambrian time
First period of the Paleozoic era marked by a certain 'explosion'
Period marked by diversification of invertebrates
Period in which the first vascular plants, millipedes, and arthropleurids arrived on land
Period in which several plants (including the first seed-bearers) appear; also known as the Age of Fishes
Period marked by first land vertebrates and large trees; includes the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian epochs
Period in which the landmasses combined into Pangaea
Era directly after the Paleozoic era; known and the Age of Reptiles and the Age of Conifers
Period in which dinosaurs become the dominant species; first mammals appear
Period marked by the emergence of birds and the splitting of Pangaea into Laurasia and Gondwana
Period in which flowering plants and new types of birds and mammals appeared; ended with an extinction event
Current era of the phanerozoic eon; known as the Age of Mammals
Period immediately after the K-Pg extinction event
Epoch in which mammals diversify and first large mammals appear
Epoch which starts with the warmest climate of the Cenozoic era and ends in an icehouse climate
Final epoch of the Paleogene period marked by the Grande Coupure extinction and the widespread glaciation of Antarctica
Period in which modern animal families begin to be recognizable
Epoch in which the ancestors of apes, chimpanzees, and humans become distinct
Epoch in which the Mediterranean Basin floods and the Australopithecus becomes common in East Afica
Current period of the Cenozoic Era
Epoch marked by the rise Homo Sapiens
Current epoch of the Quaternary Period
Branch of geology focused on minerals and their properties
Physical property of minerals determined by how easily it scratches other minerals
Popular scale used to measure hardness
Most common mineral used to represent a Mohs hardness of 1
Most common mineral used to represent a Mohs hardness of 2
Most common mineral used to represent a Mohs hardness of 3
Most common mineral used to represent a Mohs hardness of 4
Most common mineral used to represent a Mohs hardness of 5
Most common mineral used to represent a Mohs hardness of 6
Most common mineral used to represent a Mohs hardness of 7
Most common mineral used to represent a Mohs hardness of 8
Most common mineral used to represent a Mohs hardness of 9
Most common mineral used to represent a Mohs hardness of 10
Physical property of minerals to resist breaking or bending
Physical property of minerals which shows its true color (powdered form)
Physical property of minerals to break along a certain smooth crystallographic planes
Physical property of minerals that indicates how much its surface reflects light
Cycle that describes the continuous movement of Earth's water
Stage of the water cycle in which water takes a gaseous form
Stage of the water cycle in which water becomes droplets and forms clouds
Stage of the water cycle in which condensed water vapor falls to the Earth's surface
State in which water changes directly from solid to vapor
Stage of the water cycle in which plants release water vapor
Atmospheric science focused on weather
Low level, puffy, fair-weather clouds
Low level, dreary, uniform clouds
Low level, dark, puffy clouds
Mid level, patchy clouds that can signal thunderstorms or cooler temperatures
Mid level, dark rain clouds
Mid level, gray or bluish-gray clouds
High level, wispy clouds made of ice crystals instead of water droplets
High level, patchy clouds associated with winter
High level, transparent clouds
Tall, multi-level thunderstorm clouds
Study of volcanoes, lava, and magma
Term for the boundary where tectonic plates are separating
Term for the boundary where tectonic plates collide
Broad volcano with low viscosity lava
Simple volcano made of loose material with violent eruptions
Volcano with clusters of vents and conduit systems; can explode violently
Large volcanic crater at the mouth of a collapsed volcano
Volcanic vent that allows gases to escape
Lava with a shiny surface that has a low viscosity
Blocky lava with a high viscosity
Most inner layer of the Earth made of solid iron
Second most inner layer of the Earth made of low viscosity fluid
Layer of dense hot rock under the Earth's crust
Dense plastic layer of mantle below the lithosphere
Earth's crust paired with the most upper layer of the mantle
Hard outer skin of rock forming the ocean floor and continents
Solid rock of the deepest level of soil
Soil and broken rock covering the bedrock
Layer of soil below the topsoil
Layer where topsoil transports to lower levels by downward precipitation of water across soil horizons
Outer layer of soil that contains the most organic matter
Organic component of soil
Thick mass of moving ice on land
Unsorted glacial sediment
Glacially formed landmasses; accumulation of till
Long, low mound of till
Long winding ridge of sand and gravel caused by glaciers
Depression caused by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters
Amphitheater-like valley caused by glacial erosion
Geologist who demonstrated existing natural causes; wrote Principles of Geology
Geologist famous for first proposing the ice ages
Geologist who contributed to uniformitarianism; known as the founder of modern geology
Scientist who proposed the theory of continental drift
Scientist who developed the scale for earthquake magnitude
Device used to measure wind speed
Device used to measure atmospheric pressure
Device used to measure humidity
Device used to measure earthquakes
Device used to measure latitude
HintAnswer
General branch of science that deals with inanimate, natural objects
Branch of physical science which deals with celestial objects and phenomena
Word for a body that orbits a planet; moon
Planet with the moons Phobos and Demios
Planet with the moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto
Planet with the moons Titan, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea
Planet with the moons Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, and Oberon
Planet with the moons Triton and Proteus
Planet with the moon Charon
Collapsing celestial cloud of gas and dust
Giant star at the late stage of stellar evolution
Small, dense star that is about the size of a planet
Remnant of a white dwarf that no longer emits light or heat
Explosive death of a star
Object with a large mass and a powerful gravitational pull capable of trapping light
Collapsed core of a star composed of tightly packed neutrons
A dust, gas, and ice body that orbits the sun
Area that short-period comets originate
Area that long-period comets originate
Extremely thin atmosphere of a comet
Gravitationally bound system of stars, planets, and other forms of matter
Galaxy type with a smooth and nearly featureless shape
Galaxy type with a flattened disk and usually two arms
The outer atmosphere of the sun; visible as a halo during an eclipse
The lower atmosphere of the sun
The visible surface of the sun
Branch of science concerned with the nature and properties of matter and energy
Law that states each planet moves in an elliptical orbit around the sun
Law that states the force between two objects is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the distance between them squared
Law that states an object will remain at rest or continue to move unless acted upon by an external force
Law that states force equals mass times acceleration
Law that states every action produces an equal and opposite reaction
Law that states the rate of heat loss of a body is directly proportional to the difference in the temperatures between the body and its surroundings
Law that states the total energy in a system remains constant
Law that states the entropy of an isolated system can never decrease
Law that states the entropy of a system approaches a constant value as its temperature approaches absolute zero
Law that states equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the equal numbers of molecules
Law that states the total energy radiated from a black body is equal to the fourth power of its absolute temperature
Principle that states the buoyant force exerted on an immersed object is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces
Law that states when pressure is applied to a fluid, the change is transmitted throughout without loss
Principle that states as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure decreases
Law that states force applied to a spring is proportional to its extension
Law that states the volume of a certain amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure, given a constant temperature
Law that states gases increase or decrease in volume as temperature rises and falls, given that the pressure and amount of gas are constant
Law that states the force between charges is proportional to the charges and is inversely proportional to the distance between them squared
Law that states potential difference equals current times resistance
Presence and flow of electric charge
Current that reverses its direction many times a second
Current that only flows in one direction
A closed path in which electrons from a voltage or current source flow
Circuit with an interrupted current
Circuit with multiple paths for electricity to flow
Circuit with only one path for electricity to flow
Electromotive force that causes electrons to flow
Opposition to the passage of electric current
Flow of electric charge through a conductor
Branch of science that deals with the identification and properties of the substances that make up matter
Any compound with one or more carbon atoms
Any saturated hydrocarbon
An unsaturated hydrocarbon with at least one pair of double-bonded carbons
An unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one pair of triple-bonded carbons
Organic compound consisting of a hydroxyl group attached to a saturated carbon atom
Organic compound consisting of a carbonyl group attached to a hydrogen atom and any other R-group
Organic compound consisting of a carbonyl between two carbon atoms
Functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom
Functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom
Bond between oppositely charged ions
Bond in which atoms share electrons
Reaction in which two simple substances combine into one
Reaction in which a more complex compound breaks down into its simple parts
Reaction in which a single element replaces another in a compound
Reaction in which the cations and anions switch places to form new compounds
Process in which a substance loses one or more electrons
Process in which a substance gains one or more electrons
Acid-base reaction that forms water and a salt
Formation of a solid during a chemical reaction
Minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur
Negatively charged ion
Positively charged ion
Number of particles in one mole of a substance; equals approximately 6.022×10²³
Solution that contains a certain amount of electric current
Chemical breakdown of a compound due to a reaction with water
Repeating units of molecules in a chain
Compounds whose molecules are the same but have different structures
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
Scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of a solution
Electron pair acceptor
Electron pair donor
Type of weak intermolecular force
One of the forces between molecules
Scientist who introduced atomic theory into chemistry; worked with color blindness as well
Physicist who discovered the electron; proposed the Plum Pudding model of the atom
Physicist who discovered alpha and beta particles; proposed the planetary model of the atom
Physicist who said that electrons are confined to specific orbits around the nucleus
Chemist remembered for inventing the periodic table
Physicist who developed wave mechanics and a wave equation
Inventor of dynamite and founder of a certain prize
Scientist whose work with fluids led to the hydraulic press
Physicist who is known for many discoveries including the Theory of Relativity
Physicist known for his research on black holes and the big bang theory; wrote A Brief History of Time

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