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statement of scientific fact - natural phenomenon that always occurs
 
widely accepted explanation for an observation supported by a large body of evidence
 
simplified description of a system or process
 
testable, tentative explanation of phenomenon
 
steps of scientific method
 
 
 
 
 
hallmarks of science
 
 
 
 
 
susbtance that has mass/occupies space
 
matter that cannot be broken down into other substance
 
major elements found in living things
 
 
 
 
 
 
matter with 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio
 
2 or more atoms joined by a chemical bond
 
smallest unit of matter that displays all the chemical properties
 
# of protons/electrons
 
# of protons + neutrons
 
arrangement of electrons in outermost shell
 
atoms joined together by chemical bonds
 
charged form of an atom caused by loss/gain of electrons
 
chemical bond formed when 2 atoms share electrons
 
chemical bond between polar molecules
 
properties of water
 
 
 
 
pH is a measure of concentration of this in solution
 
low ph
 
high ph
 
sum total of all synthesis/degradation reactions in a cell
 
chemical reaction requiring an input of energy
 
chemical reaction with release of energy
 
build things up - monomers to polymers
 
polymers to monomers
 
polymers of carbon & hydrogen
 
functional group (OH)/where found
 
functional group (CO)/where found
 
functional group (COOH)/where found
 
functional group (NH2)/where found
 
biomolecule - cellular fuel
 
biomolecule - fuel storage, part of membranes
 
biomolecule - building block of proteins
 
biomolecule - dna/rna
 
saturated fatty acids have 1 or more of these in their chain
 
man-made unsaturated trans fat
 
natural unsaturated trans fat
 
Parts of phospholipids
 
 
fatty acids composed of polar hydrocarbon rings, non-polar hydrocarbon side chain
 
Protein functions
 
 
 
 
 
how do amino acids differ?
 
polymers of amino acids
 
peptide bonds are catalyzed in cells by the:
 
major archaebacterial groups
 
 
 
contains DNA/genetic information for constructing proteins
 
major site of protein synthesis
 
site of ATP synthesis by cellular respiration
 
responsible for sorting/shipping of membrane vesicle containing proteins/other macromolecules
 
major site of lipid synthesis, also synthesis of some polysaccharides
 
selectively permeable barrier that regulates entry/exit of molecules
 
where RNA is made
 
the industrial park
 
cellular warehouses that store fats/sugars for later use
 
recycling centers that break down nutrients/old organelles
 
highways/infrastructure
 
used in cell division
 
anchor cell to surface
 
hook cells together
 
channels in cell wall that allow cell-cell communication, transport of sugars & water
 
Animal cells only have
 
 
 
Pro/Eukaryotes both have
 
 
 
only eukaryotes
 
 
 
stored energy
 
energy of motion
 
amount of energy needed to raise temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celsius
 
Laws of thermodynamics
 
 
energy released from exergonic chemical reactions is used to drive endergonic reactions
 
protein that increases the rate of a specific chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy associated with that reaction
 
where is the active site?
 
inhibitor binds in active site
 
inhibitor binds/changes affinity of enzyme for substrate
 
moves from higher to lower solute concentration
 
needs membrane protein
 
movement of water molecules across membrane based on concentration gradient
 
salt in = salt out
 
salt in > salt out
 
salt in < salt out
 
low to high, need protein pump and ATP
 
leaving cell
 
entering cell
 
cellular eating solids
 
cellular drinking liquids
 
protein that binds signal molecule
 
organisms that derives energy by metabolizing carbon compounds via cellular respiration
 
organisms capable of deriving their energy from sunlight
 
What goes into photosynthesis?
 
 
what comes out of photosynthesis?
 
 
reaction involving loss of electrons (H)
 
reaction involving gain of electrons (H)
 
removal of one H atom produces:
 
voupled reactions in which one molecule loses an electron while another molecule simultaneously accepts/gains that electron
 
pathway of cellular respiration (cytoplasm)
 
pathway of cellular respiration (matrix)
 
pathway of cellular respiration (cristae)
 
cellular respiration only occurs in presence of:
 
ATP synthesized by coupling potential energy associated with H+ gradient across membrane to the phosphorylation of ADP
 
sugar+ADP --> sugar + ATP
 
net yield of glycolysis per glucose
 
 
 
pyruvic acids oxidize to
 
max ATP per glucose from respiration
 
harvesting energy from sugars in absence of O2
 
waxy covering of epidermis cells that help to keep H2O from evaporating
 
these cells contain chloroplasts (where photosynthesis occurs)
 
specialized structures that allow CO2 to enter leaf and O2 to exit
 
light reactions take place here
 
dark reactions (in calvin cycle) take place here
 
light reactions turn what into what
 
dark reactions turn what into what
 
complex of membrane proteins and pigment molecule - light-harvesting
 
reduced electron carriers generated during photosynthesis
 
endosymbiont theory on the origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts proposed by:
 

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