Baby Bio

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statement of scientific fact - natural phenomenon that always occurs
widely accepted explanation for an observation supported by a large body of evidence
simplified description of a system or process
testable, tentative explanation of phenomenon
steps of scientific method
hallmarks of science
susbtance that has mass/occupies space
matter that cannot be broken down into other substance
major elements found in living things
matter with 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio
2 or more atoms joined by a chemical bond
smallest unit of matter that displays all the chemical properties
# of protons/electrons
# of protons + neutrons
arrangement of electrons in outermost shell
atoms joined together by chemical bonds
charged form of an atom caused by loss/gain of electrons
chemical bond formed when 2 atoms share electrons
chemical bond between polar molecules
properties of water
pH is a measure of concentration of this in solution
low ph
high ph
sum total of all synthesis/degradation reactions in a cell
chemical reaction requiring an input of energy
chemical reaction with release of energy
build things up - monomers to polymers
polymers to monomers
polymers of carbon & hydrogen
functional group (OH)/where found
functional group (CO)/where found
functional group (COOH)/where found
functional group (NH2)/where found
biomolecule - cellular fuel
biomolecule - fuel storage, part of membranes
biomolecule - building block of proteins
biomolecule - dna/rna
saturated fatty acids have 1 or more of these in their chain
man-made unsaturated trans fat
natural unsaturated trans fat
Parts of phospholipids
fatty acids composed of polar hydrocarbon rings, non-polar hydrocarbon side chain
Protein functions
how do amino acids differ?
polymers of amino acids
peptide bonds are catalyzed in cells by the:
major archaebacterial groups
contains DNA/genetic information for constructing proteins
major site of protein synthesis
site of ATP synthesis by cellular respiration
responsible for sorting/shipping of membrane vesicle containing proteins/other macromolecules
major site of lipid synthesis, also synthesis of some polysaccharides
selectively permeable barrier that regulates entry/exit of molecules
where RNA is made
the industrial park
cellular warehouses that store fats/sugars for later use
recycling centers that break down nutrients/old organelles
used in cell division
anchor cell to surface
hook cells together
channels in cell wall that allow cell-cell communication, transport of sugars & water
Animal cells only have
Pro/Eukaryotes both have
only eukaryotes
stored energy
energy of motion
amount of energy needed to raise temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree celsius
Laws of thermodynamics
energy released from exergonic chemical reactions is used to drive endergonic reactions
protein that increases the rate of a specific chemical reaction by reducing the activation energy associated with that reaction
where is the active site?
inhibitor binds in active site
inhibitor binds/changes affinity of enzyme for substrate
moves from higher to lower solute concentration
needs membrane protein
movement of water molecules across membrane based on concentration gradient
salt in = salt out
salt in > salt out
salt in < salt out
low to high, need protein pump and ATP
leaving cell
entering cell
cellular eating solids
cellular drinking liquids
protein that binds signal molecule
organisms that derives energy by metabolizing carbon compounds via cellular respiration
organisms capable of deriving their energy from sunlight
What goes into photosynthesis?
what comes out of photosynthesis?
reaction involving loss of electrons (H)
reaction involving gain of electrons (H)
removal of one H atom produces:
voupled reactions in which one molecule loses an electron while another molecule simultaneously accepts/gains that electron
pathway of cellular respiration (cytoplasm)
pathway of cellular respiration (matrix)
pathway of cellular respiration (cristae)
cellular respiration only occurs in presence of:
ATP synthesized by coupling potential energy associated with H+ gradient across membrane to the phosphorylation of ADP
sugar+ADP --> sugar + ATP
net yield of glycolysis per glucose
pyruvic acids oxidize to
max ATP per glucose from respiration
harvesting energy from sugars in absence of O2
waxy covering of epidermis cells that help to keep H2O from evaporating
these cells contain chloroplasts (where photosynthesis occurs)
specialized structures that allow CO2 to enter leaf and O2 to exit
light reactions take place here
dark reactions (in calvin cycle) take place here
light reactions turn what into what
dark reactions turn what into what
complex of membrane proteins and pigment molecule - light-harvesting
reduced electron carriers generated during photosynthesis
endosymbiont theory on the origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts proposed by:

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