**_________ Equation**

k = A e^{-Ea}^{÷RT}

This formula describing the temperature dependence of reaction rates was first proposed five years earlier by J. H. van't Hoff.

**_________ Constant**

The work of this scientist predicted the idea of a set number of molecules in a set weight of a substance, but the constant itself was discovered by Jean Baptiste Perrin some 53 years after this scientist's death.

**_________ Test**

This gender bias test for films, according to the named writer, was devised by her friend Liz Wallace.

**_________ Point**

The critical temperature above which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties. This phenomenon was found by Claude Pouillet before 1832, but reported by the named scientist in his thesis in 1895.

**_________'s Formula**

e^{ix} = cos x + i sin x

An equivalent formula was proved by Roger Cotes 30 years before the named scientist published his proof.

**The _________ Paradox**

This physicist noted that the Earth probabilistically should have already been visited by extraterrestrial aliens - but this had already been implicitly mentioned in an unpublished manuscript by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in 1933.

**_________ Numbers**

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21 ...

This famous sequence had existed in Indian mathematics since 200 BC, but was named by this mathematician in 1202 AD.

**_________ Distribution**

Also known as the normal distribution, this bell-shaped continuous probability distribution was introduced by Abraham de Moivre in 1733, but named after the mathematician and physicist who began using it in 1794.

**_________'s Comet**

This comet had been observed by astronomers since at least 240 BC, but it was named after the scientist who computed its orbit and accurately predicted its return.

**_________'s Law**

The observations regarding doppler-shifted velocities of objects moving in deep space were derived by Georges Lemaître two years before the named scientist.

**_________'s Rule**

This rule to calculate the limit of quotients where both the numerator and denominator converge to zero (or both to infinity) is generally believed to have been discovered by Johann Bernoulli.

**_________ series**

A representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms calculated from derivatives of the function at a single point. Named after the Scottish professor who published this special case of the Taylor series in 1742.

e.g. e^{x} = 1 + x + x^{2} / 2 ! + x^{3} / 3! ...

**_________'s Law**

The formulation that one cot death in a family is tragic, two suspicious, and three murder - this was originally described by D.J. and V.J.M. Di Maio.

**_________'s first and second laws of mechanics**

Although this scientist owns the discovery of the third law, the first and second were previously known and proposed separately by Galileo, Hooke and Huygens.

**The _________ cloud**

This hypothetical cloud of comets and other astronomical objects beyond Pluto and the Kuiper belt was first postulated by Ernst Öpik in 1932 (and then independently by this scientist in 1960).

**_________ theorem**

The sum of the areas of the two squares on the legs (a and b) equals the area of the square on the hypotenuse (c). This was known before the named mathematician to Babylonian mathematicians.

**_________ diagram**

This type of flow diagram, usually illustrating energy efficiency, was invented by Charles Joseph Minard.

**________'s law of refraction**

This formula describes how light is 'bent' when travelling between different materials. Also known as Descartes law, this was discovered by Ibn Sahl.

**_________'s law of eponomy**

This law, stating that no scientific discovery is named after its original discoverer, was attributed by this statistics professor himself to sociologist Robert K. Merton (although this phenomenon had previously been noted by others, including Boyer's Law, which was named by Hubert Kennedy).

**_________ diagram**

These diagrams are often used to teach elementary set theory, usually with overlapping circles. Popularised by this logician in the 1880s, they were introduced by Leonard Euler in 1768.

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