Science Quiz / Psychology A2 AQA Relationships

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Can you name the relationships studies?

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Reasons for relationship breakdown: lack of skills, lack of stimulation or maintenance difficulties.
Decrease in physical attraction for men after sex to prevent them spending too long with one woman
Model of breakdown
Students on university campus got propositioned by an experimenter
Ppts asked to rate strangers of opposite sex; ppts in relationships rated strangers lower as they had CL and alternative
Studied 91 undergrads who completed a parental investment scale; males were less prepared for parenting
Men lower their standards for short-term mating success
Pole dancers, menstrual cycles and tips!
Difference between maternal and paternal grandparents in amount of investment
Children with close parental relationships developed the independence needed to have successful adult relationships
Females are attracted to males who provide, show signs of good parenting and are compatible with them
Males invest when investment increases the success of child rearing; male chimps and bonobos don't invest
Maintenance difficulties; if one partner goes away the likelihood of breaking up is increased
Motivations in having sex for men and women
SET/'economic' theories may only apply to Western relationships
If there is physical distance, breakup can be avoided through reuniting regularly
It's difficult to determine the impact of peer relationships due to the need to assess the quality of the relationship
Similarity Theory
Longitudinal study investigating attachment type, happiness, social competence
Type of relationship individual has with their caregiver can affect adult relationships
Love quiz
Reward/need satisfaction theory
HintAnswer
Attachment types
Surveyed individuals across cultures and found women wanted men with 'good financial prospects' and men focused on physical attractiveness
Love is evolutionary; promotes survival and reproduction in humans
Investigated couples who had CCET which taught respect, equity and conversation skills
We gain reward from giving as well as receiving, something the RNST doesn't explain
Women chose a partner with a feminine face when asked for a long-term partner, but one with a masculine face during high-risk conception
Tested the DRH in the USA - found that similarity was most important initially and then those that discovered more dissimilarities became less attracted to each other
SET only explains motivations relating to the individual
Similarity is important to us as similar people will be more likely to like us, thus avoiding rejection
Similarity theory represents only narrow view of factors in relationship formation - others include economic status and physical attraction
Dissimilarity as opposed to similarity is most important factor in determining relationship success (dissimilarity repulsion hypothesis)
An evolutionary explanation for PI is limited as it fails to take into account social factors
SET
Research does not take gender differences into account - girls' friendships are more likely to be caring and secure
Exchange relationships and communal relationships
Functionally specialised system in the brain activated in those who claimed to be in love
Married couples w/ similar personalities were happier than those with dissimilar personalities
People are more likely to be attracted to people with similar traits, not complementary traits.
SET explains people staying in abusive relationships
Measured PI for fathers and stepfathers - inconsistent with PI theory, it was equal
Teenage males are most attracted to females 5 years older than them
Ppts who scored highly on romantic questionnaire had high activity in ventral tegmental area
HintAnswer
Tested the DRH in Singapore
Male students were more concerned with sexual infidelity, female ones emotional infidelity
People choose partners with similar levels of body fat
Childhood experiences in men tend to correlate with PI
Men tend to be aroused more to any type of sexual imagery - sex differences in jealousy may not be adaptive
Woman's sense of being under-benefited raised risk of divorce
Equity theory
Husband earning more than wives, wives earning more than husbands
Creative task, rated on performance and then asked to rate experimenter
Similar people and those who liked the ppt were more likely to be liked and have the liking reciprocated (study involving students and papers on strangers)
Married couples completed measures of equity and satisfaction on questionaires. People in equitable relationships most satisfied
Female promiscuity is advantageous as she gets multiple fathers for her children and gets more genetically diverse offspring
337 ppts asked to rate satisfaction and reward level; reward level most important in determining satisfaction
Lack of stimulation is a common reason given for breaking up
14% of the UK population could be a product of extra-marital matings
Peer relationships are equal so provide opportunities for cooperation and altruism that child-adult relationships don't have
Equity not important in relationship satisfaction
Women prefer handicapped men as it shows they are able to survive despite hardship so must have good genes
Moderate or low dating frequency in adolescence predicted higher quality adult relationshisp
Significant experiences may alter attachment types - relationship breakdown is a shift from secure to insecure

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