Science Quiz / Psychology A2 AQA Schizophrenia Studies

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Can you name the Psychology A2 AQA Schizophrenia Studies

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Tardive dyskinesia developed by 30%; 75% of these cases were irreversible
Disagrees with DB theory - no difference in familial communication in families of Sz sufferers
High relapse rates in Iran due to high EE
Opposite to May (1968)
Meta analysis of 29 studies - patients who got a placebo had 55% RR, actual drug 19%
ECT good for Sz patients immune to drug therapy
Ventricles of Sz individual 15% larger than normal
74% of 1432 Sz sufferers discontinued medication due to intolerable side effects
154 Sz cases; agreement of 54% on diagnosis
Double-bind theory
Patients who, prior to an Sz episode had previously had Sz, reported 2x as many life events
0.4 correlation among senior psychiatrists on what constituted a 'bizarre' symptom
If biological mother had Sz, 6.4% of adoptees also got Sz vs 2% of control group. (In Finland)
APs only affected RRs for sufferers in hostile home environments - (55% vs 92%) and those not 12% vs 15%
Differences in how cultures express emotion e.g. Arabic/Asian cultures may lead to misdiagnoses
Parents act differently only when their child is diagnosed with Sz - not before - disagrees w/ Freud
1 case: 69% of US psychiatrists diagnosed Sz but only 2% of British psychiatrists did
Made a machine that produces virtual hallucinations as a form of Sz treatment
Reduction of positive symptoms and a 25-50% reduction in recovery time for patients getting CBT and APs
Incidence of OCD with Sz is higher than probability would predict; likelihood of separate schizo-obsessive disorder
Cultural issues with CBT.
Psychoanalysis can be used outside a hospital
Dominant, rejecting mothers - supports Freud
Link between excess dopamine in prefrontal cortex and working memory
Reviewed 37 studies. 66% improved after psychotherapy, compared to 35% who improved without. No difference in results when CBT was combined with drugs. Outpatients benefited more.
Psychoanalysis may be harmful.
Social groups construct rules for their members to follow - Sz seen as being against these rules
EE therapy leads to lower relapse rates
First rank symptoms
Normal people go in mental institutions and do absolutely nothing differently to how they normally would
Patient returning to family with high EE is 4x more likely to relapse
Home-based psychotherapy more effective than in-hospital therapy.
Psychoanalysis with APs and just APs were more effective than psychoanalysis
Regression to pre-ego state and attempt to re-establish ego control
Created Sz-like symptoms in rats by giving them amphetamines
Used ICD-10 on Danish patients, concordance rate of 98%
Concordance rates in twins: MZ 48%, DZ 17%
Both parents have Sz = 46% chance of child getting Sz
Many patients found unsuitable for CBT.
20 sessions of personal therapy in 10 weeks as well as drugs did better than those just on drugs or supportive counselling
Sz sufferers recall more double bind statements than non-suffers
No link between life events and Sz onset
Found specific chromosome associated with Sz allowing them to identify high-risk individuals
Poor theoretical basis to the therapy, so difficult to draw conclusions as to effectiveness
Concordance rate of 81% using the DSM-IV
Issues with placebo studies - 45% benefited from placebo, of 81% who benefited from drug some of these could also have benefited from placebo; also motivational issues in drugs
Compared effectiveness of 1st and 2nd generation APs - found both were effective
Label of 'schizophrenic' may lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy and the development of Sz
ECT is better than no treatment but not as good as APs
Symptoms used to characterise Sz do not point to a specific disorder
Pharmaceutical companies keen to support dopamine theory due to them gaining profit
No difference in symptom reduction between real ECT and sham ECT
Evaluated 18 studies related to labelling theory - 13 agreed, so they concluded the theory was supported
Concordance rates of 40.4% MZ, 7.4% DZ
PET and MRI scans found Sz sufferers had more dopamine receptors and more dopamine in their brains
Agreed with Liem after analysing a set of similar studies and again finding no difference
Sz is a reasonable response to an insane world
Afro-Caribbean Brits 7x more likely to be diagnosed, despite similar incidence in population
Misdiagnoses of black Americans due to ethnic differences in symptom expression

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