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Can you name the Schizophrenia AQA A2 Psychology Studies

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Increased levels of smokers linked to increase in peer encouragement and approval and the message that smoking = popularity
Research relies on self report despite validity issues, e.g.
Identified specific variant on chromosome 15 linked to nicotine dependence, risk of smoking related diseases and no. smoked per day
Onset and trajectory of smoking in learning theory has an inherent gender bias
Theory of Planned Behaviour
Sun protection - TPB - intention and PBC predictors of behaviour
Strong emotions may explain why people act irrationally against their best interests
TPB does not consider emotions, peer support and motivation
looked at the effects of film portrayal of smoking on over 4000 adolescents; those who took up smoking cited films as a factor
Gamblers who try to escape reality are more likely to be substance abusers, supporting SM model
Alcohol myopia
Positive expectancies associated with cigarettes do not carry over to NRT
Group variables can influence behaviour - motivation and identification w/ peers
Parkinsons' sufferers take drugs which increase dopamine levels - number of impulse control disorders increased by 3.5x
Motivational phase that forms intention and a post-decisional phase that influences behaviour
Peers and family members of pathological gamblers were more likely to approve of gambling
Alcohol increases intention to engage in risky behaviours
In adolescence close friends and romantic partners become more important in shaping behaviour
found that after a 7 week treatment, 27% of subjects who received bupropion reported that an urge to smoke was a problem, versus 56% of those who received a placebo
87 most popular films of past ten years
Correlation between addiction and the neuroticism and psychoticism measures on a personality test
CBT increased self-efficacy and perception of self control, though participating gamblers did not meet DSM criteria in many cases
People who choose to give up are more successful than those who are coerced into giving up
Many different subtypes of gambling
Smoker's perception of the pros and cons and of quitting will affect attempts to stop
Attitudes may be different in a large social group than a lab setting
2 types of alcoholics - some drink to reduce tension and others to reduce boredom
Those who smoke more have less self-efficacy and therefore relapse more when trying to quit
Gamblers are just as accurate as non gamblers in predicting likelihood of winning, weakening idea of irrational beliefs
Positive relationship between smoking at 16 and a boy's popularity rating 2 years later
Believes many films do consider the negative effects and that fiilmmakers are offered financial incentives to portray drug use negatively
The US National Youth Anti Drug Media Campaign did not reach its goals and actually led to higher marijuana use
54% of risk for quit failure could be heritable
Two types of gamblers - sensation seeking (racehorse gambling) and avoiding negative emotions (cafe gamblers)
Measured dopamine levels in problem gamblers and non problem gamblers whilst they were gambling in a casino with own money, HR and dopamine levels = higher in problem gamblers
Looked at 140 clips taken from 47 films that portrayed things such as smoking and gambling; drugs shown as enjoyed against monotony of everyday life and to mend relationships
Allocated addicts to either reward or no reward condition with their treatment - 60% increase in negative urine samples for reward group
Adolescents may start smoking due to the stereotypes they hold about specific social groups
Smoking may reduce stress as by smoking they eliminate the stress of wanting a cigarette
Naltrexone may decrease gambling behaviours
Expectations can be manipulated to prevent relapse. Smokers told to not expect withdrawal symptoms reported fewer than a control group
Studied 1572 Dutch twin pairs; heritability was 44%
Gamblers think irrationally and place more emphasis on wins
Research creates ethical issues like 'threat of sanction' (ie some ppts may be partaking in illegal behaviour)
Cue exposure treatment
Exposure to peer models increases likelihood of smoking
Three genetic mutations that impact smoking; two linked to nicotine dependence and the other involving smoking related diseases risk
Smokers with Asp-40 variant twice as likely to quit with a high dose NRT - no difference for those without this variant
First degree relatives of gamblers more likely to be gamblers than distant relatives
'Psst...' had little impact on people's behaviours despite raising awareness
323 genes impacted by smoking; hard to determine cause and effect
Learning approach recommends targeting adolescents
Recreational and problem gamblers viewed exciting neutral stimuli and gambling stimuli. There was no cortisol increase in saliva for PGs indicating an underactive HPA
Intention has a causal effect, expectation does not
Methadone responsible for 300 deaths in 2007
There's a difference between intention and expectation
'Psst... the really useful guide to alcohol'
Only PBC predicts actual behaviour
Parents smoke: 1.88x risk, sibling 2.64x, friends 8x
Tri dimensional model of personality (novelty seeking, harm avoidance and reward dependence)
Issued questionnaires to college students and found that those who were problematic mobile users were low in self esteem and self monitoring
TPB may show intention formation and not actually translating the process into action
Guidelines developed for film and TV writers; material should communicate that illegal drug use is harmful
Adolescents report expecting positive feelings from smoking like confidence
Reward may be greater for those with certain personality types/traits bc of a hypersensitive dopamine response system
Likelihood of quitting up by 50% for those receiving calls from a quitline counselor vs those given only self-help materials
Adolescents smoke when experiencing negativity and expect smoking to decrease negative feelings
Issues of cause and effect in personality and addiction
Gamblers get financial, physiological and social rewards when they win
Social learning theory leads to vicarious reinforcement
Specific gene cluster for nicotine dependence and quit success
Major depressive disorder apparent in the majority of gamblers
Quitline services can help military veterans who smoke (greater cravings due to more stress)
SSRIs good for reducing gambling behaviours but small sample of 10
Gamblers = sensation seekers
Individuals high in extraversion are susceptible to boredom and so seek a high from addiction
If addicts are encouraged to believe in themselves, results improve
Disulfiram had 80% drop out rate
Prisoners using methadone only used heroin on average for 15 days a year; 99 days for those not
4 types of intervention - combination of IDC and GDC worked best
Rat study - sensation seeking rats more likely to become addicted - personality comes first
Disulfiram had side effects such as impotence
SSRIs not significant when compared to placebo
Self-medication model (gambling used to treat depression etc)
Smoking cessation rates and relapse rates only improve when NRT is combined with CBT to eliminate positive expectancies
Compared 30 gamblers with 30 non-regular gamblers. Regular gamblers more likely to make irrational verbalisations and think they were more skillful than they actually were.
Greater urge to smoke when there is a cue predicting smoking availability in the room compared to smoking unavailability
Craving ratings increase in the presence of a conditioned stimulus (e.g. ashtray)

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