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Can you name the Schizophrenia AQA A2 Psychology Studies

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DescriptionResearcher
'Psst... the really useful guide to alcohol'
Smoker's perception of the pros and cons and of quitting will affect attempts to stop
Believes many films do consider the negative effects and that fiilmmakers are offered financial incentives to portray drug use negatively
Major depressive disorder apparent in the majority of gamblers
'Psst...' had little impact on people's behaviours despite raising awareness
Group variables can influence behaviour - motivation and identification w/ peers
Those who smoke more have less self-efficacy and therefore relapse more when trying to quit
Theory of Planned Behaviour
Looked at 140 clips taken from 47 films that portrayed things such as smoking and gambling; drugs shown as enjoyed against monotony of everyday life and to mend relationships
Exposure to peer models increases likelihood of smoking
Gamblers are just as accurate as non gamblers in predicting likelihood of winning, weakening idea of irrational beliefs
Attitudes may be different in a large social group than a lab setting
Three genetic mutations that impact smoking; two linked to nicotine dependence and the other involving smoking related diseases risk
323 genes impacted by smoking; hard to determine cause and effect
If addicts are encouraged to believe in themselves, results improve
Onset and trajectory of smoking in learning theory has an inherent gender bias
Expectations can be manipulated to prevent relapse. Smokers told to not expect withdrawal symptoms reported fewer than a control group
54% of risk for quit failure could be heritable
Adolescents may start smoking due to the stereotypes they hold about specific social groups
Issues of cause and effect in personality and addiction
Parents smoke: 1.88x risk, sibling 2.64x, friends 8x
Adolescents report expecting positive feelings from smoking like confidence
Parkinsons' sufferers take drugs which increase dopamine levels - number of impulse control disorders increased by 3.5x
looked at the effects of film portrayal of smoking on over 4000 adolescents; those who took up smoking cited films as a factor
Positive relationship between smoking at 16 and a boy's popularity rating 2 years later
Allocated addicts to either reward or no reward condition with their treatment - 60% increase in negative urine samples for reward group
Only PBC predicts actual behaviour
Tri dimensional model of personality (novelty seeking, harm avoidance and reward dependence)
Studied 1572 Dutch twin pairs; heritability was 44%
Craving ratings increase in the presence of a conditioned stimulus (e.g. ashtray)
DescriptionResearcher
Quitline services can help military veterans who smoke (greater cravings due to more stress)
In adolescence close friends and romantic partners become more important in shaping behaviour
Social learning theory leads to vicarious reinforcement
4 types of intervention - combination of IDC and GDC worked best
Smoking cessation rates and relapse rates only improve when NRT is combined with CBT to eliminate positive expectancies
Disulfiram had side effects such as impotence
TPB may show intention formation and not actually translating the process into action
Reward may be greater for those with certain personality types/traits bc of a hypersensitive dopamine response system
Alcohol myopia
First degree relatives of gamblers more likely to be gamblers than distant relatives
Individuals high in extraversion are susceptible to boredom and so seek a high from addiction
Motivational phase that forms intention and a post-decisional phase that influences behaviour
CBT increased self-efficacy and perception of self control, though participating gamblers did not meet DSM criteria in many cases
Greater urge to smoke when there is a cue predicting smoking availability in the room compared to smoking unavailability
Prisoners using methadone only used heroin on average for 15 days a year; 99 days for those not
2 types of alcoholics - some drink to reduce tension and others to reduce boredom
SSRIs good for reducing gambling behaviours but small sample of 10
Naltrexone may decrease gambling behaviours
Gamblers who try to escape reality are more likely to be substance abusers, supporting SM model
Many different subtypes of gambling
Increased levels of smokers linked to increase in peer encouragement and approval and the message that smoking = popularity
Peers and family members of pathological gamblers were more likely to approve of gambling
Adolescents smoke when experiencing negativity and expect smoking to decrease negative feelings
Issued questionnaires to college students and found that those who were problematic mobile users were low in self esteem and self monitoring
Gamblers get financial, physiological and social rewards when they win
SSRIs not significant when compared to placebo
Smoking may reduce stress as by smoking they eliminate the stress of wanting a cigarette
Smokers with Asp-40 variant twice as likely to quit with a high dose NRT - no difference for those without this variant
Likelihood of quitting up by 50% for those receiving calls from a quitline counselor vs those given only self-help materials
Research relies on self report despite validity issues, e.g.
DescriptionResearcher
Strong emotions may explain why people act irrationally against their best interests
There's a difference between intention and expectation
The US National Youth Anti Drug Media Campaign did not reach its goals and actually led to higher marijuana use
People who choose to give up are more successful than those who are coerced into giving up
Research creates ethical issues like 'threat of sanction' (ie some ppts may be partaking in illegal behaviour)
Learning approach recommends targeting adolescents
87 most popular films of past ten years
Cue exposure treatment
Compared 30 gamblers with 30 non-regular gamblers. Regular gamblers more likely to make irrational verbalisations and think they were more skillful than they actually were.
Sun protection - TPB - intention and PBC predictors of behaviour
Alcohol increases intention to engage in risky behaviours
Self-medication model (gambling used to treat depression etc)
Gamblers = sensation seekers
found that after a 7 week treatment, 27% of subjects who received bupropion reported that an urge to smoke was a problem, versus 56% of those who received a placebo
Correlation between addiction and the neuroticism and psychoticism measures on a personality test
Recreational and problem gamblers viewed exciting neutral stimuli and gambling stimuli. There was no cortisol increase in saliva for PGs indicating an underactive HPA
Rat study - sensation seeking rats more likely to become addicted - personality comes first
Identified specific variant on chromosome 15 linked to nicotine dependence, risk of smoking related diseases and no. smoked per day
Methadone responsible for 300 deaths in 2007
Intention has a causal effect, expectation does not
TPB does not consider emotions, peer support and motivation
Disulfiram had 80% drop out rate
Two types of gamblers - sensation seeking (racehorse gambling) and avoiding negative emotions (cafe gamblers)
Gamblers think irrationally and place more emphasis on wins
Measured dopamine levels in problem gamblers and non problem gamblers whilst they were gambling in a casino with own money, HR and dopamine levels = higher in problem gamblers
Positive expectancies associated with cigarettes do not carry over to NRT
Guidelines developed for film and TV writers; material should communicate that illegal drug use is harmful
Specific gene cluster for nicotine dependence and quit success

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