Science Quiz / March52012

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Can you name the CellBioTerms?

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 For multiple spanning transmembrane proteins, the first _ transmembrane section will determine how it is orientated and subsequent transmembrane sections will oreint at _ degree an
 The RER is characterized by having __ on its surface.
 In the translocon, there are _(#)_ (hydrophilic/hydrophobic) amino acids located at its narrowest point.
 Transport vesicles have 'addresses' and receive sorting signals that are located in the __ of the vesicles.
 In the lumen of the RER there are numerous _ and _
 Phospholipids can be transported through the cytoplasm by _ to other organelles
 RER is especially well developed in cells that are highly __.
 Encompasses those subcellular structures that are membrane bound and participate in production and delivery of materials within the cell and to the exterior of the cells.
 _ and _ are inserted into new membranes as they are being formed inthe Er and then are used to form _ for virtually all of the sub-cellular organelles.
 When the translocon is inactive there is a small __ plugging it, inhibiting passage of calcium and other ions between the _ and the _ of the ER.
 RER is a network of __, or flattened sacs and is continuous with the __ which also has ribosomes on its cytoplasmic side.
 The _ is a protein-lined channel in the ER membrane through which the nascent peptide can pass
 Completed oligosaccharide is transferred as a block to the _ while the nascent protein is entering the _
 If glycosylation continuously fails, degradation of protein is called _
 __ happens continuously, taking molecules to the plasma membrane.
 _ molecules examine glycosylated protein for quality control
 __, __, and __ that stay in the endomembrane compartment are made on the RER
 SRP binding temporarily stops any further ___ ___
 Only _ linked oligosaccharides are placed on polypeptides in the RER
 Once the oligosaccharides are attached to the polypeptide, they get _
 _ and _ get completed in the Golgi complex
 When the signal sequence is produced, it is recognized by a __ which is made up of six distinct poplypeptides and a small __ molecule of RNA.
 The SRP binds to the signal sequence of the _ polypeptide and to the _
 The ___ is associated with the production of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and encompasses various pathways taking materials to the plasma membrane, and to the Golgi complex,
 The __ moves stuff out of the cell.
 Phospholipids of one type can concentrate in the area where a _ will form
 In producing the oligosaccharides to put on a polypeptide, the oligosaccharide is first constructed on a lipid molecule called _, which is embedded in the lipid bilayer
 RER and SER are __ with each other.
 Ribosomes on the RER produce _ and _
 O-linked oligosaccharides are put in the _
 Sugars and their order and accomplished by a family of membrane-bound enzymes called
 The SRP binds to a SRP receptor and the ribosome binds to a _.
 __ occurs when molecules are placed into vesicles and discharged from the cell only when the cell receives a specific stimulus (signal).
 Polypeptides in RER may have _ residues in the reduced state
 The __ of the ER is seperated fromthe cytosol by the ER membranes and contains very different materials than in the cytosol.
 When the _ terminus of the nascent peptide enters the _ of the RER, the signal is removed by the enzyme _ and _ are added to the polypeptide by the enzyme _
 Once the complex of __ binds to the ER, the SRP detaches from the SRP receptor.
 _ is critical for intermolecular interactions and for proper folding of proteins
 Glycosylated protein have a total of _ glucoses removed and when this happens _ are released
 Once the polypeptide formation is complete and the polypeptide is in the _ of the RER, the pore is _ .
 The ___ is highly curved and tubular and traverses the cytoplasm.
 Movements of __ in the cytoplasm are targeted to go to specific sites.
 The first few __ being made from the mRNA decide that proteins will be made on free ribosomes or on RER
 The RER is highly secretory cells is located at the __ level near the blood supply andthe secretory vesicles at the __ end where they can release their contents extracellularly.
 _ and _ have signal sequences that allow the nascent peptides to enter the lumen of the RER for transport via vesicles to membrane-bound organelles and the plasma membrane.
 Disulfide bonds are made between the _ by the enzyme _.
 Folding of the polypeptide and formation of disulfide bonds through the cysteine residues completes the _ structure of the polypeptide
 The orientation of transmembrane proteins is for the more positive end of the polypeptide to be exposed to the _
 The SER is extensively developed in __, __, and __
 All membranes arise from _ membranes
 When the _ region of the polypeptide gets into the translocon, it can move _ in the lipid bilayer through a _ gate inthe side of the translocon
 _ are modified as they move from the ER to other parts of the cell.
 If you look at the two lipid bilayers, the phospholipids are _. This is established in the _
 Most _ _ are made entirely in the _
 The __ moves stuff into the cell to various compartments.
 As the integral membrane is made, it passes into the _
 The SRP binds to the _ side of the RER
 If a protein does not pass inspection from chaperones, a glucose is (added/removed) to the oligosaccharide, and reinspection occurs
 The __ lies just above the RER
 The kinds of sugars and their order is precise on _.
 Newly made phospholipids are carried to the _ _ in 'budded' vesicles
 All __ are essentially identical and can be used to make cystolic proteins or proteins made on the RER
 Once attached, the signal sequences pass through the RER into the __ of the RER through a small channel
 Glycosyltransferases transfer a specific sugar from a _ sugar to the growing end of the _ chain
 Some phospholipids are destined for the inner leaflet and are flipped by enzymes called
 The arrangement of the sugars is dependent on the _ _ of the enzymes
 The _ side of the membrane buds will be found on the _ of the target membrane.
 Ribosomes in the cytoplasm produce _, _, and _
 List 5 cystolic proteins made on free ribosomes floating around in the cytosol
 The signal sequence contains _ to _ hydrophobic amino acids
 Most of the time the signal sequence is at the _ terminus of the nasenct peptide but sometimes it can be near the _ of the growing polypeptide
 Almost all proteins made on the RER become _
 The main intracellular pathways in cells include the ___ and an ____
 When oligosaccharides are attached to the modified, _ of the glucoses are removed
 Sequence of adding sugards for N-linked oligosaccharides
 Highly secretory have (more/less) RER than non-secretory cells
 Proteins that are going to be _ proteins or _ proteins are going to be made on the RER and enter into the _ of the RER
 Materials are shunted from one membrane compartment to another on tracks and are moved by ____.
 A ___ moves to an ___, fuses with it and transfers its cargo
 The signal sequence of the nascent peptide inserts into the _ and the pore opens
 A sequence of amino acids, called __ that, when being made as a nascent polypeptide, direct the ribosome to attach to the ER.
 To be an integral membrane protein it has to have a _ region
 Phospholipids are made on the _ side of the ER by _ proteins
 _ have enzymes in them that can convert one phospholipid to another
 Phospholipids of one membrane are transferred to another membrane by _ proteins
 Phospholipid heads are modified enzymatically in the _

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