Science Quiz / March52012

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 Some phospholipids are destined for the inner leaflet and are flipped by enzymes called
 Most of the time the signal sequence is at the _ terminus of the nasenct peptide but sometimes it can be near the _ of the growing polypeptide
 Glycosylated protein have a total of _ glucoses removed and when this happens _ are released
 _ are modified as they move from the ER to other parts of the cell.
 Completed oligosaccharide is transferred as a block to the _ while the nascent protein is entering the _
 When the signal sequence is produced, it is recognized by a __ which is made up of six distinct poplypeptides and a small __ molecule of RNA.
 RER is especially well developed in cells that are highly __.
 The arrangement of the sugars is dependent on the _ _ of the enzymes
 The SRP binds to the signal sequence of the _ polypeptide and to the _
 When the translocon is inactive there is a small __ plugging it, inhibiting passage of calcium and other ions between the _ and the _ of the ER.
 Polypeptides in RER may have _ residues in the reduced state
 The __ moves stuff into the cell to various compartments.
 The SRP binds to a SRP receptor and the ribosome binds to a _.
 __ happens continuously, taking molecules to the plasma membrane.
 RER is a network of __, or flattened sacs and is continuous with the __ which also has ribosomes on its cytoplasmic side.
 The __ of the ER is seperated fromthe cytosol by the ER membranes and contains very different materials than in the cytosol.
 Phospholipids can be transported through the cytoplasm by _ to other organelles
 A ___ moves to an ___, fuses with it and transfers its cargo
 _ and _ get completed in the Golgi complex
 Encompasses those subcellular structures that are membrane bound and participate in production and delivery of materials within the cell and to the exterior of the cells.
 Phospholipid heads are modified enzymatically in the _
 For multiple spanning transmembrane proteins, the first _ transmembrane section will determine how it is orientated and subsequent transmembrane sections will oreint at _ degree an
 The _ is a protein-lined channel in the ER membrane through which the nascent peptide can pass
 The first few __ being made from the mRNA decide that proteins will be made on free ribosomes or on RER
 If a protein does not pass inspection from chaperones, a glucose is (added/removed) to the oligosaccharide, and reinspection occurs
 Once the oligosaccharides are attached to the polypeptide, they get _
 _ and _ have signal sequences that allow the nascent peptides to enter the lumen of the RER for transport via vesicles to membrane-bound organelles and the plasma membrane.
 If glycosylation continuously fails, degradation of protein is called _
 The signal sequence of the nascent peptide inserts into the _ and the pore opens
 The signal sequence contains _ to _ hydrophobic amino acids
 Folding of the polypeptide and formation of disulfide bonds through the cysteine residues completes the _ structure of the polypeptide
 Once attached, the signal sequences pass through the RER into the __ of the RER through a small channel
 The SRP binds to the _ side of the RER
 The ___ is highly curved and tubular and traverses the cytoplasm.
 Movements of __ in the cytoplasm are targeted to go to specific sites.
 Transport vesicles have 'addresses' and receive sorting signals that are located in the __ of the vesicles.
 When oligosaccharides are attached to the modified, _ of the glucoses are removed
 __, __, and __ that stay in the endomembrane compartment are made on the RER
 In producing the oligosaccharides to put on a polypeptide, the oligosaccharide is first constructed on a lipid molecule called _, which is embedded in the lipid bilayer
 _ have enzymes in them that can convert one phospholipid to another
 The main intracellular pathways in cells include the ___ and an ____
 If you look at the two lipid bilayers, the phospholipids are _. This is established in the _
 Phospholipids of one membrane are transferred to another membrane by _ proteins
 Disulfide bonds are made between the _ by the enzyme _.
 Most _ _ are made entirely in the _
 When the _ terminus of the nascent peptide enters the _ of the RER, the signal is removed by the enzyme _ and _ are added to the polypeptide by the enzyme _
 All __ are essentially identical and can be used to make cystolic proteins or proteins made on the RER
 The orientation of transmembrane proteins is for the more positive end of the polypeptide to be exposed to the _
 Proteins that are going to be _ proteins or _ proteins are going to be made on the RER and enter into the _ of the RER
 Once the complex of __ binds to the ER, the SRP detaches from the SRP receptor.
 __ occurs when molecules are placed into vesicles and discharged from the cell only when the cell receives a specific stimulus (signal).
 A sequence of amino acids, called __ that, when being made as a nascent polypeptide, direct the ribosome to attach to the ER.
 List 5 cystolic proteins made on free ribosomes floating around in the cytosol
 Almost all proteins made on the RER become _
 In the translocon, there are _(#)_ (hydrophilic/hydrophobic) amino acids located at its narrowest point.
 Phospholipids of one type can concentrate in the area where a _ will form
 _ molecules examine glycosylated protein for quality control
 The __ lies just above the RER
 Glycosyltransferases transfer a specific sugar from a _ sugar to the growing end of the _ chain
 The RER is highly secretory cells is located at the __ level near the blood supply andthe secretory vesicles at the __ end where they can release their contents extracellularly.
 Once the polypeptide formation is complete and the polypeptide is in the _ of the RER, the pore is _ .
 Highly secretory have (more/less) RER than non-secretory cells
 The RER is characterized by having __ on its surface.
 Ribosomes in the cytoplasm produce _, _, and _
 O-linked oligosaccharides are put in the _
 In the lumen of the RER there are numerous _ and _
 As the integral membrane is made, it passes into the _
 The __ moves stuff out of the cell.
 When the _ region of the polypeptide gets into the translocon, it can move _ in the lipid bilayer through a _ gate inthe side of the translocon
 Materials are shunted from one membrane compartment to another on tracks and are moved by ____.
 RER and SER are __ with each other.
 The kinds of sugars and their order is precise on _.
 All membranes arise from _ membranes
 The SER is extensively developed in __, __, and __
 Sequence of adding sugards for N-linked oligosaccharides
 _ and _ are inserted into new membranes as they are being formed inthe Er and then are used to form _ for virtually all of the sub-cellular organelles.
 Only _ linked oligosaccharides are placed on polypeptides in the RER
 SRP binding temporarily stops any further ___ ___
 Sugars and their order and accomplished by a family of membrane-bound enzymes called
 The ___ is associated with the production of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and encompasses various pathways taking materials to the plasma membrane, and to the Golgi complex,
 Ribosomes on the RER produce _ and _
 _ is critical for intermolecular interactions and for proper folding of proteins
 The _ side of the membrane buds will be found on the _ of the target membrane.
 Newly made phospholipids are carried to the _ _ in 'budded' vesicles
 To be an integral membrane protein it has to have a _ region
 Phospholipids are made on the _ side of the ER by _ proteins

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Created Mar 26, 2012ReportNominate

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