Science Quiz / March52012

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Can you name the CellBioTerms?

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 _ have enzymes in them that can convert one phospholipid to another
 In the translocon, there are _(#)_ (hydrophilic/hydrophobic) amino acids located at its narrowest point.
 _ and _ are inserted into new membranes as they are being formed inthe Er and then are used to form _ for virtually all of the sub-cellular organelles.
 The __ lies just above the RER
 Ribosomes on the RER produce _ and _
 If a protein does not pass inspection from chaperones, a glucose is (added/removed) to the oligosaccharide, and reinspection occurs
 The _ side of the membrane buds will be found on the _ of the target membrane.
 The SRP binds to a SRP receptor and the ribosome binds to a _.
 Ribosomes in the cytoplasm produce _, _, and _
 Once the oligosaccharides are attached to the polypeptide, they get _
 The __ of the ER is seperated fromthe cytosol by the ER membranes and contains very different materials than in the cytosol.
 O-linked oligosaccharides are put in the _
 When the translocon is inactive there is a small __ plugging it, inhibiting passage of calcium and other ions between the _ and the _ of the ER.
 The _ is a protein-lined channel in the ER membrane through which the nascent peptide can pass
 In producing the oligosaccharides to put on a polypeptide, the oligosaccharide is first constructed on a lipid molecule called _, which is embedded in the lipid bilayer
 Only _ linked oligosaccharides are placed on polypeptides in the RER
 Phospholipids of one membrane are transferred to another membrane by _ proteins
 Proteins that are going to be _ proteins or _ proteins are going to be made on the RER and enter into the _ of the RER
 Some phospholipids are destined for the inner leaflet and are flipped by enzymes called
 When the _ terminus of the nascent peptide enters the _ of the RER, the signal is removed by the enzyme _ and _ are added to the polypeptide by the enzyme _
 __, __, and __ that stay in the endomembrane compartment are made on the RER
 Phospholipids can be transported through the cytoplasm by _ to other organelles
 Completed oligosaccharide is transferred as a block to the _ while the nascent protein is entering the _
 The signal sequence of the nascent peptide inserts into the _ and the pore opens
 Highly secretory have (more/less) RER than non-secretory cells
 _ is critical for intermolecular interactions and for proper folding of proteins
 _ molecules examine glycosylated protein for quality control
 List 5 cystolic proteins made on free ribosomes floating around in the cytosol
 Phospholipids of one type can concentrate in the area where a _ will form
 Once the complex of __ binds to the ER, the SRP detaches from the SRP receptor.
 Transport vesicles have 'addresses' and receive sorting signals that are located in the __ of the vesicles.
 Sugars and their order and accomplished by a family of membrane-bound enzymes called
 A ___ moves to an ___, fuses with it and transfers its cargo
 The ___ is associated with the production of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and encompasses various pathways taking materials to the plasma membrane, and to the Golgi complex,
 The RER is highly secretory cells is located at the __ level near the blood supply andthe secretory vesicles at the __ end where they can release their contents extracellularly.
 RER is a network of __, or flattened sacs and is continuous with the __ which also has ribosomes on its cytoplasmic side.
 Glycosylated protein have a total of _ glucoses removed and when this happens _ are released
 _ are modified as they move from the ER to other parts of the cell.
 If you look at the two lipid bilayers, the phospholipids are _. This is established in the _
 The SRP binds to the _ side of the RER
 The main intracellular pathways in cells include the ___ and an ____
 The first few __ being made from the mRNA decide that proteins will be made on free ribosomes or on RER
 The SRP binds to the signal sequence of the _ polypeptide and to the _
 Polypeptides in RER may have _ residues in the reduced state
 All __ are essentially identical and can be used to make cystolic proteins or proteins made on the RER
 The RER is characterized by having __ on its surface.
 In the lumen of the RER there are numerous _ and _
 Once attached, the signal sequences pass through the RER into the __ of the RER through a small channel
 _ and _ have signal sequences that allow the nascent peptides to enter the lumen of the RER for transport via vesicles to membrane-bound organelles and the plasma membrane.
 Folding of the polypeptide and formation of disulfide bonds through the cysteine residues completes the _ structure of the polypeptide
 The SER is extensively developed in __, __, and __
 Phospholipid heads are modified enzymatically in the _
 Almost all proteins made on the RER become _
 Glycosyltransferases transfer a specific sugar from a _ sugar to the growing end of the _ chain
 The orientation of transmembrane proteins is for the more positive end of the polypeptide to be exposed to the _
 To be an integral membrane protein it has to have a _ region
 All membranes arise from _ membranes
 When oligosaccharides are attached to the modified, _ of the glucoses are removed
 The signal sequence contains _ to _ hydrophobic amino acids
 Movements of __ in the cytoplasm are targeted to go to specific sites.
 The ___ is highly curved and tubular and traverses the cytoplasm.
 RER and SER are __ with each other.
 Once the polypeptide formation is complete and the polypeptide is in the _ of the RER, the pore is _ .
 Disulfide bonds are made between the _ by the enzyme _.
 When the signal sequence is produced, it is recognized by a __ which is made up of six distinct poplypeptides and a small __ molecule of RNA.
 For multiple spanning transmembrane proteins, the first _ transmembrane section will determine how it is orientated and subsequent transmembrane sections will oreint at _ degree an
 As the integral membrane is made, it passes into the _
 _ and _ get completed in the Golgi complex
 When the _ region of the polypeptide gets into the translocon, it can move _ in the lipid bilayer through a _ gate inthe side of the translocon
 The __ moves stuff out of the cell.
 __ occurs when molecules are placed into vesicles and discharged from the cell only when the cell receives a specific stimulus (signal).
 The __ moves stuff into the cell to various compartments.
 The arrangement of the sugars is dependent on the _ _ of the enzymes
 SRP binding temporarily stops any further ___ ___
 __ happens continuously, taking molecules to the plasma membrane.
 The kinds of sugars and their order is precise on _.
 Most of the time the signal sequence is at the _ terminus of the nasenct peptide but sometimes it can be near the _ of the growing polypeptide
 Sequence of adding sugards for N-linked oligosaccharides
 If glycosylation continuously fails, degradation of protein is called _
 Encompasses those subcellular structures that are membrane bound and participate in production and delivery of materials within the cell and to the exterior of the cells.
 Phospholipids are made on the _ side of the ER by _ proteins
 Newly made phospholipids are carried to the _ _ in 'budded' vesicles
 Materials are shunted from one membrane compartment to another on tracks and are moved by ____.
 A sequence of amino acids, called __ that, when being made as a nascent polypeptide, direct the ribosome to attach to the ER.
 Most _ _ are made entirely in the _
 RER is especially well developed in cells that are highly __.

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