Geography Quiz / A2 Engineering Geology key terms

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Key terms in Engineering Geology for A2 OCR

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Key termsAnswer
The diagenetic process by which peat is turned to coal by the effects of heat and pressure during burial
The process in which plankton is converted into petroleum
A resource that is replenished by natural processes at a rate equal to or exceeding its rate of use
Insoluble products of chemical weathering
Large igneous intrusion below a volcano with a porphyritic texture
Sequence of increasing rank from peat to anthracite
The amount of metal in the average continental crust
Body of water behind a dam wall
The older rock surrounding an igneous intrusion
Where water is injected below or natural gas in injected above the oil to maintain the pressure
Water that washes onshore as a wave breaks
The surface separating unsaturated rock above from saturated rock below
Highly mechanised method of underground mining
Insoluble cap of iron oxides at the surface
Water retained in pore spaces of rocks below the water table
A layer of coal, usually 1 to 2m thick
The use of high-pressure water to dislodge material
The lowering of the water table in the vicinity of the well
Where coal-bearing strata outcrops at the surface
Amount of metal in the ore
Where oil initially gushes to the surface under natural pressure and is then pumped out
A low-value waste mineral
The name for the Carboniferous-age coal-bearing strata
The amount of a resource that can be extracted at a profit using existing technology
Where material is scraped or sucked from the sea bed
Waste rock piled up on the ground
Oxygen-poor conditions
Key termsAnswer
Occurs when ore minerals become separated and concentrated during cooling and crystallisation of magma
An impermeable rock that doesn't transmit water
When small amounts of metals are spread out around the ore deposit by surface processes
Fine-grained waste produced during mineral processing
The pressure at a point in a body of water due to the weight of an overlying column of water
A hot, aqueous fluid containing dissolved metals in solution
A body of porous and permeable rock capable of storing and yielding significant amounts of water
Where elements are dissolved from rocks and carried downwards in solution
A horizontal tunnel dug into a hillside
A resource that is used in such a way that it can continue being used in the future
Organic-rich mudstone/shale containing abundant plankton that formed in low energy, anoxic, marine conditions
The movement of petroleum from a source rock to a reservoir rock
Something that describes liquids that do not mix
Area of an aquifer open to the atmosphere allowing replenishment of water
Highly porous and permeable rock capable of storing and yielding significant amounts of petroleum
The removal of water from any source
Impermeable rock above the reservoir rock preventing further upwards migration of petroleum
The rate at which fluid flows through a rock
An accumulation of metal that may be economic to mine
A mineral containing valuable metal(s)
Occurs when metals are leached from surface rocks and precipitated just below the water table
This process occurs as minerals come out of solution
The process by which an ore mineral is reduced to the metal by heating with a reducing agent such as carbon
Structure that holds back water
Where coal-bearing strata is below the surface, overlain by younger cover rocks
The amount by which the metal is concentrated to make an ore deposit
Layer of dense minerals formed by gravity settling at the base of an intrusion
Key termsAnswer
Long-term weather conditions affecting an area
A borehole that is lined with a casing, which is producing water
An opencast mine for hard rocks
Formed when minerals precipitate in a fracture
The percentage of carbon in the coal
A large, synclinal, confined aquifer under hydrostatic pressure
Minimum grade that is economic to mine
Repeated cycle of sedimentation
When oil gushes uncontrollably to the surface
The height difference between the water table and the water level in the well
Energy extracted from hot subsurface rocks or water
It is drilled down into an aquifer
Process that moves sediment along the coast
The rock containing valuable metal(s) that is economic to mine
A geological situation that concentrates petroleum in one place
The volume of pore space in a rock
Vertical opening to an underground mine
A useful and valuable natural material
Fluid generated by water dissolving soluble chemicals from landfill waste
Oxygen-rich conditions
Releasing water stored behind a dam to turn a turbine to generate electricity
Red tropical soil made of hydrated iron and aluminium oxides
The difference in hydrostatic pressure between to points divided by the distance between them
An opencast mine for poorly consolidated material such as sand, gravel, clay and coal
Metal-laden solution produced by In situ or heap leaching
Mining from surface quarries

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