Geography Quiz / A2 Engineering Geology key terms

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Key terms in Engineering Geology for A2 OCR

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Key termsAnswer
Layer of dense minerals formed by gravity settling at the base of an intrusion
A hot, aqueous fluid containing dissolved metals in solution
Occurs when ore minerals become separated and concentrated during cooling and crystallisation of magma
Body of water behind a dam wall
The surface separating unsaturated rock above from saturated rock below
Amount of metal in the ore
The volume of pore space in a rock
Waste rock piled up on the ground
The lowering of the water table in the vicinity of the well
Insoluble products of chemical weathering
Water that washes onshore as a wave breaks
Metal-laden solution produced by In situ or heap leaching
Red tropical soil made of hydrated iron and aluminium oxides
Oxygen-poor conditions
Highly mechanised method of underground mining
The amount of metal in the average continental crust
Vertical opening to an underground mine
The amount by which the metal is concentrated to make an ore deposit
The height difference between the water table and the water level in the well
The process in which plankton is converted into petroleum
The difference in hydrostatic pressure between to points divided by the distance between them
Large igneous intrusion below a volcano with a porphyritic texture
A mineral containing valuable metal(s)
The movement of petroleum from a source rock to a reservoir rock
A large, synclinal, confined aquifer under hydrostatic pressure
The amount of a resource that can be extracted at a profit using existing technology
An impermeable rock that doesn't transmit water
Key termsAnswer
Structure that holds back water
The diagenetic process by which peat is turned to coal by the effects of heat and pressure during burial
Where material is scraped or sucked from the sea bed
This process occurs as minerals come out of solution
The name for the Carboniferous-age coal-bearing strata
Formed when minerals precipitate in a fracture
A low-value waste mineral
The use of high-pressure water to dislodge material
The percentage of carbon in the coal
A body of porous and permeable rock capable of storing and yielding significant amounts of water
The rock containing valuable metal(s) that is economic to mine
Fluid generated by water dissolving soluble chemicals from landfill waste
When oil gushes uncontrollably to the surface
Where oil initially gushes to the surface under natural pressure and is then pumped out
Repeated cycle of sedimentation
A horizontal tunnel dug into a hillside
Oxygen-rich conditions
Highly porous and permeable rock capable of storing and yielding significant amounts of petroleum
A resource that is used in such a way that it can continue being used in the future
An accumulation of metal that may be economic to mine
It is drilled down into an aquifer
Energy extracted from hot subsurface rocks or water
An opencast mine for poorly consolidated material such as sand, gravel, clay and coal
An opencast mine for hard rocks
A resource that is replenished by natural processes at a rate equal to or exceeding its rate of use
Fine-grained waste produced during mineral processing
Area of an aquifer open to the atmosphere allowing replenishment of water
Key termsAnswer
The older rock surrounding an igneous intrusion
When small amounts of metals are spread out around the ore deposit by surface processes
Long-term weather conditions affecting an area
The process by which an ore mineral is reduced to the metal by heating with a reducing agent such as carbon
A geological situation that concentrates petroleum in one place
Releasing water stored behind a dam to turn a turbine to generate electricity
Sequence of increasing rank from peat to anthracite
Process that moves sediment along the coast
The removal of water from any source
Minimum grade that is economic to mine
Impermeable rock above the reservoir rock preventing further upwards migration of petroleum
Water retained in pore spaces of rocks below the water table
Occurs when metals are leached from surface rocks and precipitated just below the water table
Mining from surface quarries
The rate at which fluid flows through a rock
Where elements are dissolved from rocks and carried downwards in solution
Something that describes liquids that do not mix
A useful and valuable natural material
A layer of coal, usually 1 to 2m thick
Where water is injected below or natural gas in injected above the oil to maintain the pressure
The pressure at a point in a body of water due to the weight of an overlying column of water
Organic-rich mudstone/shale containing abundant plankton that formed in low energy, anoxic, marine conditions
Where coal-bearing strata outcrops at the surface
A borehole that is lined with a casing, which is producing water
Insoluble cap of iron oxides at the surface
Where coal-bearing strata is below the surface, overlain by younger cover rocks

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Created Jun 7, 2015ReportNominate
Tags:Geology Quiz, a-level, ocr, revision

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