Geography Quiz / A2 Engineering Geology key terms

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Key terms in Engineering Geology for A2 OCR

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Key termsAnswer
A body of porous and permeable rock capable of storing and yielding significant amounts of water
Red tropical soil made of hydrated iron and aluminium oxides
The rate at which fluid flows through a rock
Repeated cycle of sedimentation
The volume of pore space in a rock
Releasing water stored behind a dam to turn a turbine to generate electricity
Long-term weather conditions affecting an area
Oxygen-rich conditions
The process in which plankton is converted into petroleum
Where water is injected below or natural gas in injected above the oil to maintain the pressure
Oxygen-poor conditions
The process by which an ore mineral is reduced to the metal by heating with a reducing agent such as carbon
The amount by which the metal is concentrated to make an ore deposit
Organic-rich mudstone/shale containing abundant plankton that formed in low energy, anoxic, marine conditions
The older rock surrounding an igneous intrusion
Occurs when ore minerals become separated and concentrated during cooling and crystallisation of magma
Layer of dense minerals formed by gravity settling at the base of an intrusion
Process that moves sediment along the coast
A horizontal tunnel dug into a hillside
The amount of a resource that can be extracted at a profit using existing technology
Waste rock piled up on the ground
Vertical opening to an underground mine
A borehole that is lined with a casing, which is producing water
This process occurs as minerals come out of solution
Where coal-bearing strata outcrops at the surface
A layer of coal, usually 1 to 2m thick
When small amounts of metals are spread out around the ore deposit by surface processes
Key termsAnswer
Large igneous intrusion below a volcano with a porphyritic texture
The name for the Carboniferous-age coal-bearing strata
The difference in hydrostatic pressure between to points divided by the distance between them
A useful and valuable natural material
Where coal-bearing strata is below the surface, overlain by younger cover rocks
The rock containing valuable metal(s) that is economic to mine
When oil gushes uncontrollably to the surface
A mineral containing valuable metal(s)
Impermeable rock above the reservoir rock preventing further upwards migration of petroleum
Mining from surface quarries
Occurs when metals are leached from surface rocks and precipitated just below the water table
It is drilled down into an aquifer
The removal of water from any source
Fine-grained waste produced during mineral processing
The surface separating unsaturated rock above from saturated rock below
Where oil initially gushes to the surface under natural pressure and is then pumped out
Where material is scraped or sucked from the sea bed
Body of water behind a dam wall
An opencast mine for hard rocks
Amount of metal in the ore
Area of an aquifer open to the atmosphere allowing replenishment of water
Where elements are dissolved from rocks and carried downwards in solution
Water retained in pore spaces of rocks below the water table
Something that describes liquids that do not mix
The use of high-pressure water to dislodge material
Formed when minerals precipitate in a fracture
A resource that is replenished by natural processes at a rate equal to or exceeding its rate of use
Key termsAnswer
A low-value waste mineral
A resource that is used in such a way that it can continue being used in the future
Sequence of increasing rank from peat to anthracite
The pressure at a point in a body of water due to the weight of an overlying column of water
Structure that holds back water
An opencast mine for poorly consolidated material such as sand, gravel, clay and coal
A large, synclinal, confined aquifer under hydrostatic pressure
An accumulation of metal that may be economic to mine
Highly mechanised method of underground mining
The movement of petroleum from a source rock to a reservoir rock
A hot, aqueous fluid containing dissolved metals in solution
The diagenetic process by which peat is turned to coal by the effects of heat and pressure during burial
A geological situation that concentrates petroleum in one place
The amount of metal in the average continental crust
Metal-laden solution produced by In situ or heap leaching
The lowering of the water table in the vicinity of the well
Fluid generated by water dissolving soluble chemicals from landfill waste
Insoluble cap of iron oxides at the surface
Minimum grade that is economic to mine
Highly porous and permeable rock capable of storing and yielding significant amounts of petroleum
An impermeable rock that doesn't transmit water
The height difference between the water table and the water level in the well
Insoluble products of chemical weathering
The percentage of carbon in the coal
Water that washes onshore as a wave breaks
Energy extracted from hot subsurface rocks or water

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