Geography Quiz / A2 Engineering Geology key terms

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QUIZ: Key terms in Engineering Geology for A2 OCR

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Key termsAnswer
The process in which plankton is converted into petroleum
The volume of pore space in a rock
The lowering of the water table in the vicinity of the well
Impermeable rock above the reservoir rock preventing further upwards migration of petroleum
The diagenetic process by which peat is turned to coal by the effects of heat and pressure during burial
Energy extracted from hot subsurface rocks or water
Structure that holds back water
Large igneous intrusion below a volcano with a porphyritic texture
Where elements are dissolved from rocks and carried downwards in solution
Layer of dense minerals formed by gravity settling at the base of an intrusion
The older rock surrounding an igneous intrusion
Area of an aquifer open to the atmosphere allowing replenishment of water
An opencast mine for hard rocks
Long-term weather conditions affecting an area
The removal of water from any source
Organic-rich mudstone/shale containing abundant plankton that formed in low energy, anoxic, marine conditions
The difference in hydrostatic pressure between to points divided by the distance between them
The rock containing valuable metal(s) that is economic to mine
Amount of metal in the ore
Where material is scraped or sucked from the sea bed
Water retained in pore spaces of rocks below the water table
Minimum grade that is economic to mine
Body of water behind a dam wall
Repeated cycle of sedimentation
An accumulation of metal that may be economic to mine
A useful and valuable natural material
Where water is injected below or natural gas in injected above the oil to maintain the pressure
Key termsAnswer
Where coal-bearing strata is below the surface, overlain by younger cover rocks
A hot, aqueous fluid containing dissolved metals in solution
Insoluble cap of iron oxides at the surface
Process that moves sediment along the coast
When small amounts of metals are spread out around the ore deposit by surface processes
The rate at which fluid flows through a rock
Occurs when metals are leached from surface rocks and precipitated just below the water table
Red tropical soil made of hydrated iron and aluminium oxides
It is drilled down into an aquifer
Releasing water stored behind a dam to turn a turbine to generate electricity
A resource that is used in such a way that it can continue being used in the future
Highly mechanised method of underground mining
A horizontal tunnel dug into a hillside
When oil gushes uncontrollably to the surface
Water that washes onshore as a wave breaks
Vertical opening to an underground mine
Waste rock piled up on the ground
The name for the Carboniferous-age coal-bearing strata
A large, synclinal, confined aquifer under hydrostatic pressure
A low-value waste mineral
An impermeable rock that doesn't transmit water
The use of high-pressure water to dislodge material
A layer of coal, usually 1 to 2m thick
The movement of petroleum from a source rock to a reservoir rock
The amount of metal in the average continental crust
Oxygen-poor conditions
A body of porous and permeable rock capable of storing and yielding significant amounts of water
Key termsAnswer
The percentage of carbon in the coal
Insoluble products of chemical weathering
The pressure at a point in a body of water due to the weight of an overlying column of water
A borehole that is lined with a casing, which is producing water
A resource that is replenished by natural processes at a rate equal to or exceeding its rate of use
The surface separating unsaturated rock above from saturated rock below
The height difference between the water table and the water level in the well
Mining from surface quarries
Sequence of increasing rank from peat to anthracite
The process by which an ore mineral is reduced to the metal by heating with a reducing agent such as carbon
Fine-grained waste produced during mineral processing
Where oil initially gushes to the surface under natural pressure and is then pumped out
A geological situation that concentrates petroleum in one place
Where coal-bearing strata outcrops at the surface
Occurs when ore minerals become separated and concentrated during cooling and crystallisation of magma
Metal-laden solution produced by In situ or heap leaching
Oxygen-rich conditions
Something that describes liquids that do not mix
Highly porous and permeable rock capable of storing and yielding significant amounts of petroleum
A mineral containing valuable metal(s)
The amount by which the metal is concentrated to make an ore deposit
An opencast mine for poorly consolidated material such as sand, gravel, clay and coal
Formed when minerals precipitate in a fracture
Fluid generated by water dissolving soluble chemicals from landfill waste
This process occurs as minerals come out of solution
The amount of a resource that can be extracted at a profit using existing technology

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