Science Quiz / Surgery Midterm 1

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Can you name the Surgery Midterm 1

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Which of the following suture materials would not have lost half of its tensile strength by 2 weeks afterwards?
a)chromic gut b)vicryl rapide c)biosyn d)monocryl e)none of the above 
Which of the following suture materials would you associate with the highest relative strength?
a)maxon b)dexon c)monocryl d)PDS e)polysorb 
Which of the following suture materials is not a monofilament?
a)PDS b)maxon c)biosyn d)vicryl rapide e)monocryl 
Approximately how heavy would an animal have to be before you'd require 3-0 rather than 4-0 skin sutures?
a)2.5 kg b)35 kg c)13 kg d)30 kg e)50 kg 
Which of the following suture materials would not be used for subcuticular closure?
a)Vicryl b)PDS c)monocryl d)biosyn e)Dexon 
Which of the following tissues would you require 3-0 rather than 4-0 to close if the animal was around 25 kg?
a)uterus b)ovarian pedicle c)intestines d)bladder e)subcutaneous tissue 
What suffix refers to the cutting of a structure?
 
What suffix refers to the removal or resection of a portion of tissue?
 
What suffix refers to plastic surgery, or implantation of artificial prosthesis?
 
What suffix refers to the the creation of a permanent or temporary adhesion between two structures?
 
What suffix refers to the puncture of a cavity or structure?
 
Which of the following suture materials is is absorbed by a method other than simple hydrolysis?
a)biosn b)catgut c)vicryl d)monocryl e)PDS 
Name a sign of toxic changes in neutrophils that might alert one to systemic infection?
 
Name the two patterns that are used to close hollow organs like stomach, uterus or bladder?
____ and ____ 
When performing a cranial abdominal incision, this structure should be removed to improve visualization?
Found between xiphoid and umbilicus, attached to body wall. Especially key in overweight patients. 
This surgical tool is best for abdominal retraction.
 
When closing the abdomen, this is the holding layer.
 
Name an indication for closure of the linea alba with polypropylene over biosyn, PDS, etc.
 
True or false: you would perform gastric surgery before intestinal surgery if both were required in one animal?
 
True or false: you should avoid taking full thickness bites of stomach.
 
What would the second layer of gastric closure be?
 
What condition is incisional gastropexy perfromed to prevent recurrence of?
 
Name three possible techniques for obtaining a liver biopsy?
 
 
 
True or false: Guillotine biopsies can be performed on lymph nodes as well as liver?
 
True or false: the ligation of multiple hilar vessels simultaneously is encouraged to save time when performing complete splenectomy?
 
On what border is the intestine most likely to leak after anastomosis?
 
If the bowel lumen is small, you might close in this manner to prevent stricture formation?
 
What is the layer of strength when closing intestines?
 
After taking an intestinal biopsy and anastomosing, what would you do with the sites before closing?
 
When performing intestinal resection and anastomosis, this border should be longer.
 
Resection of 70-80% or more of bowel carries a poor prognosis and causes this condition.
 
Which of the following sutures would you NOT use to close intestines?
a)biosyn b)chromic gut c)PDS d)maxon e)none of the above 
True or false: you can choose whether or not to include mucosa in your anastomisis of intestines?
 
True or false: it is best to close intestines in one continuous suture line?
 
Place the 'o clocks' in order of interrupted suture pattern if 12 o clock is antimesenteric?
12, 9, 3, 5, 6, 7. Separate them by spaces and commas as you go. 
After anastomosis, what must you close to prevent incarceration of intestinal loops?
 
As an alternative to omentalization, this may be performed with tenuous enterotomy sites?
 
When closing uneven sizes of intestinal lument ogether, the _____ lumen should be cut at a more acute angle.
 
Which of the following is NOT an indication that conservative management of a small radioopaque foreign body must be abandoned in favour of surgery?
a)the foreign body is stationary for 6 hours b)vomiting is persistent c)deterioration of clinical status d)the foreign body has not reached the colon within 18 hours 
True or false: a gastric foreign body is considered a surgical emergency?
 
Where is a linear foreign body most likely to become anchored in a cat? In a dog?
 
 
What is the term for the accordion like pattern that forms around a linear foreign body in the intestines?
Due to peristalsis 
Which of the following is not a colour which indicates resection anastomosis is definitely necessary?
a)green b)purple c) gray d)black e)all of the above indicate devitalization 
True or false: swelling of the wall is by itself an indication for resection anastomosis of intestine?
 
How might you induce a peristaltic wave to check vitality of intestines?
 
True or false: you should incise just aboral to a foreign body to remove it?
 
What is the most common complication after intestinal foreign body removal surgery?
 
This less common complication of GI foreign body surgery is typically noted within a day, and is usually managed successfully with prokinetics.
 
This antibiotic is theoretically indicated for surgery of the stomach and proximal intestine. This second one for lower SI and colon.
 
 
An incision for cystotomy should extend back from slightly caudal to this first structure, to the level of this second structure.
 
 
Aim from the apex of the bladder towards thi when draining it with a syringe and needle?
 
True or false: a urinary catheter should be placed pre-operatively or intra-operatively in male dogs during cystotomy?
 
This may be used instead of forceps to retrieve urinary calculi?
 
True or false: bladders must always be closed in two layers, with the outer being inverting?
 
Which of the following suture materials would be an appropriate choice for bladder closure?
a)monocryl b)dexon c)biosyn d)chromic gut e)all of the above f)a and c g)a and d 
What is indicated post-operatively after peforming a cystotomy for urinary calculi?
 
Which technique is preferred for castration?
In reference to the vaginal tunic... 
True or false: prior to castration the scrotum must be carefully cleaned and clipped?
 
What is manually separated after incising the tunica vaginalis?
 
How many carmalts should be applied before ligation with absorbable sutures, when castrating?
 
What, if anything, is done to vaginal tunic after castration in dogs?
 
What pattern is used to oppose the three edges of subcutaneous tissues after castration?
 
Which induction agent would you associate with the following properties?
May cause reduced BP and CO, arrhythmias, apnea, hypoventilation, excitement, irritation if given perivascular. Multiple doses prolong recovery. It is very cheap and has a short onset, and is unavailable in the USA, as they might tend to use it on people. 
Which induction agent has the following properties?
Causes sedation, hypotension, reduction in CO and HR, apnea on induction, reduced minute ventilation. This is very safe for liver disease patients, has a high therapeutic index, a rapid onset, a short duration. It is non-irritating if injected perivascular, and is somewhat costly compared to others. 
This induction agent has the following properties?
Mid range price, two mixed together in the same syringe, takes 30 seconds to see effect. Unlike others is a sympathomimetic, increasing HR, BP and CO. May still see myocardial depression in sick compromised animals, arrhythmia, salivation, and possibly seizures? 
synthetic, water soluble neuroactive steroid derivative of progesterone, which works on gaba a receptors. Pre medication is recommended to reduce excitement. They come up very quickly, often very excited. Expensive. Decreases BP, respiration rate, minute ventilation and PaO2. Increases heart rate. Non-irritating perivascular, minimal cardiorespiratory effect, no significant hepatic or renal effects. 
Hypotension in small animals is defined as below __ mmHg MAP or below __ mmHg SAP
 
 
How many squirts of lidocaine spray might you give a 5kg cat before you'd be concerned about toxicity?
 
This local anesthetic lasts approximately 4x as long as lidocaine, and takes twice as long for onset. It may be cardiotoxic, so aspiration is mandatory.
 
The general rule for lidocaine and the other local anesthetic of choice is ___ml/kg total volume.
 
This nerve is accessible through a foramen above the 3rd premolar in dogs, the 2nd in cats, where the zygomatic arch meats the maxilla.
Blocks all maxillary teeth in cats, and all feeling rostral to the 4th premolar in dogs. 
This nerve is usually only blocked in dogs, is found behind the last molar.
Blocks the rest of their maxilla, including 4th premolar, molars, and soft and hard palate caudal to the premolar. 
How many mental foramina are there? What is the position of the one you want to block?
 
Just caudal to the labial frenulum. 
A mental nerve block blocks sensory innervation to the mandibular incisors and canines, and soft and hard tissues rostral to this premolar in the dog?
the 1st? 2nd? 3rd? 4th? 
Halfway between the caudal curve of the mandible and the angular process you can find this foramen.
Usually injected near the teeth under the tongue. In dog and cat, this will block sensory innervation to all mandibular teeth, including hard and soft mandibular tissues. 
For procedures distal tot he elbow, you might block this?
 
Which of the following is NOT an indication for an epidural?
a)surgical procedures caudal to umbilicus b)front limb amputation c)removal of large cutaneous masses d)thoracotomies e)pancreatitis f)aseptic peritonitis g)all of the above are indications for this 
With a mandibular nerve block, these nerves might also become blocked with improper needle direction?
Either one will reveal both. Hint: Tongue chewing is the expected side effect? 
These three nerves must be blocked for digital surgeries?
___, ____. ___ 
When performing thoracotomy, attending to rib fractures, or for other thoracic procedures, block _ intercostal spaces cranial and _ caudal to incision site.
 
 
Tachycardia in the dog is a HR greater than this many bpm
 
Tachycardia in the horse is defined as above __ bpm. In the cow? In the cat?
 
 
 
What animal would be considered bradycardic if it had below 90-110 heart bpm?
 
110-120 bpm is the minimum below which a __ would be bradycardic?
 
Under this many bpm a large dog would be bradycardic.
 
What is the maintenance rate for fluids in mL/kg/hr?
 
True or false: a hypotensive patient is not always hypovolemic?
 
The maximum rate of crystalloid administration in mL/kg/hr is? Colloid?
 
 
Why should alpha agonists be avoided in neonates?
 
What song should you throw on if you can't remember how many pumps per minute for CPR?
 
If a patient is ___ and _______, you should wait no more than 5-10 seconds assessing them before starting CPR?
 
Barrel chested dogs get compressed over the sternum, and deep narrow-chested breeds over the heart. In both cases this is a _____ pump.
 
Most dogs are compressed over the widest part of their chest. What kind of pump is this?
 
What fraction of the thorax should be compressed before full recoil?
_ out of _ 
How many compressions per minute?
 
How many short 1 second inspirations per minute should occur when bagging?
 
How many minutes of compression per cycle? (Before switching off)
 
When performing mouth to snout ventilation, what is the ratio of compressions to breaths?
__ to __ 
How often should low dose epinephrine (1:10 000) be given in early cpr?
answer in minutes 
After how long is CPR considered prolonged, for purposes of giving high dose (1:1000) epinephrine?
 
You might give this drug once during CPR in place of the second dose of epinephrine?
 
You should give this drug for asystole or pulseless electrical activity?
 
Either of these drugs might be given for ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia?
You could also do defibrillation for these things. 
You would only use this drug to treat torsades de pointes
 
This drug is used for opioid toxicity or recent opioid administration during cpr?
 
How many x the standard dose would you give for epinephrine, vasopressin or atropine if you had to give intra-tracheal?
 
If you hulk smash a patient with your fist right over the heart, this is not surprisingly malpractice. What is it?
You do this when patient is in ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia, and defibrillation is not available, not whenever you feel like it. Otherwise it IS malpractice. 
What does ROSC stand for in CPR?
 
What artery may be used for the doppler during CPR?
 
If there are signs of cerebral edema, what might you administer?
 
Through which opening would you collect cerebrospinal fluids?
Anatomical lnadmarks include the wings of the atlas and the occipital crest. 
True or false: for a transtracheal wash, you should inject the fluid in through the cricothyroid ligament, then quickly withdraw it between two lower tracheal rings?
 
The tube for nasogastric intubation should end at the level of the _th intercostal space.
 
In numerical order _ and _ are the positions on the clock of the anal sacs?
 
6 to 40 breaths per minute would be appropriate in this species
 
4-12 breaths per minute, up from 6-20 as a pediatric, is good for this species?
 
How many breaths per minute for a cat under anesthesia?
 

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