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This classification of 'bony fish' includes over 25000 species, and together they are the most commonly kept lab animals in the world (by the #s).
 
Name a cause of waterlogging (edema) of the skin, which is not related to abrasions or wounds?
 
How many cells separate the water from the blood in gills?
 
True or false: filamentous bacteria in gill tissue are most likelyt o cause direct damage, necrosis and fusion?
 
In higher teleosts, the kidneys are paired. In ______ (a subgroup) the kidney is always single (fused).
This would include the primary food source of West Coast tribes such as the Haida 
This specialized organ lies ventral to the kidney in most fish (absent in some).
Pathology of this organ would tend to produce fish that list to one side, or otherwise cannot swim or float properly in the water column. 
True or false: fish have no lymphatic system, but the spleen is still a lymphoid organ?
 
True or false: Like that of a mammal, a fish heart has 4 chambers?
 
True or false: as in mammals, the liver is a filtration organ of fish?
 
This layer of fish skin is approximately 1 micrometer thick, mainly mucopolysaccharide in composition.
Significant immune function due to presence of lysozyme, complement proteins, immunoglobulins, FFAs, etc. 
True or false: the epidermis of fish does not cover their fins?
 
The name for a fish's basic parenchymal epithelial cell.
Other contents of epidermal layer include mucus cells (goblet cells), club cells (very large, absent in salmonids), granule cells, lymphocytes and macrophages. 
Which of the following is not a part of a fish's dermal layer?
a)upper stratum spongiosum b)lower stratum compactum c)secondary vasculature d)lower stratum spongiosum 
These cells in the stratum spongiosum secrete melanin?
 
True or false: all fish are scaled?
 
What structure behind the eye appears eosinophilic on histology, and functions to trap bacteria, air bubles, etc?
 
What is the colloquial term for multiple focal ulcerations of the lateral line system?
Often caused by spironucleus spp. 
The modified scales of the lateral line are lined with a sensory epithelium called _____, and are mainly important for sensing ______ ____.
 
 
A _____ volume of water is generally better because alterations occur more ______
 
 
In the nitrogen cycle of water, _____ (product of protein waste) is oxidized to _____ which is oxidized to _____.
Please list with commas in between in correct order ____, ____, _____ 
Compared to fresh water, which typically only requires ammonia and/or nigtrate test kits, salt water needs these also?
_____ and _____. 
When fish indicate to their owner that oxygen levels are low by desperately gasping at the surface, this is called?
 
This disease of fish is analagous to the bends suffered by scuba divers?
 
Ammonia is converted to Nitrites by ______ spp, then nitrite to nitrate by ______ spp.
 
 
True or false: unionized ammonia (NH3) is far more toxic than NH4+, and will be higher with higher calcium levels?
 
True or false: nitrates have no negative effect whatsoever on fish, but may promote algae blooms?
 
True or false: small breaks in fish epithelium are typically resolved quickly through the formation of granulation tissue?
 
What is the more common name of digenetic metacercaria? (melanin accumulation characteristic)
For fans of muppet treasure island, you should be aware that '...[this disease]'s A PIRATE'S DEATH SENTENCE, and they'll be COMING TO KILL ME... TONIGHT!' -Billy Bones 
True or false: gill surface area may be 10x that of body surface area?
 
Greater efficiency of teleost respiration compared to mammals is necessitated because air contains __x more oxygen than water?
 
What two pumps form part of the double pump system to pass water over gills?
_____ and _____. One is the closure of the mouth, one is an expansion of a cavity distal to the gills, sucking it in. 
Blood flows in the opposite direction of water within gill tissue. This causes ____ ____ exchange.
 
True or false: most nitrogenous wastes are excreted in fish's urine?
 
There are 4 pairs of ___ ____ in the gills, with 2 diverigng rows of filaments from each, whcih support the ____ (true respiratory tissue)
 
 
What is the name for the 'flap' over the gills?
 
True or false: fish kidneys produce a very dilute urine in greater volumes per kg than mammals?
The kidney(s) is/are associated with endocrine, immunological and hematopoietic function. 
In order, these are the four things venous blood passes through in the fish heart?
 
 
 
 
Restrictive lesions of the heart are always important in fish, because they rely on ___ ____ rather than heart rate to increase CO?
 
Multiple ____ _____ (blind ending finger like diverticula after the stomach) are present in most species of fish?
 
These two organs may be fused in many fish?
_____ and _____ (think accessory GI) 
You ought to treat with products containing sodium thiosulfate or similar to remove this irritant from city water?
 
Retinal damage and blindness may occur with excess ___ (measurement of light) in some species?
My favourite league of legends character! : D 
Probably the single most important factor for fish farming or keeping in terms of water quality is ______.
 
You should not allow significant temperature fluctuations, but slight _____ tend to be better tolerated than ______.
_____, _____ 
Which of the following is not characteristic of causes of gas bubble disease to develop?
a)Supersaturation of water with gas b)heavy rainfall c)downstream of a dam d)extremely likely in marine environments 
Cadmium and copper cause lamellar fusion and edema as early as 24 hours after exposure. ___ causes similar things plus scoliosis?
 
True or false: sunburn can occur in fish?
 
50-150 ppm would be considered _____ hardness of water?
 
Soft water is generally _____ on the pH scale, hard ______.
_____, _____ 
One benefit of hard water is ____ ____ tend to precipitate out of solution
 
The safe range of pH for most fish is _-_, but 6.5-8.5 is maximum productivity.
 
Methemoglobin due to nitrite concentration int he water is also called ___ ____ disease.
 
Reddening at the base of fins and scale pockets is typical of fish with ____ ____ of any cause?
 
Infections with this bacteria are particularly problematic in cyprinids (koi/golfish) in spring with rising water temp?
Internal petechial hemorrhage, macrophages full of rods, ulcerations of skin, multi-organ necrosis. 
This condition is caused by intracellular bacterial microcolonies. ('chlamydia-like organisms')
 
M. marinum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, all cause a condition known as?
look at the genus name... 
Mycobacteriosis is characterized by chronic ulcerative or proliferative lesions that don't heal with treatment. What's a differential?
 
True or false: you should assume all tanks are infected with mycobacteria?
 
This disease may only occur above 15*C, causes cotton wool, ulcerative or necrotic lesions, oral ones particularly fatal.
Filamentous gram negative bacteria. 
White spot is a name for disease caused by ______ _____ or cryptocaryon irritans in marine fish.
i will accept the short name. It's pretty much impossible to spell. 
Granulomatous hepatitis is associated with?
In mammals the lesionst end to be paucibacilliary, but there will be numerous rods inside the granulomas of fish. 
What is the zoonotic manifestation of mycobacteriosis in immunocompromised humans called?
Small raised erythematous lesion. 
This bacteria can cause typical bacterial septicemia, and sometimes granulomatous inflammation, making it a rule out for mycobacteriosis?
Other signs might include exopthalmos and ulcerative dermatitis, or more rarely hypopyon. 
What is the most effective method for a fast diagnosis of columnaris disease?
 
True or false: in Icthyophthirius multifilis infection, each white spot represents hundreds of organisms maturing in the epithelium?
 
Ich infections do not respond to treatment, but immature tomites are vulnerable. This makes ich the exception to this rule?
 
What property of protozoa makes fresh water dips for marine fish or salt water dips for fresh water fish effective?
 
What shape is the macronucleus of ich trophonts?
 
Fill in the ich life cycle blank (this is the encysted tank part vulnerable to treatment)
Infect fish,emerge as trophont, divide as tomont, turn into _____, infect fish again 
Trypanoplasma and cryptobia are both ___ parasites. _____ is a serious problem in African cichlids, often causing necrotising gastritis.
 
 
What is the causative organism of hole in the head disease?
 
This is an uncommon cause of disease, resembling fungi, forming xenomas, with no effective treatment.
Severe inflammation once xenoma ruptures. 
Large infestations with ______ trematodes cause skin damage and death.
Characterized by fearsome haptor (tail end). 
This disease is a common cause of concern for inexperienced aquarists, but is harmless.
Metacercaria of digenes. 
These fungi are normally considered secondary invaders, but this is not always true.
Most common genus for freshwater mycoses. 
Spring viremia of carp is caused by this species, exotic to north america until 2002.
Viremia and wdespread tissue necrosis. 
The most commonly recognized virus of aquarium fish is often self-limiting.
White proliferative growths due to cytomegaly of fibroblasts restricted to fins. 
This virus results in plaque-like epidermal hyperplasia, epithelium covering individual scales often affected.
A herpes virus is likely causative. You wouldn't know that from the common name though. 'A ___ on both your houses!' (Mercutio, Romeo and Juliet) 
True or false: most fungal infections of fish require the host to be immunocompromised?
 
Deficiency in these substances can cause cataracts in salmonids?
 
True or false: for best results with a treatment tank, make sure you invest in a good carbon filter, as you would with a large display tank?
 
Ich is the main exception to this rule, other agents include amyloodinium and monogenes, as well as cryptocaryon.
 
True or false: columnaris is both topical and systemic in many cases, and requires topical and systemic treatment.
 
True or false: systemic bacterial infections often contraindicate oral treatmetns because sick fish will often not eat?
 
Which of the following is at topical/bath treatment?
a)dylox b)hydrogen peroxide c)nitrofurazone d)formaldehyde e)all of the above 
True or false: nephrotoxicity is the primary contraindication for parenteral systemic treatments in fish?
 
True or false: columnaris and mycobacterium vaccines are available for aquarium fish?
 
In general, _____ require lower doses of anesthetic than higher teleosts?
 
Loss of jaw tone is an indication of ______ anethesia, as are slow branchial movements and lack of response.
 
Light to deep anesthesia may be indicated by partial ____ __ _____, increased and then reduced ventilation.
 
True or false: light anesthesia would be required for blood sampling, skin scraping or gill biopsy?
 
Which of the following would you prefer least for bath anesthetic agent?
a)benzocaine b)clove oil c)2-phenoxyethanol d)carbon dioxide e)MS-222 
When performing a skin scrape, your direction should go ____ the scales
 
When sampling blood, you usually take from the ____ vein.
 

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