Science Quiz / Equine Medicine midterm 1

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Can you name the Equine Medicine midterm 1

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In which direction does the cervical esophagus usually course? (In addition to dorsally over the larynx)
The cervical region is 50% of the total length of the esophagus. 
At the level of this vertebra the thoracic esophagus once again heads dorsally?
 
What layer is absent from the esophagus, present in most tubular segments of the GI?
 
Name the four layers from the inside to the out (esophagus)?
__, ___, ___, ___ 
The stomach is predominantly on the left side of the abdomen, except this section, on the right?
 
This ligament attaches the duodenum to the transverse colon, at the junction of the duodenum and the jejunum?
 
On the antimesenteric side of the ileum, this fold becomes continuous with the dorsal taenial band of the cecum?
 
This is the term for sacculations of bowel found in the cecum, RVC, RDC and small colon?
 
These are longitudinal bands of muscle associated with the cecum and large bowel?
 
After the cecum, the next segment of bowel is the ____ ____ ____ when ends at the _____ flexure?
 
 
Continuing from the last question, the next segment is the ____ _____ ____ which ends at the _____ flexure?
 
 
This next segment, continuing right along, has 1 taenial band on the mesenteric aspect?
 
The right dorsal colon is the final segment and it has this many taenial bands?
 
How many taenial bands in the RVC, LVC and cecum?
 
How many taenial bands in the small colon?
 
When performing esophagoscopy, it is better to observe when you are _______ the scope?
Refers to directionality. 
If you suspect esophageal rupture, you would use an aqueous based contrast agent rather than ____ paste for passive positive contrast?
 
This is the most common esophageal disorder of horses?
 
Chest radiographs may be indicated to check for this common sequelus to the aforementioned most common esophageal disorder?
 
If you suspect that esophageal rupture occured over this many hours ago, you should expose it and allow 2nd intention healing?
Before this many hours have elapsed you may attempt to suture. 
Which of the following is a complication of esophageal rupture?
a)Horner's syndrome b)jugular thrombosis c)carotid artery rupture d)pleuritis e)all of the above 
Name a DDx for esophageal obstruction?
 
An esophageal ring or web involves the mucosa and submucosa and is a type _ esophageal stricture.
 
If only the adventitia and muscularis are involved, the stricture is?
 
Type 3 esophageal strictures involve all 4 layers. What are they also called?
 
This surgical treatment will only work on type II stricture?
 
There are two types of esophageal diverticulum. Name them.
This type is caused by protrusion of mucosa and submucosa through a defect in the musculature, due to external trauma or impaction. They carry a risk of obstruction and rupture, and should be surgically repaired. 
This type results from esophagostomy, secondary to contraction of periesophageal fibrous scar tissue, causing outward traction and tenting outwards of all layers of the esophageal wall. 
This kind of radiography is best for idnetifying defects in the mucosa?
 
Name a cause of choke?
 
What colour material is likely regurgitated with esophageal choke?
 
What is another word for ptyalism?
 
True or false: For a food impaction choke, you should just push the impaction out of place with a nasogastric tube?
 
You may treat an esophageal stricture by surgically converting it into this?
 
Name a cause of 'false colic'?
 
True or false: vomiting is a sign of severe colic?
 
How many beats per minute is a normal pulse for horses?
 
If examining a horse per rectum it is important to warn the client of this risk?
 
These structures are found at 4 and 8 o clock in the male horse rectum.
Hint: not anal glands. This is not dog. 
Over this many litres of reflux is abnormal when passing a nasogastric tube with colic.
This indicates the tube should stay in place. 
List the alpha 2 agonists you might use to medicate a colic-y horse in increasing potency?
 
This is the most commonly used NSAID for colicy horses?
 
This proecedure is only very rarely performed on colicy horses, and only wiht massive abdominal distension?
 
True or false: needles can be used to perform abdominal paracenthesis in foals?
 
Smelly bloody brown fluid on paracenthesis would indicate what?
 
This is a risk you run when you treat a dehydrated horse with NSAIDs.
 
Which of the following is not a reason to decide on an exploratory laparotomy for your colic case?
a)intractable pain b)mild abdominal distension c)abnormal rectal finding d)progressively increasing heart rate e)moderate changes in blood work 
Mineral oil will not penetrate a severe impaction, but this laxative will.
With a complete obstruction a cathartic might risk rupture... 
What is the most common form of colic?
Mild to moderate intermittent pain, normal to hypermotile peristalsis, normal or mild elevated HR, RR, feces normal to loose, MM normal, rectal exam normal, no gastric reflux. 
What is the most common site for an impaction?
 
Which of the following is NOT a predisposing factor for impaction?
a)decreased water intake b)exercise in a competitive setting c)eating sand d)lack of exercise e)none of the above 
If protein appears on abdominocentesis, along with white blood cells, you have severe distension. With ____ you see rbcs and bacteria, with ____ _____ you also see plant material.
 
 
Maintenance hyration in a 450kg horse is how many L of water?
 
A recently hospitalized horse presents with subtle colic signs and has a tight band and mass on the right side upon rectal. You supect?
 
This type of colic is predisposed by highly fermentable food in spring and summer, frosted food in winter, cribbing or working soon after eating.
Excessive gas formation, leading to distension and pain. Normal to decreased feces. May be hypomotile or hypermotile, normal to elevated HR and RR, mild to severe pain and distension. 
Miniature horses and ponies are predisposed to this inspissated hard fecal blockage of the small colon?
 
Aside from rhodococcal pneumonia, this is another risk of sandy paddock soils?
 
This kind of impaction can only occur in foals 24-48 hours after birth, more often in colts?
Treatment is an enema with mineral oil or soapy water, sometimes acetylcysteine 
A partial occlusion is _____ or _________, whereas a complete occlusion is ______.
____ or ____ 
 
Rotation on the mesenteric portion of the bowel leading to strangulation is referred to as?
 
Rotation on the long axis of the bowel causing strangulation is referred to as?
 
If bowel is trapped in an internal or external hernia, it is this, whether or not it is strangulated?
 
True or false: tympanic colic may cause dyspnea?
 
This kind of a benign mass may seem quite malicious when it develops in a pedunculated manner off the mesentery and strangles bowel?
 
True or false: most congenital hernias in foals resolve spontaneously by 3-4 months of age?
 
Herniation through this opening rarely occurs in horses younger than 7 and may rupture the portal vein or caudal vena cava?
 
True or false: diaphragmatic hernias in the horse are usually traumatic, and carry a good prognosis with surgery?
 
The maximum percent of small intestine that can be resected?
 
The maximum percent of large colon that can be removed?
 
Once again, in an intussusception, the invaginated segment is called the _____ and the distal segment on the outside is _______.
 
 
A large migration of bacteria through the bowel due to strangulation can lead to this complication.
 
This ligament runs between the splenic base and the left kidney, and commonly traps the left dorsal coloN?
 
Which of the following would you not likely associate with acute gastric dilation in the horse?
a)legumes b)grain overload c)rapidly fermentable foods d)too much warm water e)none of the above 
This is a non-infectious disease of equids of unknown etioogy restricted in occurence to the british isles and sweden?
Patchy sweating, severe abdominal pain, muscle tremors, absent borborygmi, depression, high heart rate, gastric distension adn rupture common, greenish mucinous watery regurgitation. 
What grade is a rectal tear of the muscular layer causing prolapse of mucosa and submucosa?
 
What grade is a rectal tear of all layers?
 
What grade is a rectal tear of mucosa and submucosa only?
 
what grade is a rectal tear of all but the serosa?
 
Approximately what % of normal ceco-colic flora are anaerobic?
 
What is the cardinal problem with undifferentiated colitis?
 
Which of the following would you not associate with endotoxemia secondary to undifferentiated colitis?
a)increased capillary permeability b)thrombosis c)coagulopathy d)laminitis e)none of the above 
Which of the following causes of acute diarrhea is not accompanied by a correct percentage?
Salmonella 1-2% of OVC cases, clostridium difficile 20%, C perfringens 20%, potomac horse fever 1%, cyathostomiasis under 1%, lawsonia intracellularis 1-2%, unknown 30% 
True or false: C. difficile is a normal part of GI flora of horses?
 
Toxin _ of C difficile is enterotoxic, toxin _ is cytotoxic
_, _ 
True or false: C perfringens can be a normal part of GI flora?
 
What is the causative organism of Potomac Horse Fever? What is the most high incidence complication?
Infects monocytes, macrophages and intestinal crypt cells. Seasonal distribution, most prevalent in June-September. 
 
Which of the following is not a clinical sign of endotoxemia?
a) colic b)tachypnea c)tachycardia d)pyrexia e)normal CRT 
With colitis a horse will often have severe metabolic acidosis, with a venous blood gas pH of?
 
Which of the following electrolytes would you expect to increase with colitis?
a)phosphorus b)sodium c)chlorine d)calcium 
True or false: PCR is good for diagnosis of salmonellosis?
 
True or false: culture distinguishes toxigenic C difficile from non-toxigenic?
 
PCR is a good diagnostic aid for what cause of colitis?
 
True or false: as many as 94% of cases of colitis may be in association with antibiotics?
 
With which of the following antibiotics would you associate a smaller effect on gut flora?
a)lincosamide b)macrolides c)TMS d)beta lactams 
True or false: parenteral antibiotic use has a reduced association with antibiotic associated diarrhea?
 
Which of the following is not USUALLY an early hallmark of right dorsal colitis?
a)as early as 3 days after NSAID use b)profuse diarrhea c)hypoalbuminemia d)neutropenia 
What does SIRS stand for?
 
What is the maximum dose of colloids in a day for a horse?
in mL/kg/day 
What must you follow hypertonic saline with?
 
What two things should you supplement Lactated Ringer's solution with when treating dehydration?
___ and ___ 
What anti-inflammatory is used empirically against suspected endotoxemia?
Does not have a significant protective effect but reduces fever. 
Which of the following would not form a part of your therapy for endotoxemia?
a)systemic antibiotics b)polimixin B c)plasma transfusion d)pentoxifylline e)all of the above would form part 
If this is also present on bloodwork and biochem, then systemic antibiotic therapy is indicated in septic patients?
Despite the risk of further disruption to the GI flora. 
A normal horse requires how many kilocalories per day? A horse with acute colitis?
 
 
SIRS horses often are anorexic. Name a potential complication of forced NG feeding?
 
What is another word for neutropenic enterocolitis?
 
What component of bacterial lipopolysaccharides is used for most vaccines?
 
With endotoxemia, upon examining mucous membranes they are usually _____ with _____ edges?
 
 
True or false: you would associate metabolic acidosis with small intestinal enteritis?
 
You might check absorption of this sugar when you suspect small intestinal enteritis?
 
Longterm parenteral treatment with this drug is indicated for granulomatous enteritis?
 
True or false: gastric ulceration is a differential for small intestinal enteritis?
 
This disease is a main cause of weight loss, colic, diarrhea and hypoproteinemia in weanling foals?
Other signs include progressive weight loss, potbelly, rough hair coat, increased serum creatine kinase, anemia, transient leukocytosis. May affect any portion of intestinal tract. Small curved bacteria in apical cytoplasm of hyperplastic enterocytes with silver stain. 
True or false: mononuclear cell inflammation will alway be minimal to absent with lawsonia infection?
 
When managing a farm affected by lawsonia intracellularis you notice a weanling foal has poor body condition and diarrhea.
Their blood is hypoalbuminemic. What should you treat with orally? 
What would be the main two signs separating anterior enteritis from strangulation, entrapment or volvulus?
Anterior enteritis may be caused by clostridial species, salmonella, or fusarium moniliforme. 
This region is consistently affected by anterior enteritis?
Ileus due to extensive inflammation in intestinal wall 
Which of the following is not a sign of anterior enteritis?
a)dehydration b)copious hemorrhagic, foul smelling reflux c)increased borborygmi d)colic e)fever, toxemia and depression 
Which of the following ought NOT form a part of your treatment plan for anterior enteritis?
a)prokinetics b)metronidazole or penicillin c)electrolyes and fluids d)NSAIDs e)repeated reflux f)surgical decompression g)all of the above would  

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