Science Quiz / Endocrine Sys Path

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Can you name the Endocrine Sys Path

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Which of the following is not released by the anterior pituitary?
a)growth hormone b)ACTH c)vasopressin d)prolactin e)gonadotropins f)TSH 
Which of the hormones released from the anterior pituitary is not controlled by some form of feedback loop?
Which layer of the adrenal cortex am I referring to in the hints? Give the name, dash, then a number with 1 being furthest out, and 3 being furthest towards medulla.
This endocrine condition is associated with chronic high cortisol concentration in the blood?
In human medicine the syndrome is distinct from the disease, which is caused secondary to pituitary adenoma. 
Adrenal tumors cause hyperadrenocorticism around this percentage of the time, the rest being pituitary tumors.
These percentages do not include iatrogenic overdose of corticosteroids. 
Which of the following is not characteristic of Cushing's patients?
a)hyperactivity b)PU/PD c)polyphagia d)pot belly e)thin skin  
Increased ALP as a test for HAC has high ______.
If you collect a morning urine sample from a suspected Cushing's patient, what ratio would you screen for?
_____ to _____ 
If on low dose dexamethasone suppression tests you saw no dip in elevated cortisol at 4 hours, this suggests?
This test is unreliable in cats as confirmation of HAC diagnosis. 
True or false: an exaggerated response to an ACTH stim test is indicative of adrenal tumor as the origin of cushing's signs?
The plasma concentration of this hormone may distinguish pituitary from adrenal tumors in cushings cases?
Low in adrenal tumours, high or normal in pituitary. 
True or false: HAC is uncommon in cats, but is primarily adrenal tumor dependent when it occurs?
This is the most common etiology of hyperadrenocorticism in horses
Refers to an excessive production of melanotrophs in the pars intermedia, particularly POMC (an ACTH precursor). 
True or false: HAC horses tend to have alopecia comparable to dogs?
This dopamine agonist is the treatment for HAC in horses?
Which of the following is the most common cause of HAC in ferrets?
a)adenoma of the pituitary b)adrenal hyperplasia c)adrenal carcinoma d)b and c are equally likely 
True or false: high cortisol concentrations are not typical in hyperadrenocorticism?
In ferrets, that is. 
The clinical manifestation of Addison's disease (hypoadrenocorticism) is largely due to deficiency of this hormone?
Which of the following is not indicative of hypoadrenocorticism?
a)young to middle aged patient b)female patient c)mild anemia d)hypotension, bradycardia e)small breed dogs primarily f)prerenal azotemia g)hypercalcemia h)hypoglycemia i)inadequate urine concentration with hypovolemic condition 
An Na/K ratio lower than __:1 is suggestive of Addison's, and lower than __ :1 makes it extremely likely.
What is your go-to confirmatory test for Addison's?
What is another name for thyroglobulin?
True or false: TSH release is controlled by a negative feedback loop involving pre-made T3 (secreted in small amounts from the thyroid?)
True or false: T4 can only be de-iodinated to T3?
How much of the thyroid gland must be destroyed to get the primary hypothyroidism most common in canines?
Most commonly due to lymphocytic thyroiditis. 
Which of the following would not be typical of a hypothyroid patient?
a)alopecia and/or hyperkeratosis b)weight gain c)reproductive abnormalities d)elderly at presentation e)neuropathy 
Which of the following would be abnormally low in most hypothyroid patients?
a)cholesterol in blood b)lipids in blood c)triglycerides in blood d)red blood cell size e)none of the above 
True or false: a patient with under 10 nmol/L of T4 on tT4 assay is hypothyroid?
Which of the following drugs would actually tend to INCREASE T4 concentration?
a)NSAIDs b)insulin c)glucocorticoids d)phenobarbital e)sulfonamides 
How do you separate free T4 from total?
Valuable to identify euthyroid sick dogs. Free T4 less affected. 
This assay is less sensitive than fT4, but quite specific, as the concentration being tested will rise befroe T4 falls.
Which of the following tests is not useful in diagnosing hypothyroidism?
a)serum T3 b)serum fT3 c)serum rT3 d)TRH stim test e)all of the above 
Which is the best antibody finding to confirm hypothyroidism?
An enlarged thyroid is often referred to as this?
What is the most common histologic diagnosis in hyperthyroid cats?
Which is not a normal sign of feline hyperthyroidism?
a)depression b)polyphagia c)weight loss d)diarrhea, vomiting, bulky stools e)heat intolerance 
Name a laboratory abnormality you'd expect with hyperthyroidism?
This is your specific and sensitive go to assay if total T4 is borderline on feline hyperthyroidism suspects
True or false: a T3 suppression test will not interfere with T4 assays, and should show decreased T4 in non-hyperthyroid cats.
Canine hyperthyroidsim, highly unusual, is almost always associated with this?
True or false: feline hypothyroidism, though very rare, is often a primary disease as in canines?
Name one of two tests you might use for equine hypothyroidism?
Name the hormonal secretion of each cell type in the pancreatic islets of langerhans?
This type of primary diabetes mellitus is almost always dependent on insulin treatment, and is due to beta cell loss?
All canine diabetes is of this variety, typically with middle age onset. Most common in poodles, mini schnauzers, mini pinschers, dachshunds, Cairn terriers and Keeshonds. 
This type of primary diabetes is due to insulin resistance or unresponsive beta cells. Typically treated with oral hypoglycemics.
Name a drug that may act as an insulin antagonist to produce secondary DM?
True or false: up to half of all feline cases of DM are type II?
Which of the following is not an etiology of carbohydrate intolerance with type II DM?
a)downregulation of insulin receptors b)complete destruction of Beta cells c)decreased receptor affinity for insulin d)reduced action of intracellular insulin 
Which of the following is not a clinical sign of DM?
a)hypoglycemia b)glucosuria c)PU/PD d)polyphagia e)elevated liver enzymes f)weight loss 
What gender of dog is more affected by DM? Cat?
____, ____ 
Name a complication of DM?
True or false: human insulin kits work well on cats but not always dogs?
When measuring glycosylated hemoglobin (gHb) levels, what do you use to yield valid results?
Keep in midn the lifespans of RBCs in the species... dogs are 120 days, cats ~65, and the tests indicate glycemic control over that time. 
The concentration of glycated serum proteins (ketoamines) can be interfered with by hypoalbuminemia and hypertriglyceridemia. What is the period of glycemic control evaluated?
This is an automated colorimetric assay. 
Name one of the three ketones that builds up with DKA?
Name a sign of DKA?
True or false: ketone tests detect mainly beta-hydroxybutyrate, the main product of ketosis?
This is the primary electrolyte imbalance that results form DKA?
This tumour of the pancreatic beta cells can cause hypoglycemia, weakness and seizures?
DDx portosystemic shunt, severe liver disease, Addison's, hepatic or intestinal tumors producing hypoglycemic substances, sepsis 
In which species is insulinoma the most common tumour?
This is the name for vomiting, diarrhea, GI ulceraiton and pancreatic masses in association with a gastrinoma?
Poor prognosis due to common metastases of gastrinoma. 
This is a tumour of the pancreatic alpha cells, which only occurs in dogs, causing superficial necrolytic dermatitis, stomatitis, glossitis, diarrhea, venous thrombosis.
Hyperparathyroidism leads to an increase in this hormone's production by the kidney.
An adenoma causing hyperparathyroidism will be composed of these cells.
Palpable in half of cats, rarely in dogs... consider carcinoma if they are. 
Which of the following is not a diagnostic criterion for hyperparathyroidism?
a)marked, persistent hypercalcemia b)low or low normal serum phosphorus c)increased serum PTH 2-site assay d)all of the above are legit 
For each of the following presentations, please guess which hyperparathyroidism DDx you'd be dealing with?
Variable serum calcium, normal to high P, high PTH, low to normal Ca++ 
Hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia? 
marked hypercalcemia, low to normal phosphorus, low PTH concentration? 
Seizures, tetany, facial rubbing and muscle fasciculations are the history items in this uncommon result of autoimmune disease?
Also note severe hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, no azotemia, and lack of a certain hormone. 
What are the two embryological origins of endocrine tissues?
Which of the following is a primary cause of hyperfunction?
a)failure of target cell response b)disease of other organ causing hyperactivity c)neoplasia d)iatrogenic hormone excess e)abnormal hormone degradation 
What is the largest endocrine gland of the body?

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