Science Quiz / Basic Neuroscience

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Can you name the names and functions of the different parts of the brain?

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HintAnswerExtra Info
The Wires that Carry Neuron OutputBundles of fibers that make up nerves; variances in diameter affect speed of transfer
Stacks of Disc-Shaped MembranesUsed to wrap and package proteins
Produce ATPFats, carbs, proteins, and oxygen go in; ATP comes out
Neuron With 1 Neurite
Cellular Fluid Within the Neuron
Transmembrane Protein That Actively Transports IonsUse ATP
Chemicals Released From Presynaptic NeuronsElicits a response in the postsynaptic neuron
Theory That Each Brain Cell is an Individual CellProposed by Cajal; neurons are separated by synapses
Transport from Dendrites to SomaTravels via chynein 'feet' on microtubules
Transport from Soma to TerminalsTravels via kinesin 'feet' on microtubules
Transmembrane Protein That Removes Intracellular Na and Concentrates Intracellular KUses energy in the form of ATP
Bumps of the Surface of the Brain
Makes Signals Travel Faster Down an AxonSticky-Notes wrapped around a pencil
Region of Contact Where a Neuron Transfers Info to Another Cell
Stacks of Disc-Shaped Membrane
Purple Stain Showing Cell BodiesDoesn't show anything other than location of cell bodies
Central Dogma Process Protein SynthesisFollows genetic instructions carried by mRNA
Structure of NeuronProtein strands that give the neuron shape; has 3 parts
Membrane Formed by Hydrophobic Tails and Hydrophilic HeadsForms a barrier to water-soluble ions
Brain and Spinal Chord
Positively Charged Atoms or Molecules
Very Deep Groove
Branch Coming off the Soma that has 2 Types
Various Polypeptides Bonded Together to Form a Larger Protein
Process or Intron Removal
Largest Cytoskeleton ComponentThick hollow pipes made of tubulin; used for transport
An Even Distribution of the Charge Across a Molecule
Glial Cell; Defensive Function; Protects against invading organisms
Used to Calculate RMP
Long Strands of Protein Within the NucleusContain DNA
All Axons Have:A middle
HintAnswerExtra Info
Little Membrane Balloons (Organelle)Used to transport proteins
Neuron With 2 Neurites
Double-Stranded, Antiparallel Nucleotide Polymer
Nerve Split Towards the Front of the Spinal CordCarries information from the brain to the body
Coiling of a Polypeptide into an Alpha-Helix
The Regions of a Primary RNA Transcript Not Used to Code Protein
Electrical Potential The force exerted on a charged particle
Transmembrane Protein That is Gated or Non-Gated
Central Dogma Process of RNA SynthesisInitiated at the promoter region; stopped at the terminator region
Specialized Gap Between NeuronsWhere 2 neurons communicate
Transport Along Microtubules
Water-LovingPolar
Glial Cell; Nutritive and Support FunctionsStar-shaped and symmetrical; surround and isolate synapses; control fluid around neurons; clean up debris and fill area with glia
Silver Stain Showing Entire Cell Body and Neurites
Contained Within PNSControls sensation and motion
States That Nerves Can Only Carry Information Unidirectionally
Hollow Spaces Inside the Braincause muscles to move and contain fluid
Smallest Cytoskeleton ComponentMade of actin; forms a network beneath the cell membrane
'Antennae'; Receives Incoming Signals
All Axons Have:A beginning
Neuron With 3 or More Neurites
Take in mRNA and Synthesize ProteinEither free-floating or associated with Rough ER
Nervous System Within ANS'Fight or Flight'
Water-HatingNonpolar
An Unequal Distribution of the Charge Across a Molecule
RNA-Synthesizing EnzymeBinds at Promoter
The Movement of Electrical ChargeRepresented by I (amps)
Sections of DNA Containing Information Needed for Polypeptide Chains
Inner Matter of the Brain
Electrical Force that Makes Ions Move
Process of Destroying Pieces of Brain Tube Led to discovery of different sections of the brain
HintAnswerExtra Info
The Relative Inability of an Electrical Charge to MigrateRepresented by R, measured in Ohms
Negatively Charged Atoms or Molecules
Front Section of the Brainsoft and squishy, controls sensory information
Outer Matter of the Brain
Contained Within PNSControls breathing, heart rate, and digestion
Ohm's Law
All Nervous Tissues(i.e. everything else)
All Axons Have:An end; have vesicles that carry neurotransmitters
Transmembrane Protein That is Always Open for Transport
Back Section of the BrainFirm, used for muscle control
Grooves on the Surface of the Brain
The Potential of the Cell at Which There is No Net Movement of Ions
Nervous System Within ANS'Rest and Digest'
Supporting Cells Glue vital to nervous system; 5 major types
ER Studded with Ribosomes Used for protein synthesis
Relative Ability of an Electrical Charge to Migrate from One Point to AnotherRepresented by g (Siemens, or S)
Used to Calculate Equilibrium Potential
Regions of RNA Used in Coding
Glial Cell; Secretes Cerebrospinal FluidLines the walls of the ventricles in the brain
String of Amino AcidsChain larger than 20 = a protein!
Medium Cytoskeleton ComponentForm a lattice structure used for strength
Theory That Brain Cells are a Continuous MassProposed by Golgi (he was wrong)
Glial Cell; Forms Myelin Around Axons in Brain & Spinal CordAsymmetrical
Chemical Force that Makes Ions MoveDown the concentration gradient
Wires Made of Bunches of Fibers
Nerve Split Towards the Back of the Spinal CordCarries information from the body to the brain
Membrane Voltage Maintained by a Cell When not Generating Action PotentialsNeurons have one of -65mV
String of Polypeptides
Glial Cell; Forms Myelin in PNSAsymmetrical; cleans up damage by guiding axons to re-grow and re-connect
3-Dimensional Folding of a Polypeptide

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