Miscellaneous Quiz / ToK Review (Unit 1)

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Prelimary Criteria for Reasonable Claims
Should be some positive evidence in support of the belief, not being able to disprove doesn’t automatically make a claim true, confirmation bias makes us only notice favorable evidence 
Coherence shows that the beliefs fits in with our current understanding of things, “extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence,” we must examine claims one at a time against the background of our other beliefs to determine their validity 
Types of Beliefs
“I don’t know how, but I believe this” 
“I believe this because of these reasons, but I’m still not 100% certain of this claim” 
“I believe this because of these reasons, so I know that it is true” 
Four Ways of Knowing
“Somebody told me...” 
“I saw...” 
“I worked on...” 
“I know that... is intuitively obvious” 
Levels of Knowledge
Sources of Second-Hand Knowledge
Provides a point of reference for what we consider to be “normal,” however, living traditions may change over time, and we do not have to be imprisoned by what we have inherited in the past 
Since the introduction of universal education, schools have played a key role in the transmission of knowledge from one generation to the next; the average student will spend 14 000 hours at school in their lifetime, which gives you mastery of various subjects and prepares you for life itself, however we should be thinking critically by questioning and learning, even with this mastery 
The first place people tend to look for information in the modern day is the Internet, because of the advantage of its speed and accessibility, despite the lack of quality control (it can be both a source of information and disinformation); we sometimes can judge the reliability of a website based on its appearance and believe its information if it looks good (ex. The Onion) 
It is no longer possible for one single person to actually “know everything,” therefore we must rely on expert opinion to justify many of our knowledge claims and show confidence in their expertise (ex. whenever we visit a doctor, listen to a teacher/professor, etc.), even though they may sometimes be wrong and have only a limited range of competence 
Despite the aura of objectivity surrounding a television/print news bulletin, we are all aware that it may have some bias in both the selection and presentation of various news stories 
Goals of Perspectives
Acknowledging that others have varying viewpoints, even if we don’t believe them ourselves 
Valuable information can be obtained from alternate perspectives, so it is important to really understand where the viewpoint is coming from 
Benefits to Absorbing Different Perspectives
Three Theoretical Approaches to Cultural Differences
Cultures deal with a limited number of human problems 
Six clusters of extremes to identify the values of any one culture relative to others 
How culture affects business and management 

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Created Sep 23, 2019ReportNominate
Tags:IB Class, philosophy, tok

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