Science Quiz / Hepatitic B

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Can you name the Hepatitic B

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HintAnswer
Particularly prevalent in parts of __
The most common means of transmission world-wide is __
It is also spread through __
Horizontal transmission occurs particularly in __ through minor abrasions & contact with other __
The whole virus in the __ particle
This consists of an inner core or __
Surrounded by an outer envelope of __
This is __
The inner core contains __
This is surrounded by the __
__ is secreted
__ is also secreted into the serum & is a marker of HBV infection
__ must be measured in an HBsAg-positive patient to determine the level of viral replication
Acute: HBV penetrates the __
& in immunocompetent adults there is a strong cellular __ to the foreign HBV proteins expressed by hepatocytes
This response leads to clearance of the infection in __ of infected adults
This is marked by the disappearance of __ from the serum
Also marked by the development of __
Also marked by __ to subsequent infection
Acute infection may be __
It may produce symptoms & signs similar to __
Occasionally it is associated with a rash or __ affecting the small joints
1% of patients develop fulminant __
Liver biochemistry shows raised __
HintAnswer
And a raised __ when jaundice develops
The blood count may show a __
With relative __
Also a high __
In severe cases the __ is prolonged
Chronic:The persistence of HBsAg in the serum for more than __ after acute infection defines chronic infection
Progression to chronic depends on many factors: __
In childhood __ is the norm
This __ phase is characterised by minimal inflammatory activity
Also normal or near-normal serum __
Despite positive __ & high levels of HBV replication
This phase may persist for __ before an immune clearance phase that lasts for a variable amount of time
This is characterised by high __ as before but now in a n active hepatitis
There is also elevated serum __
This phase ends with clearance of ___
& development of __
With a marked decrease in serum __
& normalisation of serum __
During the immune clearance phase, some patients will develop viral mutations that do not produce __
But continue to replicate at high levels & have progressive liver damage with fluctuating serum levels of __
This is known as the __ phase
Acquisition of infection later in life is associated with a very short __ phase or not at all
Rates of co-infection of HBV & HIV are __
All patients with chronic HBV infection should have a test for __ & vice versa

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