Science Quiz / CSIM & CPTP - Disorders of lipid metabolism

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Fats are transported in the bloodstream as __ particles
These are composed of __
These proteins exert a stabilising function & allow the particles to be recognised by receptors in the __
__ are synthesised in the small intestine postprandially
They serve to transport the digestion of dietary __ to the liver & peripheral tissues
__ are synthesised & secreted & secreted by the liver
They transport endogenously synthesised __ to the periphery
In fat & muscle, triglycerides are removed from chylomicrons & VLDLs by the tissue enzyme __ & the essential cofactor __
__ are derived from the peripheral breakdown of VLDLs
And are transported back to the liver & metabolised to yield the cholesterol rich particles - __
LDLs deliver most __ to the periphery & liver with subsequent binding to LDL receptors in these tissues
__ transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver
HDL particles carry __ of the total quantity of cholesterol in the blood
The major clinical significance of hypercholesterolaemia is as a risk factor for __
The risk is greater in those with other __ risk factors
Severe hypertriglyceridaemia is above __
And this is associated with a greatly increased risk of __
__ particles, which transport cholesterol away from the periphery, appear to protect against atheroma
Most patients with hyperlipidaemia are __
A __ is necessary to test for hypertriglyceridaemia
__ is sufficient for cholesterol
If total cholesterol is raised, __ should be measured on a fasting sample
Specific diagnosis of the defect requires the measurement of individual lipoproteins by __, but this is not usually necessary
Disorders of __ can cause hypertriglyceridaemia
__ accounts for most cases of hypertriglyceridaemia
In which there are many __ both acting together & interacting with environmental factors to produce a modest elevation in serum triglyceride levels
Familial hypertriglyceridaemia is inherited in an __ fashion
The exact defect is not known & the only clinical feature is a history of __ in some individuals
__ & __ are rare diseases which usually present in childhood with severe hypertriglyceridaemia
This is usually complicated by ___
Disorders of __ can cause hypercholesterolaemia
__ is the result of underproduction of the LDL cholesterol receptor in the liver
This results in high plasma concentrations of __
__ may be asymptomatic or develop coronary artery disease in their late 40s
Typical clinical features include __
__ have a total absenc of LDL receptors in the liver
They have grossly elevated plasma cholesterol levels (__) &, without treatment, die in their teens from coronary artery disease
Mutations in the __ gene result in a clinical picture resembling heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia
__ particles normally bind to their clearance receptor in the liver through apoprotein B-100, & the mutation results in high __ concentrations in the blood
__ aa=ccounts for those patients with a raised serum cholesterol concentration, but without one of the monogenic disorders above
__ & __ account for the vast majority of patients with combined hyperlipidaemia

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