Science Quiz / Materials Science Vocab

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Can you name the Materials Science Vocab?

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DefinitionWord
the tensile strength of a material divided by its density
the maximum stress in the engineering stress-strain diagram
the inter metallic compound Fe3C; a hard and brittle phase
a semiconducting material which is essentially pure and for which the energy gap is small enough to be surmounted by thermal excitation
the stress at which a specific amount of strain occurs in the engineering tensile test. In the US the yield strength is determined for 0.2 percent strain
the tensile modulus of a material divided by its density
A crystalline imperfection in which a lattice distortion is centered around a line
permenant deformation of metals and alloys below the temperature at which a strain-free microstructure is produced continuously. Causes a metal to be strain hardened
A directional primary bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
conditions where all the stress on a material causes uniform strain parallel to the composite layers as it pulls the edges apart
the point determined by the eutectic composition and temperature
a measure of the resistance of a material to permanent deformation
the temperature at which liquid starts to solidify under equilibrium conditions
an ion with a positive charge
a mixture of ferrite and cementite phases in parallel plates produced by the eutectoid decomposition of austenite
The critical value of the stress-intensity factor that causes failure of the plate in the tensile test
a material with a low electrical conductivity
Materials which are characterized by high thermal and electrical conductivity
the volume of atoms in a selected unit cell divided by the volume of the unit cell
a mixture of two or more metals or a metal (metals) and a nonmetal (nonmetals)
the unfilled energy levels into which electrons can be excited to become conductive electrons. In semiconductors and insulators there is an energy gap between the filled lower vale
the temperature at which a eutectic reaction takes place
a mixture of alpha ferrite and very small particles of Fe3C particles produced by the decomposition of austenite; a nonlamellar eutectoid decomposition product of austenite
the measure of the difficulty of electric current to pass through a unit volume of material
a combination of a slip plane and a slip direction
one that is to the left of the eutectic point
metals and alloys that contain a large percentage of iron such as steels and cast irons
the energy band containing the valence electrons. In a conductor the valence band is also the conductor band. The valence band in a conducting metal is not full so some elctrons ca
substances of which something is composed or made
a physically homogeneous and distinct portion of a material system
DefinitionWord
a negative charge carrier with a charge of 1.6 x 10-19 C
Electrons in the outermost shells, which are most often involved in bonding
average force divided by the original cross-sectional area
a phase transformation in which all the liquid phase transforms on cooling into two solid phases isothermally
a localized decrease in cross sectional area of a tensile test specimen
an alloy of two or more metals or a metal(s) and a nonmetal(s) which is a single phase atomic mixture
a material with a high electrical conductivity
an interstitial solid solution of carbon in FCC iron; the maximum solid solubility of carbon in FCC iron is 2.0 wt%
a system where no macroscopic changes take place with time
conditions where the layers are perpendicular to the applied stress and produces an equal stress condition on all the layers
if a metal deformed by a force returns to its original dimensions after the force is removed, the metal undergoes this process
temperature at which reduced ductility and fracture resistancve of a material is observed
grains which are approximately equal size in all directions and have random orientations
an ion with a negative charge
A regular three-dimensional pattern of atoms or ions in space
a measure of the ease with which electric current passes through a unit volume of material
A non-directional primary bond resulting from electrostatic attraction
a convenient repeating unit of a space lattice. The axial lengths and axial angles are the lattice constants of this.
an interstitial solid solution of carbon in BCC iron; the maximum solid solubility of carbon in BCC iron is 0.02 wt%
the change in length of sample divided by the original length of the sample
a semiconductor that has been doped with an impurity element to increase its electrical conductivity
a positive charge carrier with a charge of 1.6 x 10-19 C
the ease of forming martensite in a steel upon quenching from the austenitic condition. Mainly a funtion of composition and grain size
the temperature during the solidification of an alloy at which the last of the liquid phase solidifies
the process of atoms moving over each other during permanent deformation
equilibrium phase transformations involving zero degrees of freedom
test in which a 1 inch diameter bar 4 inches long is austenitized and then water-quenched at one end. Hardness is measured along the side of the bar up to about 2.5 inches from the
a mode of fracture characterized by rapid crack propagation
a unit cell with an atomic packing arrangement in which 12 atoms surround a central identical atom. The stacking sequence is ABABAB
a measure of the amount of energy a material can absorb before fracture
DefinitionWord
Materials consisting of compounds of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
A surface imperfection that separates crystals of different orientations in a polycrystalline aggregate
the measure of the difficulty of electric current to pass through a volume of material
a mode of fracture characterized by slow crack propagation
materials used in electronics, especially microelectronics
materials that are mixtures of two or more materials
The time rate passage of charge through material
materials consisting of long molecular chains or networks of low weight elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. have low electrical conductivities
line markings on the surface of a metal due to slip caused by permanent deformation
a scientific discipline that is primarily concerned with the search for basic knowledge about the internal structure, properties, and processing of materials
a crystalline structure that contains many grains
a unit cell with an atomic packing arrangement in which 12 atoms surround a central atom. The stacking sequence is ABCABC...
A primary bond resulting from the sharing of delocalized electrons
in the band theory, local energy levels close to the valence band
the composition of the liquid phase that reacts to form two new solid phases at the eutectic temperature
one that is to the right of the eutectic point
a material whose electrical conductivity is approximately midway between the values for conductors and insulators
a unit cell with an atomic packing arrangement in which one atom is in contact with eight identical atoms located at the corners of an imaginary cube
the first stage in the annealing process that results in removal of residual stresses and formation of low energy dislocation configurations
metals and alloys that do not contain iron, or if they do contain iron, it is only in a relatively small percentage
an engineering discipline that is primarily concerned with the use of fundamental and applied knowledge of materials so that they can be converted into products needed or desired b
the second stage of the annealing process, in which new grains start to grow and dislocation density decreases significantly
a region of a metal crystal which is a mirror image of a similar region along a plane
if a metal deformed by a force cannot fully recover to its original dimensions, it undergoes this process
a single crystal in a polycrystalline aggregate
in the band theory, local energy levels near the conduction band that lie within the band gap
stress divided by strain in the elastic region of an engineering stress-strain diagram
the electric current per unit area, J (A/m^2 are units)
a supersaturated interstitial solid solution of carbon in body-centered tetragonal iron
a steel with 0.8 precent C

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