Science Quiz / Materials Science Vocab

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Can you name the Materials Science Vocab?

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DefinitionWord
The critical value of the stress-intensity factor that causes failure of the plate in the tensile test
a measure of the amount of energy a material can absorb before fracture
materials consisting of long molecular chains or networks of low weight elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. have low electrical conductivities
Electrons in the outermost shells, which are most often involved in bonding
the composition of the liquid phase that reacts to form two new solid phases at the eutectic temperature
the inter metallic compound Fe3C; a hard and brittle phase
Materials which are characterized by high thermal and electrical conductivity
a semiconductor that has been doped with an impurity element to increase its electrical conductivity
a region of a metal crystal which is a mirror image of a similar region along a plane
metals and alloys that contain a large percentage of iron such as steels and cast irons
the stress at which a specific amount of strain occurs in the engineering tensile test. In the US the yield strength is determined for 0.2 percent strain
an alloy of two or more metals or a metal(s) and a nonmetal(s) which is a single phase atomic mixture
A regular three-dimensional pattern of atoms or ions in space
an interstitial solid solution of carbon in FCC iron; the maximum solid solubility of carbon in FCC iron is 2.0 wt%
test in which a 1 inch diameter bar 4 inches long is austenitized and then water-quenched at one end. Hardness is measured along the side of the bar up to about 2.5 inches from the
the ease of forming martensite in a steel upon quenching from the austenitic condition. Mainly a funtion of composition and grain size
if a metal deformed by a force cannot fully recover to its original dimensions, it undergoes this process
a unit cell with an atomic packing arrangement in which 12 atoms surround a central atom. The stacking sequence is ABCABC...
one that is to the right of the eutectic point
the maximum stress in the engineering stress-strain diagram
the unfilled energy levels into which electrons can be excited to become conductive electrons. In semiconductors and insulators there is an energy gap between the filled lower vale
a mixture of alpha ferrite and very small particles of Fe3C particles produced by the decomposition of austenite; a nonlamellar eutectoid decomposition product of austenite
the temperature during the solidification of an alloy at which the last of the liquid phase solidifies
a mode of fracture characterized by rapid crack propagation
a mixture of two or more metals or a metal (metals) and a nonmetal (nonmetals)
a supersaturated interstitial solid solution of carbon in body-centered tetragonal iron
a material whose electrical conductivity is approximately midway between the values for conductors and insulators
the measure of the difficulty of electric current to pass through a unit volume of material
A directional primary bond resulting from the sharing of electrons
a system where no macroscopic changes take place with time
DefinitionWord
The time rate passage of charge through material
the change in length of sample divided by the original length of the sample
conditions where all the stress on a material causes uniform strain parallel to the composite layers as it pulls the edges apart
the temperature at which liquid starts to solidify under equilibrium conditions
a measure of the ease with which electric current passes through a unit volume of material
a scientific discipline that is primarily concerned with the search for basic knowledge about the internal structure, properties, and processing of materials
materials that are mixtures of two or more materials
average force divided by the original cross-sectional area
if a metal deformed by a force returns to its original dimensions after the force is removed, the metal undergoes this process
the measure of the difficulty of electric current to pass through a volume of material
equilibrium phase transformations involving zero degrees of freedom
the process of atoms moving over each other during permanent deformation
a localized decrease in cross sectional area of a tensile test specimen
a single crystal in a polycrystalline aggregate
the energy band containing the valence electrons. In a conductor the valence band is also the conductor band. The valence band in a conducting metal is not full so some elctrons ca
a material with a high electrical conductivity
an interstitial solid solution of carbon in BCC iron; the maximum solid solubility of carbon in BCC iron is 0.02 wt%
Materials consisting of compounds of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
conditions where the layers are perpendicular to the applied stress and produces an equal stress condition on all the layers
the temperature at which a eutectic reaction takes place
an ion with a positive charge
stress divided by strain in the elastic region of an engineering stress-strain diagram
the tensile modulus of a material divided by its density
in the band theory, local energy levels near the conduction band that lie within the band gap
an ion with a negative charge
the electric current per unit area, J (A/m^2 are units)
a negative charge carrier with a charge of 1.6 x 10-19 C
line markings on the surface of a metal due to slip caused by permanent deformation
the first stage in the annealing process that results in removal of residual stresses and formation of low energy dislocation configurations
in the band theory, local energy levels close to the valence band
DefinitionWord
temperature at which reduced ductility and fracture resistancve of a material is observed
metals and alloys that do not contain iron, or if they do contain iron, it is only in a relatively small percentage
a measure of the resistance of a material to permanent deformation
the second stage of the annealing process, in which new grains start to grow and dislocation density decreases significantly
A surface imperfection that separates crystals of different orientations in a polycrystalline aggregate
a crystalline structure that contains many grains
a convenient repeating unit of a space lattice. The axial lengths and axial angles are the lattice constants of this.
a unit cell with an atomic packing arrangement in which 12 atoms surround a central identical atom. The stacking sequence is ABABAB
permenant deformation of metals and alloys below the temperature at which a strain-free microstructure is produced continuously. Causes a metal to be strain hardened
a combination of a slip plane and a slip direction
the volume of atoms in a selected unit cell divided by the volume of the unit cell
materials used in electronics, especially microelectronics
a mixture of ferrite and cementite phases in parallel plates produced by the eutectoid decomposition of austenite
the tensile strength of a material divided by its density
a semiconducting material which is essentially pure and for which the energy gap is small enough to be surmounted by thermal excitation
a physically homogeneous and distinct portion of a material system
a unit cell with an atomic packing arrangement in which one atom is in contact with eight identical atoms located at the corners of an imaginary cube
a material with a low electrical conductivity
a steel with 0.8 precent C
an engineering discipline that is primarily concerned with the use of fundamental and applied knowledge of materials so that they can be converted into products needed or desired b
a phase transformation in which all the liquid phase transforms on cooling into two solid phases isothermally
A crystalline imperfection in which a lattice distortion is centered around a line
the point determined by the eutectic composition and temperature
one that is to the left of the eutectic point
A primary bond resulting from the sharing of delocalized electrons
a mode of fracture characterized by slow crack propagation
A non-directional primary bond resulting from electrostatic attraction
substances of which something is composed or made
a positive charge carrier with a charge of 1.6 x 10-19 C
grains which are approximately equal size in all directions and have random orientations

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