Science Quiz / Blood, Hematopoesis, & Cell Cycle

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Can you name the the HYTQ concepts?

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Capable of giving rise to all cell types
cell cycle regulation that occurs in G2. Starts the onset of M phase
dimeric complex of mitotic CDK plus mitotic cyclin, first cell cycle regulatory factor discovered
this intergral membrane protein binds hemoglobin and serves as an anchoring site for cytoskeleton
protein synthesis complete (no or little basophilia). Small compact densely stained nucleus. gene expression silenced (condensed chromatin) no mitosis, nucleus may be off-center.
Phosphorylation of lamin proteins causes depolymerization of lamin filaments, which causes the disassembly of what structure?
the same fluid as blood plasma except clotting factors have been removed
movement directed by honing molecules
the inner membrane lattice in RBCs is anchored by which protein
last stage in hemopoiesis. Carried out only in red bone marrow and lymphoid tissues
main point of regulation of the cell cycle; cell makes a “commitment” to complete a new cell cycle
main component of the inner membrane lattice in RBCs
these cells migrate to sites of infection and release of cytotoxins that combat parasites (protozoa, helminths), migration to sites of allergic inflammation, phagocytosis and endoc
regulate G1/S progression by regulating G1 Cdk complex formation and complex activity
active rRNA and ribosome synthesis (nucleoli visible), active gene expression (euchromatin in nucleus), secretory pathway inactive (no cytoplasmic granules) (myeloid lineage)
nuclei are typically multilobed
macrophages, osteoclasts, and langerhans cells are all derivatives of which cell
phosphorylation of this protein triggers activation of CDK inhibitor, p21, causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rather than cell cycle arrest
a defining feature of stem cells, role of niche is _____ ______.
universal blood donor blood type?
1° and 2° granules, protein synthesis (some basophilia), nuclear segmentation continues, some genes silenced (some heterochromatin), non-mitotic, enters blood
people with O blood type have which blood anti-antibodies
universal blood recipient blood type?
mitosis and cytokinesis phase of cell cycle
third phase in hemopoiesis characterized by mature RBCs, leukocytes in bone marrow
responds to DNA damage - “guardian of the genome”
this plasma protein transports fatty acids, hormones, drugs; maintains osmotic pressure. and is synthesized in the liver.
shortest phase of cell cycle
these cell are involved in clot formation, bind to injured blood vessel wall, aggregate with RBCs, hemostatic plug stops bleeding
which protein is responsible for the basophilic staining of basophils?
G1 + S + G2
true or false: CDK protein level varies widely during the cell cycle
true or false: stem cells undergo symmetric cell division
the least encountered WBC
these plasma proteins transport triglycerides to the liver
Both G1 and S phase CDKs regulate what cell process?
Defects in hematopoiesis due to deficiency of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) or folic acid leads to appearance of large oval RBCs (macroovalocytes) in blood and megaloblasts in bone marro
binds and inhibits transcription factor E2F
second most abundant luekocyte
movement out of blood into connective tissue
people with AB blood type have which blood anti-antibodies?
mature, biconcave shape, 7.6 μm diameter
plasma proteins involved in cholesterol, and triglyceride transport
small granules in leukocytes that are lysosomes
Phosphorylation of linker histone H1 and condensin proteins is necessary for what?
life span of RBCs
nucleus extruded, small cell size, enters peripheral blood, 1-2% of cells in blood, matures in 1-2 days
people with type B blood have which blood anti-antibodies?
family of proteins that bind and inactivate Cdk4 and Cdk6
plasma protein involved in the destruction of microorganisms, initiation of inflammation
lymphocytes and monocyte are
the process by which RBCs develop is known as ?
percentage of water in plasma
people with type A blood have which blood anti-antibodies?
family of proteins that bind and inactivate dimeric complexes of cyclin D-Cdk4/6 or cyclin A-Cdk2, or cyclin E-Cdk2
true or false: one of blood's main functions is its involvement in the transports of nutrients, wastes, and regulatory molecules.
these cells function similar to mast cells, upon stimulation it releases preformed and newly synthesized secretory products that initiate, maintain, and control inflammation
Phosphorylation of spindle proteins is required for assembly of what?
protein synthesis mostly complete (less basophilia). gene expression minimal (more heterochromatin). Cytoplasm of this cell displays acidophilia and basophilia because of hemoglobi
what removes the inhibitory phosphate from the mitotic CDK-cyclin complex?
the first tumor suppressor gene discovered
virus oncoproteins, such as papillomavirus E6 and E7 proteins, that bind to and inactivate Rb and p53
life span of neutrophil
the volume of packed RBCs in a sample of blood is call the ______.
active rRNA and ribosome synthesis (nucleoli visible) active. gene expression (euchromatin in nucleus). secretory pathway inactive (no cytoplasmic granules)
these cells constitute >99% of blood cells by number
regulates the exit of mitosis
Undifferentiated cell producing cells of multiple lineages, limited self-renewal
anaphase promoting complex promotes the degradation of cyclin as well as what other protein
Largest cell in peripheral blood
a ubiquitin ligase that adds ubiquitin to cyclin
second growth (or gap) period
what transcription factor up-regulates S-phase genes?
basophilia in the basophilic erythroblast is due to the presence of what structure in large quantities.
True or False: Alterations in p16INK4 result in excess Cdk4 activity and loss of G1/S control (found in familial melanomas & other cancers)
exit from cell cycle
which organ removes old or damaged RBCs
True or False: Hematopoiesis begins with a pluripotent stem cells.
adds activating phosphate to inactive mitotic CDK-cyclin complex
Large cell that produces platelets (thrombocytes)
must bind to a cyclin protein to exhibit kinase activity
true or false: Anemia can be caused by reduced RBC production, increased RBC destruction, or blood loss.
total blood volume in normal adult (liters)
percentage of proteins in plasma
B cells differentiate into _____?
a protease that degrades ubiquinated proteins such as cyclin
tissue involved in the formation of red bone marrow and is involved in formation of RBCs, granulocytes, monocytes, and platelets
thick yellowish exudate that is formed by dead bacteria and dead neutrophils
first growth (or gap) period in cell cycle
these integral membrane proteins attach blood antigens
phosphorylates and inactivates Rb
increases platelet production, stimulates megakaryocyte CFU cells
True or False: Mutations in p53 lead to failure to enforce the DNA damage checkpoint, which leads to accumulation of mutations
the liquid extracellular material that imparts fluid properties to blood.
first phase in hemopoiesis characterized by blood in 'islands' in yolk sac, no leukocytes
cell cycle regulation that occurs in G1. Starts the onset of S phase
protein complex required to pass from metaphase into anaphase
T lymphocytes undergo differentiation where?
these plasma proteins transport metal ions, vitamins, lipids, maintain osmotic pressure. they are synthesized in the liver.
adds inhibitory phosphate to inactive mitotic CDK-cyclin complex
what is responsible for the uniform eosinophilic staining in RBCs
protein whose level increases and decreases ('cycles”) during the cell cycle. Required for CDK activity.
immunoglobulins are involved in immune response and are synthesized by what?
Undifferentiated cell producing blood cells of all lineages, capable of self-renewal
second phase in hemopoiesis characterized by hematopoietic centers entering the liver with primitive nucleated RBCs, fetal hemoglobin
true or false: Mitotic cyclin levels rise in G2 and reach a critical threshold
1° and 2° granules (color of 2° = mature granulocyte), Golgi visible, protein synthesis (some basophilia), some genes silenced (some heterochromatin), non-mitotic
this cell Circulates 12 to 96 hours, then enters CT and differentiates
rRNA synthesis largely complete (no nucleoli). active protein synthesis in cytoplasm (basophilia). gene expression in nucleus (some heterochromatin).
synthesis of DNA in cell cycle
large spherical nucleus with azurophilic granules in the cytoplasm.
true or false: Cells make up 65% of the blood content.
arginine rich protein that accounts for eosinophils intense eosin staining
erythrocyte formation and release are regulated by?
this protein holds sister chromatids together
anucleate cells that function to bind oxygen for delivery to tissues and bine carbon dioxide for removal of tissues
premature disruption of cells
nuclei are typically bi lobed
a large inclusion in the form of a equatorial band are located in the granules of which type of leukocytes?
which components of blood are contained in the buffy coat?
spherical nucleus that becomes increasingly heterochromatic and acquires a specific indentation. Specific granules begin forming in this stage.
main protein content of plasma
neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils are all what?
the percentage of plasma in blood
life span of platelets
low hematocrit suggests low circulation of RBCs which is a condition known as ______.
these lymphocytes are involved in humoral immunity
the most numerous white blood cell
these cells migrate to sites of inflammation, phagocytosis of bacteria, exocytosis of enzymes that attack microorganisms, results in formation of pus (dead neutrophils and cell deb
the granules of these WBCs contain histamine and heparin sulfate
these lymphocytes are involved in cell mediated immunity
Undifferentiated cell capable of producing cells of one lineage, colony forming units (CFUs)

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