Science Quiz / Blood, Hematopoesis, & Cell Cycle

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Can you name the the HYTQ concepts?

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these lymphocytes are involved in cell mediated immunity
these cells constitute >99% of blood cells by number
the inner membrane lattice in RBCs is anchored by which protein
responds to DNA damage - “guardian of the genome”
protein synthesis complete (no or little basophilia). Small compact densely stained nucleus. gene expression silenced (condensed chromatin) no mitosis, nucleus may be off-center.
phosphorylates and inactivates Rb
people with O blood type have which blood anti-antibodies
rRNA synthesis largely complete (no nucleoli). active protein synthesis in cytoplasm (basophilia). gene expression in nucleus (some heterochromatin).
last stage in hemopoiesis. Carried out only in red bone marrow and lymphoid tissues
which organ removes old or damaged RBCs
Capable of giving rise to all cell types
a large inclusion in the form of a equatorial band are located in the granules of which type of leukocytes?
regulates the exit of mitosis
Phosphorylation of spindle proteins is required for assembly of what?
arginine rich protein that accounts for eosinophils intense eosin staining
these plasma proteins transport triglycerides to the liver
tissue involved in the formation of red bone marrow and is involved in formation of RBCs, granulocytes, monocytes, and platelets
life span of neutrophil
this cell Circulates 12 to 96 hours, then enters CT and differentiates
plasma protein involved in the destruction of microorganisms, initiation of inflammation
T lymphocytes undergo differentiation where?
immunoglobulins are involved in immune response and are synthesized by what?
second phase in hemopoiesis characterized by hematopoietic centers entering the liver with primitive nucleated RBCs, fetal hemoglobin
true or false: one of blood's main functions is its involvement in the transports of nutrients, wastes, and regulatory molecules.
this plasma protein transports fatty acids, hormones, drugs; maintains osmotic pressure. and is synthesized in the liver.
movement directed by honing molecules
mitosis and cytokinesis phase of cell cycle
what removes the inhibitory phosphate from the mitotic CDK-cyclin complex?
cell cycle regulation that occurs in G2. Starts the onset of M phase
nuclei are typically multilobed
first phase in hemopoiesis characterized by blood in 'islands' in yolk sac, no leukocytes
adds inhibitory phosphate to inactive mitotic CDK-cyclin complex
Phosphorylation of linker histone H1 and condensin proteins is necessary for what?
third phase in hemopoiesis characterized by mature RBCs, leukocytes in bone marrow
what is responsible for the uniform eosinophilic staining in RBCs
anaphase promoting complex promotes the degradation of cyclin as well as what other protein
anucleate cells that function to bind oxygen for delivery to tissues and bine carbon dioxide for removal of tissues
true or false: stem cells undergo symmetric cell division
1° and 2° granules (color of 2° = mature granulocyte), Golgi visible, protein synthesis (some basophilia), some genes silenced (some heterochromatin), non-mitotic
the most numerous white blood cell
Largest cell in peripheral blood
lymphocytes and monocyte are
spherical nucleus that becomes increasingly heterochromatic and acquires a specific indentation. Specific granules begin forming in this stage.
second most abundant luekocyte
this intergral membrane protein binds hemoglobin and serves as an anchoring site for cytoskeleton
regulate G1/S progression by regulating G1 Cdk complex formation and complex activity
life span of RBCs
B cells differentiate into _____?
erythrocyte formation and release are regulated by?
True or False: Hematopoiesis begins with a pluripotent stem cells.
these integral membrane proteins attach blood antigens
the volume of packed RBCs in a sample of blood is call the ______.
macrophages, osteoclasts, and langerhans cells are all derivatives of which cell
family of proteins that bind and inactivate Cdk4 and Cdk6
the process by which RBCs develop is known as ?
the first tumor suppressor gene discovered
binds and inhibits transcription factor E2F
the liquid extracellular material that imparts fluid properties to blood.
Undifferentiated cell capable of producing cells of one lineage, colony forming units (CFUs)
Large cell that produces platelets (thrombocytes)
protein complex required to pass from metaphase into anaphase
universal blood recipient blood type?
True or False: Alterations in p16INK4 result in excess Cdk4 activity and loss of G1/S control (found in familial melanomas & other cancers)
true or false: Mitotic cyclin levels rise in G2 and reach a critical threshold
mature, biconcave shape, 7.6 μm diameter
what transcription factor up-regulates S-phase genes?
true or false: CDK protein level varies widely during the cell cycle
basophilia in the basophilic erythroblast is due to the presence of what structure in large quantities.
True or False: Mutations in p53 lead to failure to enforce the DNA damage checkpoint, which leads to accumulation of mutations
these plasma proteins transport metal ions, vitamins, lipids, maintain osmotic pressure. they are synthesized in the liver.
Phosphorylation of lamin proteins causes depolymerization of lamin filaments, which causes the disassembly of what structure?
adds activating phosphate to inactive mitotic CDK-cyclin complex
main component of the inner membrane lattice in RBCs
percentage of proteins in plasma
neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils are all what?
people with type A blood have which blood anti-antibodies?
dimeric complex of mitotic CDK plus mitotic cyclin, first cell cycle regulatory factor discovered
nuclei are typically bi lobed
these cells migrate to sites of inflammation, phagocytosis of bacteria, exocytosis of enzymes that attack microorganisms, results in formation of pus (dead neutrophils and cell deb
large spherical nucleus with azurophilic granules in the cytoplasm.
the granules of these WBCs contain histamine and heparin sulfate
small granules in leukocytes that are lysosomes
virus oncoproteins, such as papillomavirus E6 and E7 proteins, that bind to and inactivate Rb and p53
true or false: Anemia can be caused by reduced RBC production, increased RBC destruction, or blood loss.
protein synthesis mostly complete (less basophilia). gene expression minimal (more heterochromatin). Cytoplasm of this cell displays acidophilia and basophilia because of hemoglobi
plasma proteins involved in cholesterol, and triglyceride transport
which protein is responsible for the basophilic staining of basophils?
the percentage of plasma in blood
universal blood donor blood type?
increases platelet production, stimulates megakaryocyte CFU cells
must bind to a cyclin protein to exhibit kinase activity
people with AB blood type have which blood anti-antibodies?
total blood volume in normal adult (liters)
family of proteins that bind and inactivate dimeric complexes of cyclin D-Cdk4/6 or cyclin A-Cdk2, or cyclin E-Cdk2
these cells function similar to mast cells, upon stimulation it releases preformed and newly synthesized secretory products that initiate, maintain, and control inflammation
1° and 2° granules, protein synthesis (some basophilia), nuclear segmentation continues, some genes silenced (some heterochromatin), non-mitotic, enters blood
premature disruption of cells
these lymphocytes are involved in humoral immunity
active rRNA and ribosome synthesis (nucleoli visible) active. gene expression (euchromatin in nucleus). secretory pathway inactive (no cytoplasmic granules)
the same fluid as blood plasma except clotting factors have been removed
active rRNA and ribosome synthesis (nucleoli visible), active gene expression (euchromatin in nucleus), secretory pathway inactive (no cytoplasmic granules) (myeloid lineage)
Undifferentiated cell producing blood cells of all lineages, capable of self-renewal
G1 + S + G2
second growth (or gap) period
the least encountered WBC
synthesis of DNA in cell cycle
first growth (or gap) period in cell cycle
these cells migrate to sites of infection and release of cytotoxins that combat parasites (protozoa, helminths), migration to sites of allergic inflammation, phagocytosis and endoc
a protease that degrades ubiquinated proteins such as cyclin
which components of blood are contained in the buffy coat?
people with type B blood have which blood anti-antibodies?
a defining feature of stem cells, role of niche is _____ ______.
these cell are involved in clot formation, bind to injured blood vessel wall, aggregate with RBCs, hemostatic plug stops bleeding
nucleus extruded, small cell size, enters peripheral blood, 1-2% of cells in blood, matures in 1-2 days
thick yellowish exudate that is formed by dead bacteria and dead neutrophils
protein whose level increases and decreases ('cycles”) during the cell cycle. Required for CDK activity.
Defects in hematopoiesis due to deficiency of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) or folic acid leads to appearance of large oval RBCs (macroovalocytes) in blood and megaloblasts in bone marro
Undifferentiated cell producing cells of multiple lineages, limited self-renewal
true or false: Cells make up 65% of the blood content.
phosphorylation of this protein triggers activation of CDK inhibitor, p21, causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis rather than cell cycle arrest
Both G1 and S phase CDKs regulate what cell process?
shortest phase of cell cycle
exit from cell cycle
main protein content of plasma
a ubiquitin ligase that adds ubiquitin to cyclin
main point of regulation of the cell cycle; cell makes a “commitment” to complete a new cell cycle
life span of platelets
percentage of water in plasma
cell cycle regulation that occurs in G1. Starts the onset of S phase
low hematocrit suggests low circulation of RBCs which is a condition known as ______.
movement out of blood into connective tissue
this protein holds sister chromatids together

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