GI Nervous System & Motility

Can you name the GI Nervous System & Motility?

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reflex arc that involves vagus as the afferent input to the CNS as well as the output to enteric nervous system
neurotransmitter of post ganglionic parasympathetic fibers
parasympathetic control of the upper GI
How frequently does the MMC occur in the absence of food?
T/F: Substance P and acetylcholine act to modulate GI function by inducing hyperpolarization in the post-synaptic cells of the GI.
name the 2 ganglia that have sympathetic control of the lower GI tract
stool frequenct of < 3 times per week
T/F: Sympathetic modulation of the distal GI tract occurs through the pelvic splanchnic nerves.
2 inhibitory neurotransmitters that modulate function of the GI tract
Important for keeping the GI tract clear of harmful bacteria or residual foodstuffs in the absence of food
Gastroesophageal Reflus disease occurs because of dysfunction to which structure?
2 excitatory neurotransmitters that modulate function of the GI tract
T/F: The hypogastric nerve provides inhibitory input (via a adrenergic) to circular smooth muscle layer and stimulatory input to the longitudinal layer of the GI
cells that serve as pacemaker cells,which regulate membrane potential of BER
controls external anal sphincter
T/F: Adaptive relaxation accounts for the stomach's ability to accommodate an increase in volume without a change in pressure.
medical term for inability to swallow
/The hypogastric nerve causes _____ (contraction or relaxation) of the internal anal sphincter through a adrenergic receptors.
t/F: The esophagus, colon, and migrating motor complex have long peristaltic waves, while most peristaltic waves are short
the meissner's plexus is located in which layer of the GI tract wall?
arresting the segmentation of the GI tract is known as what?
only occurs in the absence of food
Has a transit time of 1 to 5 hours
contraction of this layer of smooth muscle causes a shortening of a segment of the GI tract
Which structure maybe involved in dysphagia
T/F the sympathetic nervous system promotes GI function, whereas the parasympathetic nervous system inhibits it.
plexus primarily controls secretion and blood flow. It also receives sensory information from chemo and mechano receptors
QuestionAnswer
contraction of this layer of smooth muscle causes a decrease in diameter of the lumen of the GI
upper 3rd of the esophagus is made of ____ muscle
are mesenchymal non-neuronal tissue of origin
autonomous nervous sytem within the wall of the GI tract that controls secretions, motor activity, sphincters and blood vessels
occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax normally due to degeneration of the myenteric and/or dorsal motor nucleus or Vagus nerve
T/F: activation of the enterochromaffin cells leads to release of serotonin which causes the vomiting reflex
neurotransmitter of post ganglionic sympathetic fibers
this plexus primarily controls the motility of the GI tract
sphincter important for the initiation of swallowing
T/F: Substances move uniformly through the digestive tract,.
efferents of the vagus nerve arise from which nucleus
difficulty swallowing
this division of the CNS projects to the GI tract from the medulla and the sacral spinal cord
Which 2 nervous controls are important for gastric accommodation?
T/F: The change in the electrical potential of the interstitial cells of Cajal translate into the change of smooth muscle contraction of the GI tract.
Which cells release serotonin to induce vomiting?
Vagovagal reflex from stomach that tells the small intestine to contract
T/F: Activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors on the myenteric plexus enhance smooth muscle activity
reflex that occurs when there is something in your stomach and efferent signals tell the large intestine to initiate activity
Where is the MMC initiated?
a single continuous electrical wave that sweeps one way distally from the stomach that affects all muscles of the GI tract
T/F: The Lower esophageal spincter is voluntarily controlled.
What hormone is involved in initiating the MMC?
When threshold is reached in the interstitial cells of Cajal, voltage gated ___ channels are opened, initiating depolarization, in the smooth muscle.
Which hormone is responsible for inducing vomiting?
lower 2/3rds of the esophagus is made of ____ muscle.
During peristalsis, acetylcholine and substance P at _____ (upstream or downstream) of bolus to initiate contraction.
QuestionAnswer
The signal from the interstitial cells of Cajal propagates to the smooth muscle cells through which intercellular junctions?
the ____ control of the GI tract arises primarily from the superior cervical ganglion, celiac ganglion, superior and inferior mesenteric ganglia.
Which layer of smooth muscle causes segmentation?
T/F:At least 50% of stomach contents are released in 24-48 hours.
T/F; High fat diet, chocolate, peppermint, alcohol and smoking can cause an increase in occurence oif GERD.
spinal root levels of the parasympathetic control of the lower GI
This disorder is characterized by heartburn. Occurs due to HCl irritation of esophageal lining
located between the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers
name the 2 ganglia that are responsible for sympathetic control of the upper GI
stool frequency of > 3 times pre day
T/F: Although the enteric nervous system can act autonomously, the central nervous system acts to modulate the activity of the GI tract.
The gastrocolic reflex is mediated via which nerve (efferent limb)?
t/F: Sensory input from the internal anal sphincter occurs via the pelvic splanchnic nerves.
T/F: The internal anal sphincter receives both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation
Which receptor for serotonin is involved in the vomiting response?
During peristalsis, NO and VIP at _____ (upstream or downstream) of bolus to initiate contraction.
cells that acts as mediators to modify motor signals among smooth muscle layers and neurons that control motility (submucosal and myenteric plexuses)
T/F: The vasovagal reflex is important in gastric accommodation.
has a transit time of 24-48 hours
The pelvic splanchnic nerves cause contraction of the longitudinal smooth muscle layer and relaxtion of the internal anal sphincter through which type of cholinergic receptor?
sensory input from the stomach upto the emetic center of the brain occurs primarily via the ____ nerve.
chemoreceptor trigger zone is located in the ___ ventricle
emesis =
T/F: The sympathetic nervous system provides a low tonic inhibition of the GI tract, while the parasympathetic has a large influence on promoting GI activity
Which plexus is continuous throughout the GI tract?
T/F: Rapid segmentation occurs at the distal end of the GI tract.

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