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These mechanisms ensure that only one process is doing certain things at once (others are excluded)- most of these include a locking mechanism
Each process has a ____ ____ of control
Type of semaphore whose integer variable can range over an unrestricted domain
______ operations must be performed entirely or not at all
define broadcast() in the context of a monitor:
Two reasons you might want to allow cooperating processes?
This type of process shares states with other processes
main advantage of multiprogramming?
______ is when the OS saves the state (PC, PSW, regs) of a process and then restores the state of another process (ie. a process that is in the ready state)
What are the correctness criteria for P/V bounded-buffer problem?
define wait() in the context of a monitor:
In this mode, the executing code has complete and unrestricted access to the underlying hardware. It can execute any CPU instruction and reference any memory address
______ can result in a gross misuse of CPU resources when there is I/O.
Two ways to implement a thread library: 1) library entirely in ____ ____ and 2) a _____-level lib supported by ___
The two methods for the birth of a process:
flipping of P's in reader/writer semaphore problem results in _____
What are the three elements of locking?
this is a semaphore that is restricted to locked/unlocked, 0/1, available/unavailable, etc.
This is when you create a number of threads in a pool where they await work:
Given an atomic operation, you can use it to: (2)
Disadvantages of using Process (2):
______ & _____ are atomic operations in almost all systems
This is an atomic operation that increments the semaphore S by 1
This is when the output of a function is unexpectedly and critically dependent on the timing of events:
What are the hardware protection features of an OS?
How does a monitor handle scheduling?
This is when each user-level thread goes to a distinct kernel thread; creating/switching in this case is more costly, but allows for more flexible scheduling
This is when all threads share common kernel thread (and time slice of the process)
after ______, control returns back to next instruction in the program (ret. address- the PC at that point- is pushed onto stack)
What happens if the mutex is intialized to zero?
context switching is ______; processes are not aware that they are being switched.
interrupts are handled at ______
What do you call performing activities one after another?
mutual exclusion within a monitor IS/IS NOT ensured
As a resource manager, what are the OS's main concerns?
Cooperating processes are ______ & _____ and scheduling ____ affect the result
Three operations on condition variables:
This consists of a lock and zero or more condition variables for managing concurrent access to shared data
Contents of CPU: (4 parts)
Only the order of ____ is important, interms of atomic operations on semaphores.
Name the system call: when called with an executable as parameter, the calling process is overwritten by the process created to run this executable
This is a high-level data abstraction tool that provides a convenient and effective mechanism for process synchronization
What are the 3 main OS roles?
Independent processes are ______ & ______ and scheduling _____ affect the result
In this mode, the executing code has no ability to directly access hardware or reference memory. Code running in *** must delegate to system APIs to access hardware or memory. Due
Code + Data + Stack + Heap are typically referred to as
This is an integer variable that can be accessed only through two atomic operations, P() and V(). (invented by Dijkstra)
This is a mechanism for ensuring processes in the critical section execute in nonoverlapping time intervals
What are these conditions: 1)on signal, signaller keeps monitor lock 2) awakened process waits for monitor lock w/ no special priority
A thread pool advantage is that it is faster to service a request on an _____ thread rather than ____ ___ ____ ____
define signal() in the context of a monitor:
This is when the user decides which threads map to distinct kernel threads and which share
Name the system call: a duplicate of the calling process is created (child process) and both processes execute the next instruction after the fork
where do we find the process state?
variables shared between multiple processes are called
How does a monitor handle ME?
Interrupts are _____ while the first interrupt is being processed
This is the section of the code, or collection of operations, in which only one process may be executing at a given time
these are internal variables only accessible by code within a procedure
There is no history when using monitors/semaphores?
What are the two functions served by semaphores?
This is a queue of threads waiting for something inside the CS. (contrasts semaphores, which can't wait inside the CS)
PCB contents (7 sectors, last is '...')
This is the basic unit of CPU utilization; has PC, regs, stack; same address space, open files, signal handlers as process
When should an OS perform context switching?
This is an atomic operation that waits for a semaphore to become positive, then decrements it by 1
What are the 3 classic problems of synchronization?
For every interrupt, there's a fixed mem location for ______
This type of process's state is not shared in any way with other processes
Advantages of using Process (2):
Desirable properties of an ME mechanism? (4)
this is when you use atomic ops to ensure correct cooperation between processes
These were designed to handle asynchronous (possibly external) exents. (ie. disk i/o completion, message arival on a network)
With respect to monitors, why do we use if instead of while in queue handling?
Components of a program, called sectors: (4)
This contains execution state and scheduling info and is abbrev. TCB:
what are the process states? (alpha)
This is a type of synchronous interrupt caused by an exceptional condition (internal event). Results in switch to kernel mode.
What is a process in reference to a thread?
CPU can only be doing one thing at a time: if user process is executing, the dispatcher______ (OS has lost control)
What are the OS design approaches?
When you map user-level threads to kernel threads, this is of the _______ model
How many processes can be active in a monitor at a time?
what is a process?

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