Phylogenetics and Hominid Evolution

Can you name the Population Ecology Terms

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DefinitionTerm
The evolutionary history of a group of organisms
Principle of logic stating that the most likely explanation or pattern is the one implying the least amount of change
Approach that focuses on synapomorphies, shared derived characters of the species under study
ends with a taxon on the tree
In the cladistic method, branch lengths are _______
A derived trait only present in one taxon
Natural Evolutionary Group, supported by one or more synapomorphies due to homology. Contains one common ancestor and all of its descendants
Represents a point where an ancestral species split into two or more descendant species on a tree
Artificial Group, one common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants. Incomplete group. Obscuring due to homoplasy
Artificial Group, several ancestors, but not all descendants. Similar characters due to homoplasy
Homo sapiens evolved its distinctive traits in Africa, dispersing throughout the world, AND they evolved independently of Neanderthals
A graphical representation of ancestor-descendant relationships among populations or species
A set taxa of interest
A _______ represents a population through time on a tree
Branched speciation. Ancestral species has a group that splits off to form a new species, but doesn't replace the old one
DefinitionTerm
In phenetics, branch lengths reflect _________
Compared gene sequences of extinct Neanderthals to humans. Rejected the 'no hybridization' aspect of the out of africa hypothesis
Most basal branch of a tree. Implies the tree continues below
(Phyletic Evolution) Transformation of unbranched speciation. Species replaces itself with a new species
Node with more than two branches
Form the tips of a tree. Can represent populations, species, or higher taxonomic groups
Causes homoplasy. Relatively rare compared to similarity due to shared ancestry
Bounded by two nodes on a tree
Approach based on computing a statistic that summarizes the overall similarity among populations
Taxon closely related to, but not actually part of the ingroup. Primarily used for reference
Closest relatives on a tree
Characteristic shared due to a common ancestor
Scientist that developed a phylogenetic tree for modern humans, also contributed to the out of africa hypothesis
A derived trait shared by several closely related taxa united into a monophyletic group
An ancestral trait shared by all taxa on the tree. Does NOT help define monophyletic groups

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