Science Quiz / Phylogenetics and Hominid Evolution

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Can you name the Population Ecology Terms

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DefinitionTerm
A set taxa of interest
Taxon closely related to, but not actually part of the ingroup. Primarily used for reference
In the cladistic method, branch lengths are _______
The evolutionary history of a group of organisms
Bounded by two nodes on a tree
A graphical representation of ancestor-descendant relationships among populations or species
Principle of logic stating that the most likely explanation or pattern is the one implying the least amount of change
Natural Evolutionary Group, supported by one or more synapomorphies due to homology. Contains one common ancestor and all of its descendants
ends with a taxon on the tree
A derived trait shared by several closely related taxa united into a monophyletic group
Branched speciation. Ancestral species has a group that splits off to form a new species, but doesn't replace the old one
Node with more than two branches
Approach based on computing a statistic that summarizes the overall similarity among populations
Approach that focuses on synapomorphies, shared derived characters of the species under study
Artificial Group, several ancestors, but not all descendants. Similar characters due to homoplasy
DefinitionTerm
In phenetics, branch lengths reflect _________
Causes homoplasy. Relatively rare compared to similarity due to shared ancestry
Homo sapiens evolved its distinctive traits in Africa, dispersing throughout the world, AND they evolved independently of Neanderthals
Compared gene sequences of extinct Neanderthals to humans. Rejected the 'no hybridization' aspect of the out of africa hypothesis
Represents a point where an ancestral species split into two or more descendant species on a tree
(Phyletic Evolution) Transformation of unbranched speciation. Species replaces itself with a new species
Most basal branch of a tree. Implies the tree continues below
A derived trait only present in one taxon
Form the tips of a tree. Can represent populations, species, or higher taxonomic groups
An ancestral trait shared by all taxa on the tree. Does NOT help define monophyletic groups
Artificial Group, one common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants. Incomplete group. Obscuring due to homoplasy
Characteristic shared due to a common ancestor
Scientist that developed a phylogenetic tree for modern humans, also contributed to the out of africa hypothesis
A _______ represents a population through time on a tree
Closest relatives on a tree

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