Science Quiz / Phylogenetics and Hominid Evolution

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Can you name the Population Ecology Terms

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A graphical representation of ancestor-descendant relationships among populations or species
Form the tips of a tree. Can represent populations, species, or higher taxonomic groups
ends with a taxon on the tree
In phenetics, branch lengths reflect _________
Artificial Group, several ancestors, but not all descendants. Similar characters due to homoplasy
A derived trait shared by several closely related taxa united into a monophyletic group
Scientist that developed a phylogenetic tree for modern humans, also contributed to the out of africa hypothesis
Most basal branch of a tree. Implies the tree continues below
An ancestral trait shared by all taxa on the tree. Does NOT help define monophyletic groups
Approach based on computing a statistic that summarizes the overall similarity among populations
Taxon closely related to, but not actually part of the ingroup. Primarily used for reference
Node with more than two branches
(Phyletic Evolution) Transformation of unbranched speciation. Species replaces itself with a new species
The evolutionary history of a group of organisms
In the cladistic method, branch lengths are _______
A _______ represents a population through time on a tree
Characteristic shared due to a common ancestor
Natural Evolutionary Group, supported by one or more synapomorphies due to homology. Contains one common ancestor and all of its descendants
Represents a point where an ancestral species split into two or more descendant species on a tree
Approach that focuses on synapomorphies, shared derived characters of the species under study
Artificial Group, one common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants. Incomplete group. Obscuring due to homoplasy
A derived trait only present in one taxon
Homo sapiens evolved its distinctive traits in Africa, dispersing throughout the world, AND they evolved independently of Neanderthals
Bounded by two nodes on a tree
Principle of logic stating that the most likely explanation or pattern is the one implying the least amount of change
Causes homoplasy. Relatively rare compared to similarity due to shared ancestry
Compared gene sequences of extinct Neanderthals to humans. Rejected the 'no hybridization' aspect of the out of africa hypothesis
Branched speciation. Ancestral species has a group that splits off to form a new species, but doesn't replace the old one
A set taxa of interest
Closest relatives on a tree

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