Literature Quiz / Sociological Terms

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Can you name the Sociological Terms?

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DefinitionTerm
The systematic study of human society
Seeing the General in the Particular
The greater peoples' ____________ the better able they are to use the sociological perspective
The Study of the larger world and our place in it
The nations with the highest overall standards of living. Countries include North America, Australia, Western Europe, South Africa, New Zealand, Japan, ect.
Nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole.
Nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor. Countries include most of Africa and some of Asia.
Coined the term Sociology
A way of understanding something based on science
Three Stages in which Comte saw sociology as the product of a three-stage historical development
This Canadian Sociologist has an argument that Canadian economic development depended on resource extractive and exportation (known as the staple thesis) and formed the backdrop to
Used the phrase, 'The Medium is the Message'
Canada's leading sociologist, he wrote the book 'The Vertical Mosaic' which laid the groundwork for the focus on Canadian Society in the context of development and underdevelopment
A statement of how and why specific facts are related
A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
A framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
These are the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
These are the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
This is any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
The __________ Approach is a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between men and women.
The __________ Approach is a point of view that focuses on the inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories
_______ Level Orientation is a broad focus on social structures that shape society as whole.
_______ Level Orientation is a close up focus on social interaction in specific situations.
A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of indivuduals
This is an approach that is critical of modernism, with a mistrust of grand theories and ideologies that can have either a micro or macro orientation
A logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
Information that we can varify with our senses
This type of sociology is the study of society based on systematic observation of social behaviour
A mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form
A concept whose value changes from case to case
A procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
Specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable
Consistency in Measurement
Actually Measuring exactly what you intend to measure
A relationship in which change in one variable causes change in another
The variable that causes change
The variable that changes
To establish cause and effect, three requirements must be met. A demonstrated __________. An independant variable that occurs _______ the dependant variable, and no evidence that a
A relationship in which two or more variables change together
An apparent but false relationship between two or more variables that is actually caused by some other variable
Holding constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of that variable
A personal neutrality in conducting research
Repetition of research by other investigators
DefinitionTerm
There are _______ Limitations of Scientific Sociology
As per above. The first is Human behaviour is ___________ for sociologists to predict any individual actions precisely
As per above. The second is because humans ___________________, the mere presence of a researcher may affect the behaviour being studied.
As per above. The third is that ___________________. What is true in one time or place may not hold true in another.
As per above. The fourth is because socologists are part of the ____________________, being value-free when conducting social research is difficult.
The study that focuses on the meanings that people attach to their social world.
The study of society that focuses on the need for social change
_________ is the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being either male or female
Margrit Eichler identifies ______ ways in which gender can shape research.
As per above. ____________ refers to approaching an issue from a male perspective. ____________ refers to seeing the world from a female's perspective.
As per above. _____________. This problem occurs when researchers use data drawn from people of only one sex to support conclusions about humanity and society.
As per above. This is failing to consider the variable of gender at all.
As per above. Researchers must be careful not to distort what they study by judging men and women differently.
As per above. Another way gender can distort a study is if a subject reacts to the sex of the researchers, interefering with the research operation.
Feminist Researchers embrace two key tenets: 1. Their research should focus on the condition of _______ in society. 2. Their research must be grounded in the assumption that women
Systematic plan for doing research
Research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
Statement of a possible relationship between two or more variables
A change in a subject's behaviour caused simply by the awareness of being studied.
Part of a population that represents a whole
Research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
Series of written questions a researcher presents to subjects.
The first type of questionnaire: Provides questions with a selection of fixed responses
The second type of questionnaire: Allows subjects to respond freely
A research method in which a researcher utilizes data collected from others
Transforms specific observations into a theory
Transforms a theory into a specific hypothesis suitable for testing
Values, beliefs, behaviour and material objects that together form a people's way of life
Personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
Anything that carries a particular meaning
System of symbols that allow people to communicate with one another
The process by which one generation passes culture to the next
This hypothesis states that people percieve the world through the cultural lens of language
Culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, beautiful, and that serve as broad guidelines for living
Cultural patterns that are widespread throughout the society
Cultural patterns that set apart some segments of a society's population
___________ is embodied in social policy designed to encourage ethnic or cultural heterogenity.
Dominance of Eurpoean Cultural Patterns
Cultural Patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
The practice of judging culture by its own standards
Global Economy is the flow of __________
Global Communication is the flow of _______
DefinitionTerm
Global Migration is the Flow of _______
Traits that are part of every known culture
The theoretical appriach that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture
People who interact in a defined territory and share culture
_________ Used the term Sociocultural Evolution
Sociocultural evolution speaks about the changes that occur as a society gains new ________
The use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation. From about 3 million years ago to about 12000 years ago our species were all this type of society.
About 10000 to 12000 years ago a new technology began to change the lives of human beings. People discovered _________, the use of hand tools to raise crops.
The domestication of animals
Once a society is capable of a ______________ not everyone has to work at providing food. This lead to societies with much greater inequality.
About 500 years ago the development of _________ societies was taking place. This is the large scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources. T
The production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
Technology that supports an information based economy
_______________ Developed the idea of social conflict, which is the struggle between segments of society over valued resources.
Marx observed that the economic system turned a small part of the population into _________, people who own and operated factories and other businesses in persuit of profits.
A capitalist tries to make a profit by selling a product for more than it costs to produce. People who sell their labor for wages are known as _________
All societies are composed of ____________, the major spheres of social life, or subsystems, organized to meet human needs.
For Marx, conflict is the engine that drives social _______.
Worker's recognition of themselves as a class unified in opposition to capitalists and ultimately to capitalism itself.
Marx also condemned capitalists for producing ___________, the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness. He notes four ways that this occurs.
See Above. Alienation from the _______________. Capitalism denies workers a say in what they make and how they make it.
See Above. Alienation from the ________________. the product of work belongs to the capitalists, not the workers
See Above. Alienation form ___________________. Capitalism makes work very competitive rather than co-operative, setting each person apart from everyone else and offering little ch
See Above. Alienation from ________________. Industrial capitalism turns an actviity that should express the best qualities in human beings into a dull and dehumanizing experience.
____________ produced what many experts regard as the greatest individual contribution to sociology. He understood the power of technology and disagreed with Marx's philosophy abou
A way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter of fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task.
Weber saw industrial capitalism as the major outcome of a Christian religious movement founded by John Calvin, known as
Calvinists blieved that their fate and destinies were chosen for them and there was no way to alter them, therefore they threw themselves into a quest for ________
According to Weber rationality is the basis of modern society, giving rise to both the industrial revolution and capitalism. There are ________ characteristics of a rational social
1. __________________: Specialized social institutions are a rational strategy to meet human needs efficiently
2. __________________: Modern rationality can be seen in the spread of large scale organizations.
3. __________________: Unlike people in traditional societies, people in modern societies are likely to have increasinly specialized jobs.
4. __________________: Modern societies put a premium on slef-disciplines
5. __________________: In traditional socities, people measure time according to the rhythm of the sun and seasons. People of modern societies have tasks scheduled to the hour or m
6. __________________: Members of traditional societies size people up on the basis of who they are - their family ties. Modern rationality leads us to judge people according to wh
7. __________________: In a rational society, technical competence is the basis for hiring, so the world becomes more impersonal. Because showing your feelings can threaten persona
Another term for a rational organization is _________, which has much in common with capitalism.
Weber feared that in the end the rationalization of society would reduce human beings to _______.
_______________ supported the structural-functional theory.
A condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals
Social bonds, based on common sentiments and shared moral values, which are strong among members of pre-industrialized societies.
Social bonds, based on specialization and interdependence, which are strong among members of industrial societies.

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