Science Quiz / BIOSC 1080 Exam 2 - Part 1

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Can you name the terms for the BIOSC 1080 Exam 2?

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HintAnswer
an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals
a major component of the central nervous system that contains cell bodies and unmyelinated axons
is the zone of thin filaments in a sarcomere that is not superimposed by thick filaments
the function of the nervous system that refers to its ability to gather and interpret bioelectric information and determine an appropriate response
a bundle of fibers that connects different parts of the central nervous system; found in white matter
a biological process by which glucose is converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate in the absence of oxygen
the increasing of neuronal firing rate to optimize summated tension in muscle fibers
neuroglia that wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system
an autoimmune disorder that results in the blocking of the achetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular synapses
muscle naming criterion that refers to its connections at the bone and the structure that it controls
term that refers to conducting away from
a hydrolase that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials
type of repolarization that utilizes the sodium-potassium pump to return the membrane to its resting potential
the thin epithelium-like lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord that is involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid
an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system that conducts both incoming sensory information and outgoing muscle commands in the same bundle
the function of the nervous system that refers to its ability to transmit bioelectric impulses throughout the body
type of nervous tissue that is found in the central spinal cord
the thick filament in muscle fibers
term that refers to conducting inward or toward something
enlarged areas of the sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounding the transverse tubules that store calcium
neuroglia that provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system
non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
the decline in ability of a muscle to generate force
the number of potassium ions taken into the internal environment of a cell via the sodium-potassium pump
a major component of the central nervous system that contains long-range myelinated axon tracts
the function of the nervous system that refers to its ability to cause an appropriate response to a stimulus
the outermost layer of dense irregular connective tissue surrounding a peripheral nerve
the change in membrane potential that returns it to a negative value
the body's oxygen deficiency resulting from strenuous physical activity
a division of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for stimulation of 'rest-and-digest' or 'feed and breed' activities that occur when the body is at rest
the metabolic byproduct of anaerobic respiration in muscle tissue
HintAnswer
bundles of muscle fibers
fast twitch muscle tissue devoid of much mytochondria and myoglobin that contracts quickly and powerfully but fatigue very rapidly, sustaining only short bursts of activity
an intermediate layer of connective tissue in a peripheral nerve, surrounding each bundle of nerve fibers
slow twitch muscle tissue dense in blood vessels and rich in mitochondria and myoglobin
groups of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic regions of the peripheral nervous system
the sudden change within a cell during which the cell undergoes a dramatic electrical change in the positive direction
the continuous and passive part contraction of the muscles
a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system; found in gray matter
muscle naming criterion that includes such terms as extensor, flexor, and abductor
the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord; serves as a communication relay between the CNS and the extremities
the thin filament in muscle fibers
muscle fatigue caused by a shortage of fuel within the muscle fiber such as oxygen, ATP, or calcium
the activation of more motor units to produce a greater force
muscle fatigue caused by a person's emotional or mental state
mechanism involved in the propagation of action potentials down an axon
muscle fatigue caused by a nerve’s ability to sustain a high-frequency signal
an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system that conduct signals from the central nervous system along motor neurons to their target tissues
an insulating fatty material found around neurons
the function of the nervous system that refers to its ability to receive stimuli from the envrionment
a neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc
muscle naming criterion that includes such terms as maximus, minimus, longus, and brevis
the zone of the thick filaments in a sarcomere that is not superimposed by the thin filaments
the dense connective tissue that surrounds individual muscles
a division of the autonomic nervous system that stimulates the body's fight-or-flight response
an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus without the use of neuronal integration
the connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fascicle
a neurotransmitter released by nerve cells in many parts of the peripheral nervous system that controls the contraction of all skeletal or voluntary muscles
muscle naming criterion that includes such terms as deltoid, trapezius, serratus, and rhomboideus
the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements
the basic unit of a muscle fiber
the reticular tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber
the border that separates and links sarcomeres within a skeletal muscle
HintAnswer
the entire length of a single thick filament in a sarcomere
ion that is found in the highest concentrations on the interior side of excitable membranes during periods of rest
glial cells in the brain and spinal cord that provide biochemical support to endothelial cells that form the blood–brain barrier and nutrients to the nervous system
the oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates
a threadlike protein complex found in muscle fibers
an active transporter found on excitable membranes that maintains the resting potential of neurons
the component of the actin myofilament that features calcium binding sites for periods of contraction
a specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum in muscle tissue that contains high levels of calcium
a layer of delicate connective tissue around the myelin sheath of each myelinated nerve fiber
muscle naming criterion that includes such terms as rectus, transversus, and oblique
a type of glial cell that are the resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, and thus act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system
the gaps formed between the myelin sheaths generated by different cells
a motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fibers innervated by that motor neuron's axonal terminals
a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs
an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system that carry information based on environmental or spatial stimuli; generally afferent in nature
the long, cylindrical, multinucleated cells that form skeletal muscle
the principle that the strength by which a nerve or muscle fiber responds to a stimulus is independent of the strength of the stimulus
the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord; involved in neuronal integration and coordination
the rigidity of a body after death caused by the lack of ATP, leaving muscle cells in a state of contraction
muscle naming criterion that refers to the number of points of attachments (e.g., biceps, triceps, quadriceps)
muscle naming criterion that includes such terms as pectoralis, femoris, and abdominis
type of repolarization that uses voltage-gated potassium channels to return a membrane to its resting potential
ion that is taken in via voltage-gated channels during depolarization
deep invaginations of the sarcolemma in skeletal muscle cells that allow depolarization of the membrane to quickly penetrate to the interior
the number of sodium ions released from a cell into its external environment via the sodium-potassium pump
the component of the actin myofilament that covers the myosin-binding active sites on the actin globules
an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system
ion that is found in the highest concentrations on the exterior of excitable membranes during periods of rest
type of nervous tissue that is found in the cerebral cortex on the outside of the brain
type of nervous tissue that is found in the interior brain
ion that is released via voltage-gated channels during repolarization

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