Science Quiz / BIOSC 1080 Exam 2 - Part 1

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Can you name the terms for the BIOSC 1080 Exam 2?

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the connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fascicle
the dense connective tissue that surrounds individual muscles
a hydrolase that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system that carry information based on environmental or spatial stimuli; generally afferent in nature
mechanism involved in the propagation of action potentials down an axon
the component of the actin myofilament that features calcium binding sites for periods of contraction
an autoimmune disorder that results in the blocking of the achetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular synapses
muscle fatigue caused by a nerve’s ability to sustain a high-frequency signal
the entire length of a single thick filament in a sarcomere
a biological process by which glucose is converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate in the absence of oxygen
an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system that conducts both incoming sensory information and outgoing muscle commands in the same bundle
a major component of the central nervous system that contains long-range myelinated axon tracts
the basic unit of a muscle fiber
enlarged areas of the sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounding the transverse tubules that store calcium
an intermediate layer of connective tissue in a peripheral nerve, surrounding each bundle of nerve fibers
type of repolarization that utilizes the sodium-potassium pump to return the membrane to its resting potential
a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system; found in gray matter
muscle naming criterion that refers to the number of points of attachments (e.g., biceps, triceps, quadriceps)
muscle naming criterion that includes such terms as extensor, flexor, and abductor
muscle naming criterion that refers to its connections at the bone and the structure that it controls
the reticular tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber
the function of the nervous system that refers to its ability to receive stimuli from the envrionment
a threadlike protein complex found in muscle fibers
the change in membrane potential that returns it to a negative value
an insulating fatty material found around neurons
a bundle of fibers that connects different parts of the central nervous system; found in white matter
type of nervous tissue that is found in the interior brain
the component of the actin myofilament that covers the myosin-binding active sites on the actin globules
is the zone of thin filaments in a sarcomere that is not superimposed by thick filaments
the decline in ability of a muscle to generate force
bundles of muscle fibers
the continuous and passive part contraction of the muscles
HintAnswer
a major component of the central nervous system that contains cell bodies and unmyelinated axons
ion that is found in the highest concentrations on the interior side of excitable membranes during periods of rest
a layer of delicate connective tissue around the myelin sheath of each myelinated nerve fiber
the outermost layer of dense irregular connective tissue surrounding a peripheral nerve
a motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fibers innervated by that motor neuron's axonal terminals
the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements
muscle fatigue caused by a shortage of fuel within the muscle fiber such as oxygen, ATP, or calcium
a division of the autonomic nervous system that stimulates the body's fight-or-flight response
the number of potassium ions taken into the internal environment of a cell via the sodium-potassium pump
neuroglia that wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system
the number of sodium ions released from a cell into its external environment via the sodium-potassium pump
muscle naming criterion that includes such terms as rectus, transversus, and oblique
muscle naming criterion that includes such terms as pectoralis, femoris, and abdominis
the thin epithelium-like lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord that is involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid
the metabolic byproduct of anaerobic respiration in muscle tissue
non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
muscle fatigue caused by a person's emotional or mental state
an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system that conduct signals from the central nervous system along motor neurons to their target tissues
a neurotransmitter released by nerve cells in many parts of the peripheral nervous system that controls the contraction of all skeletal or voluntary muscles
an active transporter found on excitable membranes that maintains the resting potential of neurons
a division of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for stimulation of 'rest-and-digest' or 'feed and breed' activities that occur when the body is at rest
the rigidity of a body after death caused by the lack of ATP, leaving muscle cells in a state of contraction
the increasing of neuronal firing rate to optimize summated tension in muscle fibers
an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system
neuroglia that provide support and insulation to axons in the central nervous system
the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials
the border that separates and links sarcomeres within a skeletal muscle
muscle naming criterion that includes such terms as maximus, minimus, longus, and brevis
a specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum in muscle tissue that contains high levels of calcium
ion that is found in the highest concentrations on the exterior of excitable membranes during periods of rest
the body's oxygen deficiency resulting from strenuous physical activity
the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord; serves as a communication relay between the CNS and the extremities
HintAnswer
an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus without the use of neuronal integration
the oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates
the long, cylindrical, multinucleated cells that form skeletal muscle
slow twitch muscle tissue dense in blood vessels and rich in mitochondria and myoglobin
the thin filament in muscle fibers
deep invaginations of the sarcolemma in skeletal muscle cells that allow depolarization of the membrane to quickly penetrate to the interior
the activation of more motor units to produce a greater force
a neuron that transmits impulses between other neurons, especially as part of a reflex arc
ion that is released via voltage-gated channels during repolarization
the function of the nervous system that refers to its ability to gather and interpret bioelectric information and determine an appropriate response
the principle that the strength by which a nerve or muscle fiber responds to a stimulus is independent of the strength of the stimulus
the sudden change within a cell during which the cell undergoes a dramatic electrical change in the positive direction
the function of the nervous system that refers to its ability to transmit bioelectric impulses throughout the body
type of nervous tissue that is found in the cerebral cortex on the outside of the brain
a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs
term that refers to conducting away from
the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord; involved in neuronal integration and coordination
the gaps formed between the myelin sheaths generated by different cells
muscle naming criterion that includes such terms as deltoid, trapezius, serratus, and rhomboideus
an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals
ion that is taken in via voltage-gated channels during depolarization
groups of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic regions of the peripheral nervous system
glial cells in the brain and spinal cord that provide biochemical support to endothelial cells that form the blood–brain barrier and nutrients to the nervous system
type of repolarization that uses voltage-gated potassium channels to return a membrane to its resting potential
term that refers to conducting inward or toward something
fast twitch muscle tissue devoid of much mytochondria and myoglobin that contracts quickly and powerfully but fatigue very rapidly, sustaining only short bursts of activity
the zone of the thick filaments in a sarcomere that is not superimposed by the thin filaments
the function of the nervous system that refers to its ability to cause an appropriate response to a stimulus
the thick filament in muscle fibers
type of nervous tissue that is found in the central spinal cord
a type of glial cell that are the resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, and thus act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system

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