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An abnormal opening in the interventricular septum. Most common of all congenital heart lesions. Many close spontaneously within the first few years of life.
__________consists of a discrete narrowing of the aortic lumen and occurs in patients with Turner syndrome (45,XO)
Chest X-ray may show RA and RV enlargement in this congenital heart defect. Most infants are asymptomatic and typically detected by the presence of a murmur.
In ______, each great vessel inappropriately arises from the opposite ventricle. The aorta originates from the RV and the pulmonary artery originates from the LV.
This condition is due to obstruction to right ventricular outflow at the level of the pulmonic valve.
Symptoms include 'spells': irritability, cyanosis, hyperventilation, and occasional syncope or convulsions.
Common and correctable congenital heart defect. A persistent opening in the interatrial septum after birth that allows communication between the left and right atria.
A loud late-peaking crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur is heard at the upper left sternal border, often associated with a palpable thrill. Widened splitting of S2.
Physical finding is a harsh holosystolic murmur that is best heard at the left sternal border. Smallest defects tend to have the loudest murmurs. Palpable thrill.
On examination, the femoral pulses are weak and delayed. An elevated blood pressure in the upper body (15-20mmHg greater) is the most common finding.
The aortic valve in _______usually has a bicuspid leaflet structure instead of the normal three-leaflet configuration, causing an eccentric stenotic opening through which blood is
Results when the ductus arterious fails to close after birth, resulting in a persistent connection between the great vessels.
Ausculation reveals harsh crescendo-decrescendo systolic murmur, loudest at the base of the heart with radiation to the neck.
10% of infants with large defects of this condition will develop early symptoms of CHF, tachypnea, poor feeding, failure to thrive, and frequent lower respiratory tract infections.
Treatment of this condition involves the avoidance of activities that can exacerbate the right-to-left shunt. These include strenous physical activity, high altitude, and use of pe
This defect arises from inadequate formation of the septum secundum, excessive resoprtion of the septum primum, or a combination.
Deoxygenated blood returning from the systemic veins are diverted from the RV to LV and into systemic circulation causing hypoxemia and cyanosis.
Condition of severe pulmonary vascular obstruction that results from chronic left-to-right shunting through a congenital cardiac defect.
Initial treatment of this condition is maintenance of ductus arteriosus by prostaglandin infusion and creation of an interatrial communication using a balloon catheter.
The most common finding is a continuous machine-like murmur heard best at the left subclavicular region (2nd left intercostal).
Results from an abnormal anterior and cephalad displacement of the infundibular (outflow tract) portion of the interventricular septum. Four anomalies characterize this condition.
'Boot shaped heart' - Prominence of the RV and decrease size of the main pulmonary artery.
A patient with this condition appears cyanotic with digital clubbing.
Infants appear blue. The general cyanosis is apparent on the first day of life and progresses rapidly as the ductus arteriosus closes. May have an accentuated S2.
Patients with large shunts have cardiomegaly (LA and LV enlargement) and prominent pulmonary vascular markings.
Procedure of choice is Jatene procedure which involves transection of the great vessels above the semilunar valves and origin of the coronary arteries.
This defect is repaired by direct suture closure or with a pericardial or synthetic patch. An Amplatzer device can be deployed in the cath lab for defects in the septum secundum.
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