CH 14 AP Euro

Can you name the main concepts of CH 14 AP Euro?

A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist; his system that became the vehicle for Christian Scholasticism and medieval Islamic philosophy
Roman but of Greek ancestry; wrote Almagest; 'authority on astronomy' throughout Middle Ages; suggested a geocentric model of the universe
Polish priest & scientist; wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; developed heliocentric model
Opposed Copernicus; thought Mercury & Venus revolved around sun but other planets revolved around the earth. Popularized heliocentric model
First used a telescope for observations; condemned by Catholic church; law of falling objects; expanded on ancient themes; mathematics
The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687); he identified the cause of planetary motion; discovered the laws of physics
English physician; recognized the full circulation of the blood in the human body; provided experiments and arguments to support this
He used Brahe's data to prove heliocentric model and that plants move in elliptical orbits
French mathematician; physicist; religious philosopher; religious doctrine taught experience of God through the heart not reason
French mathematician; scientist; philosopher; mind-body dualism; science grounded in observation and experiment
Father of empiricism & experimentation in science; real accomplishment was helping create a climate conducive to scientific work
German philosopher; mathematician; and political adviser; independent invention of the differential and integral calculus
Revolutionized study of biology & practice of medicine; careful description of the anatomy of the human body; fomprehensive textbook of anatomy
Natural philosopher & theologist; chemistry-hydrostatics-physics-medicine-earth sciences-natural history-and alchemy; the limits of reason; Christian
First to calculate the orbit of a comet later named after him
Courageous crusader against tyranny-bigotry-and cruelty; critical capacity; wit; satire; ideal of progress
Scottish philosopher; historian; Economist; Essayist known especially for his philosophical empiricism and skepticism
French political philosopher whose major work 'The Spirit of Laws' was a major contribution to political theory
Swiss-born philosopher; writer; political theorist whose treatises and novels inspired the leaders of the French Revolution and the Romantic generation
Italian criminologist and economist whose Dei delitti e delle pene (Crime and Punishment) was a celebrated volume on the reform of criminal justice
German philosopher; work in epistemology (the theory of knowledge); ethics; aesthetics; greatly influenced all subsequent philosophy
An intellectually gifted woman; studied physics & mathematics; elite but was excluded from the Royal Academy of Sciences; mistress of Voltaire
French hostess whose salon in the Hôtel de Rambouillet was an international meeting place of artists and men of letters from 1749 to 1777
Scottish social philosopher and political economist. Known primarily for 'An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)'
English rationalist historian and scholar best known as the author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776-88)
Austrian composer; greatest composer in Western music. He brought to its height the achievement of the Viennese Classical school
This work offered an alternative model of the universe to Ptolemy's geocentric system; work on heliocentric theory
Who wrote On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres?
This later work by Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle was an expansive explanation of the heliocentric model of Copernicus; his most famous work
This work states Newton's laws of motion; classical mechanics; law of universal gravitation; a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion
First published scientific work based on observations made through a telescope; Galileo's early observations of the imperfect and mountainous Moon
This work is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man
This work condemned torture and the death penalty; was a founding work in the field of penology; by Cesare Beccaria
Rousseau theorized this was the best way to establish a political community in the face of the problems of commercial society
Written by Montesquieu; a treatise on political theory
Voltaire's famous work; 'we must cultivate our garden' in lieu of the Leibnizian mantra of Pangloss 'all is for the best' in the 'best of all possible worlds'
Earth is center surrounded by crystalline spheres; a description of the cosmos where Earth is at the orbital center of all celestial bodies
Having or representing the sun as the center; as in the accepted astronomical model of the solar system
Series of steps followed to solve problems; collecting data and formulating a hypothesis and testing the hypothesis & stating conclusions
A small circle; center moves around circumference of a larger one; explained problems of plants movement backwards in geocentric theory
Knowledge originates in experience; science should rely on observation & experimentation; all knowledge is derived from sense-experience
Theory*** that the sun is the center of our universe and all the planets orbit around it
Who's world view went concluded that a motionless Earth was fixed as the center of the universe based on pre-scientific revolution ideas & religion
A belief or theory that opinions and actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than on religious belief or emotional response
Reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case
Generalizations based on a large number of specific observations; generalizations derived from and test hypotheses against empirical observations
(1662) boasted some of the greatest minds of the age; here Newton first made public his most important discoveries; started under Charles II
Descartes's view that all of reality could ultimately be reduced to mind and matter; the mental cannot exist outside of the body and the body cannot think
Informal social gatherings at which writers and artists and philosophes and others exchanged ideas
A popular Enlightenment era belief that there is a God but that God isn't involved in people's lives or in revealing truths to prophets
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Last Updated: Feb 16, 2017

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