Science Quiz / Metamorphic & Sedimentary Rock Terms

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a general summary of a particular depositional system, involving many individual examples from recent sediments and ancient rocks
exfoliation, frost acation, abrasion
broken rock and mineral grains
grain boundaries do not equal crystal faces
porosity developed during diagenesis
set of processes that produce textural and mineralogical changes between diagenesis and melting
neo & recrystallization as temperature and pressure decrease, typically during uplift or exhumation
a measure of how well fluid will flow through a rock
affect large volume of rocks
platy and acicular minerals intergrown in a nonfoliated, interlocking and locally radiating manner
a size parameter used to describe the textures of clastic rocks by relating the variation in grain sizes within the rock, it affects porosity and permeability
the finer-grained material that occurs between the coarser grains in a rock
chemically precipitated material that fills the spaces between framework grains in sedimentary rocks
moss growth, tree roots
all changes undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition, exclusive of weathering and metamorphism
geographic area where sediments are/have accumulated
a body of rock characterized by a particular combination of lithology, physical and biologoical structures that are different from the bodies above, below and laterally adjacent
few, large grains that occur when nucleation is inhibited
crystal that gets its outline from neighbouring crystals
very closely spaced alignment of minerals produced by directional stress
porosity developed developed when seiment is deposited
most commonly H2O or CO2, induce changes in rock, alter mineralogy
mineral bounded by its own faces
preferred linear alignments of elements such as minerals, bundles of microfolds, striations or grooves, or intersections of 2 planar features
a process in which pressure is concentrated at the point of contact between 2 grains, causing the contact area to dissolve and allowing for subsequent migration of ions or molecule
pre-metamorphic rock
correlates to depth of burial, tensions, compression or shear
an indication of the efficiency of the transport medium, it is evaluated on the amount of matrix and the roundness & sorting of clasts
formation and growth of new minerals, most common, same as diagenesis but at higher temperatures
increase of temperature with depth
arenite with >50% lithic rock fragments
a sedimentary rock dominated by particles of less than 0.004mm in diameter, lacking in laminations and >75% matrix
visible on hand sample scale
reorganization and movement of grain boundaries, most obvious in monomineralic rocks
controls the kinds of materials that will be available as sediment, the source area from which sediment is derived
structures that prevade rock
neocrystallization and recrystallization as temperature and pressure increase, typically during burial
pressure is main agent
rocks that have undergone a change in form
metamorphism dominated by chemical changes
a special type of foliation where the planar features are closely spaced and regular, imparting a splitting property to rocks
small scale effect of metasomatism
structures or minerals from parents rock that did not undergo metamorphosis when surrounding rock did
arenite with > 50% feldpar
type of sandstone characterized by a matrix of between 15 and 75%
mainly this section scale, involve grain to grain relationships
affects small volume of rocks
type of sandstone with matrix minerals comprising 15% or less of the rock
caused mainly by heat
caused mainly by deviatoric stress
results from radioactivity and magma emplacement
3rd weathering method, hydration etc.
crushing and breaking of rocks

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