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Early Modern Terms Study Guide

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DefinitionTerm
Dutch colony established at the Cape of Good Hope in 1852. Expanded by 1770, causing conflicts with the Bantu.
form of Protestantism established by Henry VIII in 1534
Dutch settlers in Cape Colony
religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning monarchy powers. lasted 1640-1660
Russian tsarina in the 18th century. She ruled after her husband's assassination. she accepted Western influence, and gave power to the aristocracy
Restatement of Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant reformation
area that produce low cost goods in exchange for manufactured goods from Western Europe
established skeptical review of all received wisdom. argued that human reason could develop laws to explain nature
Ended the Thirty Years War in 1648. Granted the right to individual rulers of the Holy Roman empire to choose their religion
joint stock companies that obtained government monopoly over trade in India and acted virtually independent in claimed regions
'The Great'. Price of Duchy of Moscow. Defendant of Rurik. Freed Russia from mongols after 1462
nations that profit from the world economy. controlled by international banking and shipping
intellectual movement in France during the 19th century. featured scientific advances and methods, and belief that rational laws could describe social behavior
18th cent. Prussian king. Attempt to bring enlightenment reforms to Germany. built on military & bureaucratic foundations, introduced freedom of religion, & increased state economy
published Copernicus' findings and added his on discoveries on gravity and planetary motion. was condemned by the Catholic church
Portuguese explorer who sailed to India in 1498
British Colonies in North America
English overthrow of James II in 1688. Parliament has sovereignty over the king.
peasants recruited to migrate to Russia. combined agriculture with military conquest
introduced movable type in the 15th century. credited with availability of printed books.
17th century English physician who observed circular movement of blood and the heart as a pump
DefinitionTerm
focus on humankind as the center of intellectual and artistic endeavor
cultural and intellectual movement beginning in the 14th and 15th centuries that first challenged medieval intellectual values and styles
Followed Ivan IV's death w/out heir in early 17th cent. Boyars attempt to use the power vacuum to reestablish authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as Tsar in 1613
'The Terrible'. Attacked the power of boyars, continued Russian expansion, and established contacts with Western Europe
a religious order founded during Catholic Reformation. active in politics, education, missionary work, and sponsored missions to South America, North America, and Asia.
important figure in astronomy who built upon the works of Copernicus to resolve basic issues of planetary motion
Naval battle between Spain and the Ottoman Empire in 1571. Spain won, showing European naval superiority over Muslims
17th century English philosopher. Argued people could learn through sense, government power came from the people and not divine right of kings; provided possibility of a revolution
German monk that initiated the Protestant reformation in 1517 by nailing the 95 Theses to the door of Wittenberg Castle. Emphasized the primacy of faith over work
Author of 'The Prince'. Emphasized realistic discussions on how to seize and maintain power. Most influential author of the Italian Renaissance
Spanish captain who circumnavigated the world in 1519. Died on the voyage, but allowed Spain to claim the Philippines.
War within the Holy Roman empire between German protestants and allies (Sweden, Denmark, and France) and the emporer and his ally (Spain); ended 1648 with the treaty of Westphalia
An economic theory that stressed government promotion of limitation of imports in order to improve tax revenues
French colonies in North America that extended from the St. Lawrence river along the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi river valley
Biological and ecological exchange following the establishment of colonies in the New World
Arranged in 1763 after the Seven Years War. Granted New France to England in exchange of French sugar islands in the Caribbean
Author:'Principia' 17th cent. English scientist; drew astronomical/physical observation & wider theories on network of natural law; established principle of motion, defined gravity
Enlightenment feminist thinker in England. Argued that new political rights should extend to women
Established by Europeansin the 16th century. Based on control of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; created international exchange of food, disease, and manufactured goods
17th century period of empirical advances associated with the development of theoretical generalization. resulted in the change in traditional beliefs of the Middle Ages
cultural and intellectual movement in Northern Europe. centered in France, the low countries, England, and Germany. larger emphasis on religion than the Italian renaissance
DefinitionTerm
Russians that refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov. Many exiled to Siberia
Government with monarch who can pass laws without the parliament, appoints armies and bureaucracies, establishes state churches, and imposes economic policies
Three separate divisions of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795, which eliminated Poland
Polish monk and astronomer that disproved the theory of earth as the center of the universe
Son if Alexis Romanov. ruled 1689-1725. During his reign, a growth of absolution and conquest, including definite interest in changing economy & culture by imitating Western Europe
French Protestant who stressed predestination, established a group at Swiss Canton of Geneva, encouraged wider access to government and public education
Class of working people without access to producing property. included manufacturing workers, paid laborers, and the urban poor
wave of religious dissent against the Catholic church. Began with 95 Theses in 1517.
occurred in the 1770's during the reign of Catherine the Great, lead by cossack Emelyan Pugachev, claiming to be the true tsar
Second Romanov. abolished assemblies of nobles, and gained power over Russian Orthodox Church
Genoese captain; sailed to the New World and discovered America in 1492
elected in 1613 during the Time of Troubles; ruled until 1917
New capital of Russia. established during the reign of Peter the Great.
fought in Europe and the colonies between 1756-1763, and resulted in the Prussian seizure of land from Austria, and English seizures of colonies in India and North America
Author of 'Wealth of Nations' (1776). Established liberal economics and argued the government should avoid regulation of the economy in favor of the operation market forces
Russian claim to be the successor state to Rome and the Byzantine empire. Based in part on continuity of the Orthodox church in Russia following the fall of Constantinople in 1453
concept of God during the scientific revolution, and the role of divinity to set natural laws in motion
Grant of tolerance to Protestants in 1598 after religious wars
17th century French monarch who personified absolute monarchy

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