Science Quiz / USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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QUIZ: Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Skin hyperpigmentation
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
“Worst headache of my life”
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Painless jaundice
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
WBC casts in urine
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Rash on palms and soles
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Rash on palms and soles
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Blue sclera
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Athlete with polycythemia
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Bluish line on gingiva
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Single palm crease
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Cold intolerance
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Severe jaundice in neonate
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase

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