Science Quiz / USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Single palm crease
Rash on palms and soles
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Rash on palms and soles
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Athlete with polycythemia
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Skin hyperpigmentation
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Blue sclera
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Cold intolerance
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Severe jaundice in neonate
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
WBC casts in urine
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Painless jaundice
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Bluish line on gingiva
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
“Worst headache of my life”
Fat, female, forty, and fertile

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