Science Quiz / USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
WBC casts in urine
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Severe jaundice in neonate
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Bluish line on gingiva
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
“Worst headache of my life”
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Painless jaundice
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Blue sclera
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Athlete with polycythemia
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Rash on palms and soles
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Cold intolerance
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Skin hyperpigmentation
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Rash on palms and soles
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Single palm crease
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia

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