Science Quiz / USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Severe jaundice in neonate
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Rash on palms and soles
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Blue sclera
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Painless jaundice
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Bluish line on gingiva
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Skin hyperpigmentation
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Single palm crease
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
“Worst headache of my life”
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Cold intolerance
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Athlete with polycythemia
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Rash on palms and soles
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
WBC casts in urine
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers

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