Science Quiz / USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Rash on palms and soles
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Athlete with polycythemia
Single palm crease
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Bluish line on gingiva
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Painless jaundice
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Rash on palms and soles
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Blue sclera
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Severe jaundice in neonate
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Skin hyperpigmentation
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
“Worst headache of my life”
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
WBC casts in urine
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Cold intolerance
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies

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