Science Quiz / USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Blue sclera
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Cold intolerance
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Severe jaundice in neonate
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Rash on palms and soles
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Single palm crease
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Rash on palms and soles
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Athlete with polycythemia
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Skin hyperpigmentation
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Painless jaundice
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
“Worst headache of my life”
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
WBC casts in urine
Bluish line on gingiva
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis

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