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Region south of the Aral sea at the Delta of the Amu Darya
Religiously diverse nomads who's empire stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan at its height
Hold that Abu Bakr was the rightful heir to Muhammad as the authority over Islam. Tribal decisions --> authority
Persian city near the Caspian
Agreement between Muhammad's tribe and the Quaresh which stipulated a ten year peace and authorization for Muhammad's tribe to return to Mecca peacefully/Supposedly signed ___
First Muslim dynasty, oversaw the expansion of Islam through Khorizan, North Africa to Spain/year of establishment/year of collapse/capital
Battle in 1071 between the Seljuk Turks and the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuks were victorious, capturing the Byzantine emperor and opening Asia Minor to Turkish expansion.
Record of the Prophet's teachings deeds and sayings
Christian empire centered around the eastern end of the Mediterranean , and located between the Nile Valley, the southern shore of the Black Sea, and inland as far as Mesopotamia,
Old city in Palestine with significance for all Abrahamic traditions
Ancient Christian Ethiopian region
Ayat in the Quaran that shows the characteristics of people who will be forgiven and rewarded by God. Some scholars take these verses to mean equal worth of women and men and thus
Concept of monotheism in Islam
Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia
Zakat: _____.
Sunni Persian dynasty ruled East Iran and Khoresan from 861 to 1003. Gained independence from Abbasid caliphate
the founder of Islamic political philosophy (d.950)
“Verse” or “sign.” Refers to divisions within surahs (chapters) of the Quran.
the human attempt to understand divine law
Name given to the sequence of sultans and patrons who ruled in Syria and Egypt from 1250 to 1517, most of whom were of slaveorigin.
a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and geographer during the Abbasid Caliphate, a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad(d.850)
Often translated to 'religion' but means 'judgement'/ monotheistic tradition that began with the covenant between God and humanity marked by the obedience of Abraham
Believe the line of succession ended with Jafr's son (6th Imam), popular in South Asia. Included the Fatimids
Islamic jurist of the Shafi'i school most remembered for his works on religion, government, the caliphate, and public and constitutional law during a time of political turmoil (d.
Those to whom the Qu'ran grants religious freedom
Shahadah: sincerely reciting the Muslim profession of ___.
Originated after al-Shafii's school, put greater emphasis on precedent and greater freedom in Itjihad (scholarly deduction on acceptance of certain behaviors based on Islamic text)
Region in which Christians were targetted by the Himyarites in 523, considered martyrs
Chapter of the Qu'ran
The Way.' Ever changing-non codified law based on Hadith, the Qur'an and other sources
Ethiopian Christians (for the most part)
Practice of interpreting the Qur'an
Orientalism French expert of Semetic languages who proposed novel theories about Jewish migration and wrote 'What is a Nation'
In Islamic law, a non-Muslim who is under a covenant of protection (dhimmah) with the Muslim authority is considered this
Ruled on behalf of Caliph in Baghdad from 934 - 1062. Twelver Shi'a family that eventually controlled Iran/Oman.
Qurʿān 9:5, the verse most commonly designated the sword verse, because it is believed to contain the command revealed by God and because it proclaimed at the pilgrimage of the y
Sea border between Egypt and Arabia
oath of allegiance
Mountain range that divides Middle East and the region beyond it to the Northeast
Emerged out of a desire for consistency under the Abbasid empire. First to call Sunna a source of legal (and ordinary life) tradition, encouraged the codification of Hadiths/Founde
Turkic Muslim tribe responsible for significant advancement in Islamic thought. Cities included Samarkand and Bukhara/One of its residents Imam Bukhari was responsible for what Sun
The formal consensus of the tribal community on a particular issue based on the shared notion of the sunnah
North of Mecca, destination of the Hijrah
Last major Zoroastrian Persian empire. Allied with Himyarites against the Byzantines+Aksumites/year it fell
Also known as the Amu Darya, makes up the border of Uzbekistan
The arabic term for slave
Jurisprudence of most Shi'a muslims. Only minor differences with predominant Sunni fiqh/Imam #
A punishment fixed in the Quran and hadith for crimes considered to be against the rights of God.
Muslims who believe that heir to Muhammad's leadership must descend from his geneological line
Excommunication or declaring a fellow member of the community a non-believer
Also known as asbab al-nuzul, provides data that allow believers to identify the historic conditions that were being addresed in various verses
The process of consultation by leaders with those who will be affected by a legal decision. Established the basis for representative democracy in Islam
mosque-university built in 970, center of Sunni learning
Year the buyids fell
a major Ismaili Shia dynasty that ruled over parts of North Africa and the Middle East from909 CE until 1171 CE
Capital of the Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258)
A group that believed that Uthman's nepotism was such a serious violation of Islamic principles that he was no longer eligible to be called a Muslim let alone a caliph, supporters
565 –ca. 623 first wife of the Prophet Muhammad
South Asian dynasty, 962 – 1186 at its height under Mahmud of Ghazna (r. 998 – 1030 ), encompassed much of Afghanistan, Iran, and the Indus and Ganges Valleys.
Persian dialect
Tax on non-Muslims in Muslim controled areas
Jurist capable of giving, upon request, an authoritative although nonbinding opinion (fatwa) on a point of Islamic law.
1260 battle between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee. The battle marked the south-westernmost extent of Mongol conquests, and was the first time a Mongol
Hajj: ____ to Mecca.
Records of traditions or saying of the Prophet
Capital of the Byzantine Empire on the Mediterranean Sea
Term used by Westerners to refer to Muslim Arabs before the 16th century
Prominent philosopher/physician (d.1037)
Center of Islamic study - capital of Timur empire. Under Abbasid control until taken by the Saminids in 862
Endorheic basin located between Europe and Asia.
Endorheic lake lying between Kazakhstan in the north and Uzbekistan in the south
River that runs through Baghdad and Mosul
Authoritative legal opinion given by a mufti (legal scholar) in response to a question posed by an individual or a court of law.
Region of warfare, a region whose leaders had made no agreement and where Muslims and their allies were neither guaranteed the right to live by Islamic law nor were protected by it
Most popular Sunni schools of fiqh. In order of importance the sources of law are Qu'ran, Hadith, consensus of Shahbah community, analogy, local custom/founder/year of death
114 suras that retell the revalation to Muhammad
Major center of Islam on the silk road in modern day uzbekistan. Transoxiana
the most important scholar of Islamic science, (d.1048)
Practitioners of fiqh
Leader of the Sunni tradition, religious successor to the prophet
Believe in an uninterrupted line of Imam succession
Study of classical texts in Asian languages (Akkadian, Arabic, Aramaic, Greek, Hebrew, Persian, Sanskrit, etc.), requiring rigorous specialized training. Flourished in Western scho
Ruled on behalf of the Abbasids in Central Asia. Began as Persianborder guards in the 9th and 10th century, controlled baghdad by the 11th
'Doctrine', a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence)
Persianate dynasty that ruled Khorezan on behalf of the Abbasid caliphate from 819-999. Responsible for bringing Persian practices into the Islamic world/First capital (-892)/secon
“One who stands in front,” generally refers to the religious and political leader of a Muslim community.
Refers to those territories in which Islamic law prevails
Indo-European language. Also known as New Persian.
Scholars of the Islamic religion charged with updating the community's understanding of the Qur'an and Hadiths
Turkic Muslim tribe in modern day Western China
Judge of a shari'ah court. While fuqaha' and muftis interpret the law, these members of the community adjudicate it
Persian poet rote a the longest epic/name of the work/dynasty he lived under
Territory of the Byzantine empire
North of the Syr Darya - the Uzbek capital
Popular school of fiqh in North Africa. Includes general will of Medina as a source of law. Official state code of the Ummayads/Name of founder/century of founding
'Warfare” or “combat,” is defined in the Qurʿān as the crime of waging war and striving “to cause corruption on the earth.”
Sea Russia, modern day turkey. Mouth of the Danube
Community of Muslims, tied by religion
Believe that the line of sucession for Imams ended at the 5th Imam. Popular in Yemen ,esp Houthis
Region beyond the Amu Darya flows into the Aral Sea through Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan
Birthplace of Muhammad, South of Medina, close to red sea
North African Arab historiographer and historian. He is claimed as a forerunner of the modern disciplines of sociology and demography. He is best known for his book, the Muqaddimah
Sanctionned warfare in Islam, stuggle 'in the way of God'
Also known as the Aras river ,joins with Karu and drains in the Caspian
Can be considered the first main rationalist school in Islamic theology, rationalism being understood here in the sense of using reason (ʿaql) to defend the tenets of Islam
The purposes or intentions of the divine law
Agreement that reconciled teh coexistence of different religions and tribes in the same community
“The utmost effort an individual can put forth in an activity.” In a legal sense, it refers to independent reasoning, a scholar's careful and complete use of mental abilities t
Region of truce, regions whose eladers had agreed to pay the Muslim leaders a tribute and to protect the rights of any Muslims of Muslims allies who lived there, but otherwise main
Persianate spoken heavily on the Hindu Kush + border between Afghanistan and Pakistan
Salat: performing ritual prayers in the proper way ___ times each day.
Capital of the Ummayad Caliphate (661 - 750)
Kingdom that flourished 110 BCE–520s CE in ancient Yemen, Jewish monarchy around 380 CE, fell to Axumite invaders in 525
Sawm: fasting during the month of ______.
A major south-flowing river in South Asia
Dynastic caliphate after Umayyads (750-1258),focus turned eastward, the capital was moved to Baghdad, support from Persian converts

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