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Can you complete my Islamic World Study Guide?

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Ayat in the Quaran that shows the characteristics of people who will be forgiven and rewarded by God. Some scholars take these verses to mean equal worth of women and men and thus
Leader of the Sunni tradition, religious successor to the prophet
Concept of monotheism in Islam
Persianate dynasty that ruled Khorezan on behalf of the Abbasid caliphate from 819-999. Responsible for bringing Persian practices into the Islamic world/First capital (-892)/secon
Year the buyids fell
The purposes or intentions of the divine law
mosque-university built in 970, center of Sunni learning
Dynastic caliphate after Umayyads (750-1258),focus turned eastward, the capital was moved to Baghdad, support from Persian converts
'Warfare” or “combat,” is defined in the Qurʿān as the crime of waging war and striving “to cause corruption on the earth.”
Indo-European language. Also known as New Persian.
Turkic Muslim tribe responsible for significant advancement in Islamic thought. Cities included Samarkand and Bukhara/One of its residents Imam Bukhari was responsible for what Sun
Also known as asbab al-nuzul, provides data that allow believers to identify the historic conditions that were being addresed in various verses
Capital of the Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258)
Last major Zoroastrian Persian empire. Allied with Himyarites against the Byzantines+Aksumites/year it fell
Persian poet rote a the longest epic/name of the work/dynasty he lived under
114 suras that retell the revalation to Muhammad
Persian dialect
Battle in 1071 between the Seljuk Turks and the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuks were victorious, capturing the Byzantine emperor and opening Asia Minor to Turkish expansion.
Region south of the Aral sea at the Delta of the Amu Darya
Major center of Islam on the silk road in modern day uzbekistan. Transoxiana
Believe in an uninterrupted line of Imam succession
Hold that Abu Bakr was the rightful heir to Muhammad as the authority over Islam. Tribal decisions --> authority
Islamic jurist of the Shafi'i school most remembered for his works on religion, government, the caliphate, and public and constitutional law during a time of political turmoil (d.
Those to whom the Qu'ran grants religious freedom
Sunni Persian dynasty ruled East Iran and Khoresan from 861 to 1003. Gained independence from Abbasid caliphate
Territory of the Byzantine empire
The arabic term for slave
The formal consensus of the tribal community on a particular issue based on the shared notion of the sunnah
Jurist capable of giving, upon request, an authoritative although nonbinding opinion (fatwa) on a point of Islamic law.
Originated after al-Shafii's school, put greater emphasis on precedent and greater freedom in Itjihad (scholarly deduction on acceptance of certain behaviors based on Islamic text)
Refers to those territories in which Islamic law prevails
Agreement that reconciled teh coexistence of different religions and tribes in the same community
Turkic Muslim tribe in modern day Western China
Center of Islamic study - capital of Timur empire. Under Abbasid control until taken by the Saminids in 862
Zakat: _____.
Jurisprudence of most Shi'a muslims. Only minor differences with predominant Sunni fiqh/Imam #
'Doctrine', a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence)
Study of classical texts in Asian languages (Akkadian, Arabic, Aramaic, Greek, Hebrew, Persian, Sanskrit, etc.), requiring rigorous specialized training. Flourished in Western scho
Believe the line of succession ended with Jafr's son (6th Imam), popular in South Asia. Included the Fatimids
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Region in which Christians were targetted by the Himyarites in 523, considered martyrs
Agreement between Muhammad's tribe and the Quaresh which stipulated a ten year peace and authorization for Muhammad's tribe to return to Mecca peacefully/Supposedly signed ___
a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and geographer during the Abbasid Caliphate, a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad(d.850)
Capital of the Ummayad Caliphate (661 - 750)
Sanctionned warfare in Islam, stuggle 'in the way of God'
Birthplace of Muhammad, South of Medina, close to red sea
the human attempt to understand divine law
Practitioners of fiqh
The process of consultation by leaders with those who will be affected by a legal decision. Established the basis for representative democracy in Islam
the most important scholar of Islamic science, (d.1048)
Record of the Prophet's teachings deeds and sayings
Region beyond the Amu Darya flows into the Aral Sea through Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan
the founder of Islamic political philosophy (d.950)
Scholars of the Islamic religion charged with updating the community's understanding of the Qur'an and Hadiths
The Way.' Ever changing-non codified law based on Hadith, the Qur'an and other sources
Together with the Tigris, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia
Emerged out of a desire for consistency under the Abbasid empire. First to call Sunna a source of legal (and ordinary life) tradition, encouraged the codification of Hadiths/Founde
Ethiopian Christians (for the most part)
Excommunication or declaring a fellow member of the community a non-believer
Capital of the Byzantine Empire on the Mediterranean Sea
South Asian dynasty, 962 – 1186 at its height under Mahmud of Ghazna (r. 998 – 1030 ), encompassed much of Afghanistan, Iran, and the Indus and Ganges Valleys.
Sea Russia, modern day turkey. Mouth of the Danube
First Muslim dynasty, oversaw the expansion of Islam through Khorizan, North Africa to Spain/year of establishment/year of collapse/capital
Orientalism French expert of Semetic languages who proposed novel theories about Jewish migration and wrote 'What is a Nation'
Authoritative legal opinion given by a mufti (legal scholar) in response to a question posed by an individual or a court of law.
Salat: performing ritual prayers in the proper way ___ times each day.
Old city in Palestine with significance for all Abrahamic traditions
Ruled on behalf of the Abbasids in Central Asia. Began as Persianborder guards in the 9th and 10th century, controlled baghdad by the 11th
Judge of a shari'ah court. While fuqaha' and muftis interpret the law, these members of the community adjudicate it
Tax on non-Muslims in Muslim controled areas
Believe that the line of sucession for Imams ended at the 5th Imam. Popular in Yemen ,esp Houthis
Hajj: ____ to Mecca.
Community of Muslims, tied by religion
Kingdom that flourished 110 BCE–520s CE in ancient Yemen, Jewish monarchy around 380 CE, fell to Axumite invaders in 525
Muslims who believe that heir to Muhammad's leadership must descend from his geneological line
A major south-flowing river in South Asia
Region of warfare, a region whose leaders had made no agreement and where Muslims and their allies were neither guaranteed the right to live by Islamic law nor were protected by it
565 –ca. 623 first wife of the Prophet Muhammad
A group that believed that Uthman's nepotism was such a serious violation of Islamic principles that he was no longer eligible to be called a Muslim let alone a caliph, supporters
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Persian city near the Caspian
Name given to the sequence of sultans and patrons who ruled in Syria and Egypt from 1250 to 1517, most of whom were of slaveorigin.
Ancient Christian Ethiopian region
Religiously diverse nomads who's empire stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan at its height
Term used by Westerners to refer to Muslim Arabs before the 16th century
Mountain range that divides Middle East and the region beyond it to the Northeast
Christian empire centered around the eastern end of the Mediterranean , and located between the Nile Valley, the southern shore of the Black Sea, and inland as far as Mesopotamia,
Most popular Sunni schools of fiqh. In order of importance the sources of law are Qu'ran, Hadith, consensus of Shahbah community, analogy, local custom/founder/year of death
Sea border between Egypt and Arabia
oath of allegiance
Endorheic basin located between Europe and Asia.
Practice of interpreting the Qur'an
Sawm: fasting during the month of ______.
Ruled on behalf of Caliph in Baghdad from 934 - 1062. Twelver Shi'a family that eventually controlled Iran/Oman.
Popular school of fiqh in North Africa. Includes general will of Medina as a source of law. Official state code of the Ummayads/Name of founder/century of founding
Also known as the Aras river ,joins with Karu and drains in the Caspian
A punishment fixed in the Quran and hadith for crimes considered to be against the rights of God.
Also known as the Amu Darya, makes up the border of Uzbekistan
1260 battle between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee. The battle marked the south-westernmost extent of Mongol conquests, and was the first time a Mongol
Records of traditions or saying of the Prophet
a major Ismaili Shia dynasty that ruled over parts of North Africa and the Middle East from909 CE until 1171 CE
In Islamic law, a non-Muslim who is under a covenant of protection (dhimmah) with the Muslim authority is considered this
Often translated to 'religion' but means 'judgement'/ monotheistic tradition that began with the covenant between God and humanity marked by the obedience of Abraham
Region of truce, regions whose eladers had agreed to pay the Muslim leaders a tribute and to protect the rights of any Muslims of Muslims allies who lived there, but otherwise main
Chapter of the Qu'ran
Can be considered the first main rationalist school in Islamic theology, rationalism being understood here in the sense of using reason (ʿaql) to defend the tenets of Islam
Persianate spoken heavily on the Hindu Kush + border between Afghanistan and Pakistan
“One who stands in front,” generally refers to the religious and political leader of a Muslim community.
North of Mecca, destination of the Hijrah
Endorheic lake lying between Kazakhstan in the north and Uzbekistan in the south
Shahadah: sincerely reciting the Muslim profession of ___.
Prominent philosopher/physician (d.1037)
“Verse” or “sign.” Refers to divisions within surahs (chapters) of the Quran.
North of the Syr Darya - the Uzbek capital
River that runs through Baghdad and Mosul
“The utmost effort an individual can put forth in an activity.” In a legal sense, it refers to independent reasoning, a scholar's careful and complete use of mental abilities t
North African Arab historiographer and historian. He is claimed as a forerunner of the modern disciplines of sociology and demography. He is best known for his book, the Muqaddimah
Qurʿān 9:5, the verse most commonly designated the sword verse, because it is believed to contain the command revealed by God and because it proclaimed at the pilgrimage of the y

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