Miscellaneous Quiz / Marketing FHS

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(2007) 'Interrupt and repeat' replaced by 'engagement'
(2013) Conceptualise the 'marketing science value chain': academics produce knowledge, this is converted into tools, tools are applied in practice.
___ innovated with VR in Westfield. Execution wasn't perfect.
_-based power: The internet has given consumers power through the range of ways that they can demand things.
(1990) Situations where strong theory is appropriate (radical change in markets) are rare
(2008) The connection between consumer behaviour and company growth is complex and cannot be contained by one variable
CCT-3: Sociohistoric patterning of consumption - Analyses how __ ___ such as class affect consumption behaviour
(1995) Products are chosen for more than practical purposes - consumption is not just economical: it is a cultural ritual
Built a community around gardening, not products
A measure of consumer behaviour that assesses the goodness of word of mouth (sentiment) about a brand/product
(2009) Services are ill-defined in SDL. V+L focus on activities in order to be all-encompassing (across goods and services) but services have functions which is neglected.
BC examples: Video Game R.L., Yachts, Motorbikes, German Car, Chinese phone
(2008) Agrees that Long Tail alters the game but believes that internet may reinforce network effects that make block buster strategy effective
(1999) Consumers make decisions on two axes (degrees of emotional investment and of time/energy involvement)
__ identified that their teenage customers were interested in writing books and so incorporated this into the structure of their online community
Non-controllable factors of CRM receptiveness: __ concerns and __ frequency
A brand reinvents itself by recategorising itself (Subway healthy)
(1985) Consumption doesn't occur in a vacuum. Culture is the context.
(2008) Marketers should leverage the power of interpersonal networks
(2009) 4 challenges of marcomms: proliferation of channels, decline of old media, risen consumer power (e.g. switch tabs), ad blindness
(2005) Studied car clubs. Value of BCs is ability to disseminate info quickly, produce feedback and enable engagement with high loyalty consumers.
(2016) Cosmos are subject to rapid changes in tastes and experiences which can mean they are early adopters.
Openly admitted to exploiting the receptiveness and pestering of children in marketing communications
(1998) Services CAN be conceptualised in a manufacturing framework (e.g. McDonald's)
Company set up by Pirate Bay + AdBlock designed to pay for content based on how much it is frequented - attempt to displace advertising
(2013) Successful social strategies need to help users improve their relationships and then do free work (e.g. PT6).
(2002) Suggests that value differences can be caused by differences in age, sex and upbringing
(2013) Internet and social media has empowered consumers on an individual level and in terms of networks
__ Experiment: Power of peer pressure
(2012) Would advise managers to avoid Western culture centrism
(2001) Define a 'brand community' as 'a specialized, non‐geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relationships among admirers of a brand'
Controllable factors of CRM receptiveness: __ of __ and added ___
(2004) Some argue that advertising does children good by helping them become socialised to a modern world of consumption.
(2005) Outlined the 4 areas of CCT research
(1997) Product managers are often so blind to the consumer's view that they don't even consider their own experience as a consumer
(2009) Brands communities can only be encouraged by ceding control of the brand and its network to customers
___ had to change the way they engaged in the Chinese market due to cultural difference. Rebelliousness (impossible is nothing) wasn't something they could market to that market.
(1999) Ads should persuade. Studies in disagreement are founded on invalid research methods.
The metric we should care about is time spent reading an article, not the number of clicks.
(2012) Any intangible idea (even the pure microprocessor) is rooted in physical entities. There can be no services without goods.
(2010) Ethnography is expensive and time consuming which limits the sample size. It also suffers the Hawthorne effect.
___ separates itself in the streaming market by avoiding 'exclusives' (e.g. T Swift) and pursuing data-driven personalisation (Discover Weekly). Service-focused.
(2003) They found few companies that were sufficiently good at acquiring and using customer data for marketing decisions.
(2009) Mother-child (but not father-child) communication had a significant effect on adolescent consumption habits.
(2009) The added value of brand communities stems from their network structure which creates and propagates the brand. Transcends the firm-consumer dyad.
The concept that humans have evolved to prefer tribal social structures rather than mass society.
CCT-1: Consumer identity - relates to how consumers __ with ___ generated materials in order to ___ a sense of ___
(2001) Subcultures provide influential meanings and practices that structure consumers' identities, actions and relationships.
Brand community is a __ __ __ bound __based on a __ set of __ __ among __ of a brand
A brand reinvigorates itself by stripping back some expected features and including surprising but effective features (Google, Snapchat)
(2004) The Service Dominant Logic is based on the idea that operANT resources are superior to operAND.
Aimark: the centre for _ _ _ _
(1991) Service: 'act that one offers to another. Essentially intangible. Does not result in ownership of something'
(1972) We should treat services like manufacturing
Brand communities contain __ who can be utilised to form relationships
(2011) Consumption is central to the adolescent experience, influencing their values, motivation, and attitudes, and ultimately shaping their path toward adulthood
Product life cycle: M__ __, G__, M__, D___
___ embody consumer-centrism. New software is released every week and feedback is invited. New product launches are like festivals.
(2001) BC members feel connections with other members but distance from outsiders.
Most brand communities fail.
(2015) It's incorrect to think of national and global identity as a case of 'either or'
(2011) Consumers may actively avoid CRM. Receptiveness depends on controllable and non-controllable factors
(2005) mass media invites consumers to 'covet certain lifestyle and identity ideals'
(2002) Let us think more about the execution of advertising rather than just content
Oreo's blackout ad 'won' the Superbowl. Or did it? Only about ___ views. Budweiser TV ad got 50m.
Consumers overwhelmed by choice
__ allowed off topic discussion on their community which increased its use and community feel which resulted in more discussion on key issues
_ is a continuing process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position
Brand masturbation
___ has followed the beer market by going 'craft'. Meeting the demand for heritage and natural ingredients (health consciousness up)
(2013) Despite a wealth of quantitative consumer data from surveys, online data, etc, such methods cannot provide a culture-sensitive understanding of local consumers
(2006) The internet unlocks supply side advantages that in turn unlock the Long Tail
(2009) Internationlal openness and freedom of information exchange has contributed to global convergence in consumption patterns
(2000) Younger children take information at face value (Sea Monkeys). Can undermine trust in advertising
Example of a brand that can avoid coca cola effect by being REPRESENTATTIVE
(1997) 6-14yos watch 25 hours TV/week and see 20k ads per year. (More now? Internet? Parents should restrict)
(1995) Brands can have multiple subgroups centred around them with different consumption values: e.g. lesbian bikers, alcoholic bikers
(2005) Brands can impose materialistic values on children and become defining aspects of them
(2003) Brands become icons when they create strong links to culture and can help people navigate harsh realities
(1995) Subcultures of consumption are everywhere: passion for gardening might affect product, retailer, media choices as well as social interactions.
(2012) The internet has to some extent replaced adults as a socializer of children – e.g. seeking out advice from peers on reddit/yahoo answers rather than parents.
Belk on consumers: they are __ __ and __ beings with __ and __
(1994) Define 'culture' as 'collective programming of the mind' making certain groups distinct from each other
(2005) Brand communities can become strong enough to be brand cults.
Company founded by Jan-Benedict Steenkamp to bring marketing academia and CPG industry together
(2012) Cultures that reject consumerism (materialism) can paradoxically become consumer segments with their own consumption patterns that can be marketed to (e.g. green marketing)
(2009) Culture and nationality are distinct. Cultures can vary within nations (20 langs India) and be split across borders (Kurds)
Only market food to children 6-12 if it meets their nutrition guidelines.
(2011) Social media i.e. Twitter has use pre-purchase (research), purchase (marcomms) and post purchase (service)
(2014) Anta shoes, 'Forge yourself' permeates everything. Inconsistent and confusing brand ideas alienate the community.
(2011) respond to criticism of SDL by arguing that it is a body of work rather than just one article. New paths are necessary in academia in order for growth and transformation.
Solution 1 to bad academia: Challenge the ___ looking mindset of academics
(2001) Used both online and offline settings to ethnographically research Star Trek
__ marketing: branch of marketing that focuses on customer retention and satisfaction rather than sales
(2013) sit back and relax replaced by get what you pay for
Poor attempt at brand community because it's not a high involvement product
(2001) BC members feel a moral responsibility to each other - e.g. The Basement
(2005) Service innovation has an organisational change orientation
(2004) Competition between private labels and national brands should be good for customers but evidence of collusion
(2012) Price satisfaction is more important than service quality
(2005) Describes 3 ways that brands can break out of the typical Levittian life cycle
Transends national identity - is common to the whole world. Global identity.
(2003) Strong relationships form because consumers identify with a co. in order to meet a need or contribute to a sense of self
(2013) Facebook BCs are more popular when driven by the community itself.
(2001) Growth is rare, differentiation is unsustainable, knowledge grows gradually, advertising is PUBLICITY not persuasion
(2005) Brand communities often form around support for an underdog (i.e. products that are non-mainstream)
(2012) Kimberley Clark have a management structure that ensure local brands fit a flexible framework. So the brand doesn't mean different things to different regions.
(2001) The shared rituals within a BC contribute to a shared experience of the brand
(2010) Ethnography can fix the departure between what people say they do and what they actually do.
_-based power: consumer power through connecting with content on social media e.g. empowering in terms of influencing others
(2009) Nationality is just one source of culture, alongside social class, sex, work, education etc.
(2009) Argues that the pursuit of science at the expense of theory and practical relevance has damaged marketing's reputation.
(2005) Innovation in services involves collaboration with customers and suppliers.
(2005) Older children (12+, in USA) are more able to understand the abstract nature of brands and their contribution to identities
(2002) Purpose of advertising is to acquire 'share of mind' a place in the portfolio of considered options.
(2009) Market research processes can be achieved through crowdsourcing. E.g. Walkers create a product
(2012) There are a range of cosmopolitanism consumers such as those looking to advance their materialism as opposed to those looking to express politics. As such hard for marketers
(2007) Describes the evolution in marketing thought from 'to market' to 'marketing to' to 'marketing with'
(1983) Identified a growing global consumer culture which he thought would allow homogeneous international marketing
(1994) Studied cultural values in IBM employees around the world and found distinct differences by Nationality (such as masculinity)
(2009) Strong brands are created by using communications to build brands in the memory: to persuade, inform, remind
Website garnered 70,000 suggestions for improvement - 50 implemented
(2015) Children as socialised as consumers in positive and negative ways by siblings.
(2015) Features like Spotify discovery might help steer people to the long tail
(1962) country of origin effect – coo of a product forms part of evaluation of the product by consumers.
A brand finds a new market for something in a sneaky way (Football Index)
(1995) Ethnography can reveal how individuals do not fit the stereotypes we might give them if we used survey or census data. (e.g. Chuck\Carlos)
(2014) The rise of big data will give marketing managers more capability to make impactful decisions
(2004) Treating services as distinct and using IHIP is meaningless from a customer orientation
(1994) Customers have price references on two axes - time and context (past price of product vs. current lowest priced competitor
(1998) Different communications channels are used for different purposes e.g. TV--> emotional plea
(1999) Debatable whether it is valid that the relationship concept uses normal interpersonal relationships as an analogy for firm-co. relationships
(2015) Asserts that brands haven't been social with social media. They have focused on one-way output instead of harbouring discussion.
(1996) BCs are an indirect product of globalisation. They have replaced traditional local communities (with cultures) which were replaced by a 'ceaseless quest for personal dist..'
CCT-2: Marketplace cultures - How consumers __ rather than __ culture. Shared ___ consumption practices such as getting tattoos shape culture
(2002) Customer segmentation conflicts with relationship marketing that emphasises the need to focus on individualisation of customers
(2013) Found that social media are good at specific targeting and engaging with numerous segments in a differentiated way.
BC __ was created by __ to give girls a space to talk about periods - not just products
(2014) Brand communities are distinct because they form around symbols (as opposed to symbols forming around the community).
Simple version of service dominant logic: TV and setup
Trait perspective of consumer theory tries to explain consumer behaviour as being caused by ___ ____
(1998) Brands are a 'viable relationship partner'. A relationship with love, passion and interdependence.
Twitter AMA backfired
(2013) Advocates an anthropological view of consumers to develop a true understanding of social and cultural meaning
(1985) GAP model (and SERVQUAL framework)
(2000) AIDA is unrealistic. ATR is better. People don't purchase because of manipulation but because products work
(2008) US regualation of advertising for children includes 'separation principle' - clear boundary between show and ad
1/4 of the books on the __ top 100 list are independently published (long tail).
(2015) Consumers have not abandoned their national identities and taken up global identities because of globalisation. National-oriented consumers PREFER domestic products.
(2004) Retailers fail to acknowledge children as consumers in their own right and encourage them to pester parents
(2009) Cosmopolitan consumers are open-minded, appreciate diveristy and seek it out through varied and exotic consumption practices
(___, ___) Product Life Cycle
(2015) Co-creation is bad when service fails (e.g. Ikea) negative satisfaction is intensified
Have fostered a community on social media by creating a 'sense of belonging' and by aiming to become a part of the overall sport experience of consumers
Created a community for design engineers BASED AROUND design engineering. Attracted customers AND competitors' customers.
(2010) Ethnography can reveal unarticulated needs, e.g. writing surface on dialysis machine.
(2012) Ethnography is better than surveys because it can reveal things that the surveyor didn't think to ask
Brands by definition are not welcome on Twitter
(2015) 'death of the long tail has been largely exaggerated'
(2002) Cosmopolitans are of two worlds - global and local. Not a conflict between the two.
(1999) Country of origin effect is weak because of the availability of other more important information.
(2004) Outline 'Service Dominant Logic' which sees customers as a vital component of value creation
(2011) Studied Chinese wine consumption and found that it was influenced by 'face and status'
(2004) 'Private labels have unique competitive tools to constrain national brands.
(2012) Nordic school - services should have their own theories, not just be forced into manufacturing mindset
(2004) Brand mythology: tell a story and become an icon e.g. Monster energy and tattoos
(1995) Consumption is an expression of symbolic information about values, lifestyles, desires, fears etc.
(2009) Criticise Service Dominant Logic as 'neither logically sound nor a perspective to displace others'
(2003) Core aspects of a brand should be harmonised across different regions but with room for flexibility elsewhere
Extreme version of service-dominant logic: Australian restaurant where you pay what you think is right.
This country banned the use of celebs/cartoon characters to advertise products to children
(2005) Believe that consumers use consumption as a method of seeking solidarity with others and therefore culture is shaped by consumption
(2013) Rivalry (Holden vs Ford) (PS vs Xbox) can strengthen brand community
(2006) There are ethical questions with regards to using children in market research
(2014) Brand communities possess the stability of the constant brand symbol. Not dependent on the specific social group.
(2004) Describes how the internet will unock the Long Tail and that retailers will 'make everything available'
(1995) Consumers value relationships with companies in order to simplify choices and purchasing tasks and for psychological comfort
(1988) Consumers interact with marketing materials to 'forge a coherent if diversified and often fragmented sense of self'
Members of the __ __ community helped co-design branded clothing and accessories
Consumers too lazy to explore the long tail
(2009) Cosmopolitanism is hard to measure which has held back research relating to consumption
Star Trek bound people over the __ ideal. 'These are my kind of people' (interviewed fan club member)
(2009) Customer experience is holistic and service quality is in the eye of the beholder
__ effect: people don't care about forming communities around activities that are not very involved e.g. drinking a soft drink
(2009) Academics are RELUCTANT to consider practical problems. In dominant paradigm they start from hypotheses instead of from actual problems.
(2013) We need a social strategy distinct from digital strategy
(2009) V&L view marketing as technology that can be learnt and practiced. This is a logical fallacy that leaves no room for marketing creativity
Solution 2 to bad academia: Make research more ___. This will also increase the respect for the subject
___: A facebook group for exchanging streetwear that became more than that.
Magpie profession: 8% of marketing spend is on social media but 50% of marketing articles (in Australia) talk about it
(1997) V young (3) children don't really have preferences but these develop as they get older and children can have as much as a 70% influence on product choice in some categories
(2011) There is a disconnect between marketing education and practice. Academia and education in marketing need to get with the 21st century
(2014) The boom in big data and all the tools it has given marketers has contributed to a forgetting of the art of marketing. Need to be anthropologists too.
Post-modern perspective of consumer theory argues for a ____ view of consumer behaviour
(2011) The long tail works through lowered search costs (e.g. recommendation) not just more choice
(1999) Persuasion lies not in the ad per se but in the ad recipient.
(2009) Not enough theory has considered HOW market segments should be used
_-based power: the power of large groups/communities (an aggregation of the other powers)
(2011) Argued that repeated exposure can affect childrens' food preferences - could be used for good
(2008) Regulation for children hasn't spread to the internet.
(2001) Fans are devoted, loyal consumers who invest more of themselves in their consumption and. therefore, who expect more from it
(2012) Materialism in advertising teaches children that consumption can help them cope with low life satisfaction – the opposite effect is found in adults
CCT-4: Mass-mediated marketplace ideologies - what are the ___ behaviours that media channels impress on ___ and how are they ___?blindly followed or __ against
(2012) By placing operANT resources as primary to operAND resources, a neglection of their complex interrelationship is made
(2015) Brand communities on social media are useful for troubleshooting and sharing success stories (e.g. Weight watchers)
(2014) In non-brand communities, brands are incidental rather than defining
(2013) Managers can use ethnographic storytelling to help an organisation understand its complex consumers.
(1994) 5 dimensions of national culture difference (Hofstede): P_ _, I_ ,M_,U_ _, S__
(1994) Commitment and trust are fundamental to the success of marketing relationships.
(2009) Advocating SDominantL leaves no room for other perspectives (perspectivism). Having multiple perspectives gives multiple ways to approach problems.
(2015) Study the consumption of sexualised luxury brands by Kuwaiti women. The sex appeal of the brands are combined in outfits that symbolise the modesty of the religion.
(2002) Find an increase in the dollar market share of private labels in 86% of retailers' product categories
(2012) SDL reflects a culture of 'demateriality' which denies the importance of physical, tangible entities
(2010) Belives that the sharing behaviour is crucial but overlooked. Internet has accenuated this
(2014) Test for BC: Would the community follow the brand in a new direction. Apple watch? Yes. LFC tennis squad? No.
_ is a non-profit 'cooperation between the academic and business world'. The focus is to use knowledge innovation to support marketing in the FMCG industry.
(1978) Service efficiency is maximised by minimising human involvement
(2006) Retailers looking to exploit the Long Tail must focus on desigining effective active and passive search systems
(2009) Marketers should be media neutral
(1998) We need a pluralistic view of consumer behaviour. Cognitive, behavioural, trait, interpretive and post-modern perspectives
(2011) its up to parents to educate children to become ‘discerning consumers’
(2011) Adolescents, through the internet, are becoming more involved in production in the marketplace (e.g. YouTube).
(1995) Consumers are complex, emotional and connected beings with cultures and identities
Interpretive perspective of consumer theory tries to examine consumer behaviour on the ____ level
(2001) Success is defined differently for marketers and followers of brands
Behavioural perspective of consumer theory looks at how ___ cues in the environment affect consumption behaviour
(2005) BCs are more useful for customer retention then customer acquisition
___ allowing in store customers to use ___ to unlock hidden content. User experience. Brand relationship
(2004) Some retailers actively exploit pester power e.g. through store placements.
(2008) Children do not have fully developed cognitive skills. Under 8 cannot understand advertising agenda
(2004) Private labels differentiate between retailers, can have higher margins than big brands and give bargaining power over suppliers through high volume
Aimark has examined e.g. key __ of success for __ prodcuts
(1990) Skeptical that we can operationalise the concept of culture in non trivial ways
(1993) The academic development of services marketing was a response to demand from practitioners and involved collaborations.
The popular brand of the basement group
Culture of consumption: interconnected system of __ produced images, texts etc. that __ use to make collective sense of their __ and to orient lives/experiences
(1962) SDL is essentially a paradigm shift, the father of whom is?
Cognitive perspective of consumer theory assumes consumers make decisions by processing information _
(2007) Advergames usher childrens' minds into a false sense of security
(1977) Intangibility makes service fundamentally different to goods
(2003) Three areas for future of services: nature of services, scope and how they create value
(1995) Consumers are not loyal to brands per se but to the images and symbols associated with them
_-based power: Consumers have more __ which makes them wiser in purchase decisions
(2012) Ethnography has helped develop an understanding of brand communities, how they form and what they contribute in terms of loyalty, creativity and profitability
(1979) 'we consume meanings' not just objects - (authors) tear open the black box in economics that is preferences
Aimark founder
Example of customer retention: __ review your purchase
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