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(2015) Asserts that brands haven't been social with social media. They have focused on one-way output instead of harbouring discussion.
(1990) Situations where strong theory is appropriate (radical change in markets) are rare
1/4 of the books on the __ top 100 list are independently published (long tail).
The concept that humans have evolved to prefer tribal social structures rather than mass society.
(2001) Used both online and offline settings to ethnographically research Star Trek
Most brand communities fail.
__ Experiment: Power of peer pressure
Poor attempt at brand community because it's not a high involvement product
(2010) Ethnography can fix the departure between what people say they do and what they actually do.
(2011) Consumers may actively avoid CRM. Receptiveness depends on controllable and non-controllable factors
(2003) They found few companies that were sufficiently good at acquiring and using customer data for marketing decisions.
(1999) Debatable whether it is valid that the relationship concept uses normal interpersonal relationships as an analogy for firm-co. relationships
Only market food to children 6-12 if it meets their nutrition guidelines.
(2009) Nationality is just one source of culture, alongside social class, sex, work, education etc.
(2004) Some argue that advertising does children good by helping them become socialised to a modern world of consumption.
Company founded by Jan-Benedict Steenkamp to bring marketing academia and CPG industry together
(1991) Service: 'act that one offers to another. Essentially intangible. Does not result in ownership of something'
__ effect: people don't care about forming communities around activities that are not very involved e.g. drinking a soft drink
(1993) The academic development of services marketing was a response to demand from practitioners and involved collaborations.
(2012) Ethnography is better than surveys because it can reveal things that the surveyor didn't think to ask
(2005) Brands can impose materialistic values on children and become defining aspects of them
(2005) Believe that consumers use consumption as a method of seeking solidarity with others and therefore culture is shaped by consumption
(2006) The internet unlocks supply side advantages that in turn unlock the Long Tail
(1995) Products are chosen for more than practical purposes - consumption is not just economical: it is a cultural ritual
(1994) 5 dimensions of national culture difference (Hofstede): P_ _, I_ ,M_,U_ _, S__
(2013) Internet and social media has empowered consumers on an individual level and in terms of networks
(2014) Anta shoes, 'Forge yourself' permeates everything. Inconsistent and confusing brand ideas alienate the community.
(2009) Culture and nationality are distinct. Cultures can vary within nations (20 langs India) and be split across borders (Kurds)
Brand masturbation
_-based power: the power of large groups/communities (an aggregation of the other powers)
(2015) Co-creation is bad when service fails (e.g. Ikea) negative satisfaction is intensified
A brand finds a new market for something in a sneaky way (Football Index)
Members of the __ __ community helped co-design branded clothing and accessories
(2005) Brand communities can become strong enough to be brand cults.
Brand community is a __ __ __ bound __based on a __ set of __ __ among __ of a brand
Twitter AMA backfired
Example of a brand that can avoid coca cola effect by being REPRESENTATTIVE
(2011) Social media i.e. Twitter has use pre-purchase (research), purchase (marcomms) and post purchase (service)
(2014) The rise of big data will give marketing managers more capability to make impactful decisions
(2002) Find an increase in the dollar market share of private labels in 86% of retailers' product categories
(2001) Define a 'brand community' as 'a specialized, non‐geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relationships among admirers of a brand'
(1998) Services CAN be conceptualised in a manufacturing framework (e.g. McDonald's)
(2004) Competition between private labels and national brands should be good for customers but evidence of collusion
(2003) Strong relationships form because consumers identify with a co. in order to meet a need or contribute to a sense of self
Solution 1 to bad academia: Challenge the ___ looking mindset of academics
(2012) By placing operANT resources as primary to operAND resources, a neglection of their complex interrelationship is made
(1985) Consumption doesn't occur in a vacuum. Culture is the context.
(1995) Consumers are not loyal to brands per se but to the images and symbols associated with them
(2009) Cosmopolitanism is hard to measure which has held back research relating to consumption
CCT-4: Mass-mediated marketplace ideologies - what are the ___ behaviours that media channels impress on ___ and how are they ___?blindly followed or __ against
(1999) Ads should persuade. Studies in disagreement are founded on invalid research methods.
(1997) V young (3) children don't really have preferences but these develop as they get older and children can have as much as a 70% influence on product choice in some categories
Created a community for design engineers BASED AROUND design engineering. Attracted customers AND competitors' customers.
(2009) V&L view marketing as technology that can be learnt and practiced. This is a logical fallacy that leaves no room for marketing creativity
_-based power: Consumers have more __ which makes them wiser in purchase decisions
Magpie profession: 8% of marketing spend is on social media but 50% of marketing articles (in Australia) talk about it
(1988) Consumers interact with marketing materials to 'forge a coherent if diversified and often fragmented sense of self'
(2005) Studied car clubs. Value of BCs is ability to disseminate info quickly, produce feedback and enable engagement with high loyalty consumers.
(2015) Brand communities on social media are useful for troubleshooting and sharing success stories (e.g. Weight watchers)
(1995) Consumption is an expression of symbolic information about values, lifestyles, desires, fears etc.
A measure of consumer behaviour that assesses the goodness of word of mouth (sentiment) about a brand/product
Aimark founder
Non-controllable factors of CRM receptiveness: __ concerns and __ frequency
(1995) Consumers are complex, emotional and connected beings with cultures and identities
(1962) country of origin effect – coo of a product forms part of evaluation of the product by consumers.
Company set up by Pirate Bay + AdBlock designed to pay for content based on how much it is frequented - attempt to displace advertising
Example of customer retention: __ review your purchase
(2009) Cosmopolitan consumers are open-minded, appreciate diveristy and seek it out through varied and exotic consumption practices
(1994) Define 'culture' as 'collective programming of the mind' making certain groups distinct from each other
(1999) Consumers make decisions on two axes (degrees of emotional investment and of time/energy involvement)
(2002) Suggests that value differences can be caused by differences in age, sex and upbringing
(2013) Successful social strategies need to help users improve their relationships and then do free work (e.g. PT6).
_ is a continuing process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position
(2012) Any intangible idea (even the pure microprocessor) is rooted in physical entities. There can be no services without goods.
(2014) In non-brand communities, brands are incidental rather than defining
Aimark: the centre for _ _ _ _
Belk on consumers: they are __ __ and __ beings with __ and __
(2010) Ethnography can reveal unarticulated needs, e.g. writing surface on dialysis machine.
(1994) Commitment and trust are fundamental to the success of marketing relationships.
Post-modern perspective of consumer theory argues for a ____ view of consumer behaviour
(2015) 'death of the long tail has been largely exaggerated'
___: A facebook group for exchanging streetwear that became more than that.
(2001) BC members feel connections with other members but distance from outsiders.
Product life cycle: M__ __, G__, M__, D___
(1995) Consumers value relationships with companies in order to simplify choices and purchasing tasks and for psychological comfort
(2011) There is a disconnect between marketing education and practice. Academia and education in marketing need to get with the 21st century
Extreme version of service-dominant logic: Australian restaurant where you pay what you think is right.
(2000) Younger children take information at face value (Sea Monkeys). Can undermine trust in advertising
(2009) Internationlal openness and freedom of information exchange has contributed to global convergence in consumption patterns
(1994) Customers have price references on two axes - time and context (past price of product vs. current lowest priced competitor
(1994) Studied cultural values in IBM employees around the world and found distinct differences by Nationality (such as masculinity)
The metric we should care about is time spent reading an article, not the number of clicks.
(2001) Success is defined differently for marketers and followers of brands
(2005) Describes 3 ways that brands can break out of the typical Levittian life cycle
(1998) Brands are a 'viable relationship partner'. A relationship with love, passion and interdependence.
(2008) US regualation of advertising for children includes 'separation principle' - clear boundary between show and ad
(2001) BC members feel a moral responsibility to each other - e.g. The Basement
(2005) Outlined the 4 areas of CCT research
___ embody consumer-centrism. New software is released every week and feedback is invited. New product launches are like festivals.
CCT-2: Marketplace cultures - How consumers __ rather than __ culture. Shared ___ consumption practices such as getting tattoos shape culture
(2004) Private labels differentiate between retailers, can have higher margins than big brands and give bargaining power over suppliers through high volume
(1983) Identified a growing global consumer culture which he thought would allow homogeneous international marketing
(2010) Belives that the sharing behaviour is crucial but overlooked. Internet has accenuated this
BC __ was created by __ to give girls a space to talk about periods - not just products
Have fostered a community on social media by creating a 'sense of belonging' and by aiming to become a part of the overall sport experience of consumers
(2012) Would advise managers to avoid Western culture centrism
(2011) Studied Chinese wine consumption and found that it was influenced by 'face and status'
(___, ___) Product Life Cycle
(2007) Advergames usher childrens' minds into a false sense of security
Aimark has examined e.g. key __ of success for __ prodcuts
(2015) Consumers have not abandoned their national identities and taken up global identities because of globalisation. National-oriented consumers PREFER domestic products.
(2008) Regulation for children hasn't spread to the internet.
(2009) 4 challenges of marcomms: proliferation of channels, decline of old media, risen consumer power (e.g. switch tabs), ad blindness
(1979) 'we consume meanings' not just objects - (authors) tear open the black box in economics that is preferences
(2013) Facebook BCs are more popular when driven by the community itself.
(2002) Purpose of advertising is to acquire 'share of mind' a place in the portfolio of considered options.
(2013) We need a social strategy distinct from digital strategy
___ had to change the way they engaged in the Chinese market due to cultural difference. Rebelliousness (impossible is nothing) wasn't something they could market to that market.
(2002) Let us think more about the execution of advertising rather than just content
(2012) Nordic school - services should have their own theories, not just be forced into manufacturing mindset
The popular brand of the basement group
Star Trek bound people over the __ ideal. 'These are my kind of people' (interviewed fan club member)
(2013) sit back and relax replaced by get what you pay for
(2008) Marketers should leverage the power of interpersonal networks
_-based power: The internet has given consumers power through the range of ways that they can demand things.
Website garnered 70,000 suggestions for improvement - 50 implemented
(2009) Mother-child (but not father-child) communication had a significant effect on adolescent consumption habits.
_-based power: consumer power through connecting with content on social media e.g. empowering in terms of influencing others
(2012) The internet has to some extent replaced adults as a socializer of children – e.g. seeking out advice from peers on reddit/yahoo answers rather than parents.
(2009) Marketers should be media neutral
(2005) BCs are more useful for customer retention then customer acquisition
Interpretive perspective of consumer theory tries to examine consumer behaviour on the ____ level
Trait perspective of consumer theory tries to explain consumer behaviour as being caused by ___ ____
(2014) Brand communities are distinct because they form around symbols (as opposed to symbols forming around the community).
(1995) Subcultures of consumption are everywhere: passion for gardening might affect product, retailer, media choices as well as social interactions.
(2015) Study the consumption of sexualised luxury brands by Kuwaiti women. The sex appeal of the brands are combined in outfits that symbolise the modesty of the religion.
A brand reinvigorates itself by stripping back some expected features and including surprising but effective features (Google, Snapchat)
(2012) Ethnography has helped develop an understanding of brand communities, how they form and what they contribute in terms of loyalty, creativity and profitability
(1999) Country of origin effect is weak because of the availability of other more important information.
Oreo's blackout ad 'won' the Superbowl. Or did it? Only about ___ views. Budweiser TV ad got 50m.
(2016) Cosmos are subject to rapid changes in tastes and experiences which can mean they are early adopters.
(2013) Managers can use ethnographic storytelling to help an organisation understand its complex consumers.
(2013) Found that social media are good at specific targeting and engaging with numerous segments in a differentiated way.
(2012) Kimberley Clark have a management structure that ensure local brands fit a flexible framework. So the brand doesn't mean different things to different regions.
(1995) Ethnography can reveal how individuals do not fit the stereotypes we might give them if we used survey or census data. (e.g. Chuck\Carlos)
(2013) Advocates an anthropological view of consumers to develop a true understanding of social and cultural meaning
(2002) Cosmopolitans are of two worlds - global and local. Not a conflict between the two.
Openly admitted to exploiting the receptiveness and pestering of children in marketing communications
(2007) 'Interrupt and repeat' replaced by 'engagement'
(2012) Materialism in advertising teaches children that consumption can help them cope with low life satisfaction – the opposite effect is found in adults
(2005) Older children (12+, in USA) are more able to understand the abstract nature of brands and their contribution to identities
(2009) Customer experience is holistic and service quality is in the eye of the beholder
(2009) Strong brands are created by using communications to build brands in the memory: to persuade, inform, remind
Culture of consumption: interconnected system of __ produced images, texts etc. that __ use to make collective sense of their __ and to orient lives/experiences
(2001) The shared rituals within a BC contribute to a shared experience of the brand
(2005) Brand communities often form around support for an underdog (i.e. products that are non-mainstream)
(1985) GAP model (and SERVQUAL framework)
(2007) Describes the evolution in marketing thought from 'to market' to 'marketing to' to 'marketing with'
(2009) Argues that the pursuit of science at the expense of theory and practical relevance has damaged marketing's reputation.
Behavioural perspective of consumer theory looks at how ___ cues in the environment affect consumption behaviour
(2012) Cultures that reject consumerism (materialism) can paradoxically become consumer segments with their own consumption patterns that can be marketed to (e.g. green marketing)
(2003) Brands become icons when they create strong links to culture and can help people navigate harsh realities
(2000) AIDA is unrealistic. ATR is better. People don't purchase because of manipulation but because products work
___ has followed the beer market by going 'craft'. Meeting the demand for heritage and natural ingredients (health consciousness up)
Brands by definition are not welcome on Twitter
(2012) SDL reflects a culture of 'demateriality' which denies the importance of physical, tangible entities
BC examples: Video Game R.L., Yachts, Motorbikes, German Car, Chinese phone
(2012) There are a range of cosmopolitanism consumers such as those looking to advance their materialism as opposed to those looking to express politics. As such hard for marketers
(2001) Fans are devoted, loyal consumers who invest more of themselves in their consumption and. therefore, who expect more from it
(2002) Customer segmentation conflicts with relationship marketing that emphasises the need to focus on individualisation of customers
(2013) Conceptualise the 'marketing science value chain': academics produce knowledge, this is converted into tools, tools are applied in practice.
_ is a non-profit 'cooperation between the academic and business world'. The focus is to use knowledge innovation to support marketing in the FMCG industry.
(2011) respond to criticism of SDL by arguing that it is a body of work rather than just one article. New paths are necessary in academia in order for growth and transformation.
Cognitive perspective of consumer theory assumes consumers make decisions by processing information _
(2009) Advocating SDominantL leaves no room for other perspectives (perspectivism). Having multiple perspectives gives multiple ways to approach problems.
(1998) We need a pluralistic view of consumer behaviour. Cognitive, behavioural, trait, interpretive and post-modern perspectives
(2009) Academics are RELUCTANT to consider practical problems. In dominant paradigm they start from hypotheses instead of from actual problems.
CCT-1: Consumer identity - relates to how consumers __ with ___ generated materials in order to ___ a sense of ___
(1997) Product managers are often so blind to the consumer's view that they don't even consider their own experience as a consumer
(2011) The long tail works through lowered search costs (e.g. recommendation) not just more choice
(2014) The boom in big data and all the tools it has given marketers has contributed to a forgetting of the art of marketing. Need to be anthropologists too.
(2005) Service innovation has an organisational change orientation
(2011) Consumption is central to the adolescent experience, influencing their values, motivation, and attitudes, and ultimately shaping their path toward adulthood
(2001) Growth is rare, differentiation is unsustainable, knowledge grows gradually, advertising is PUBLICITY not persuasion
(2009) Criticise Service Dominant Logic as 'neither logically sound nor a perspective to displace others'
This country banned the use of celebs/cartoon characters to advertise products to children
(1978) Service efficiency is maximised by minimising human involvement
(1999) Persuasion lies not in the ad per se but in the ad recipient.
(2015) It's incorrect to think of national and global identity as a case of 'either or'
(1997) 6-14yos watch 25 hours TV/week and see 20k ads per year. (More now? Internet? Parents should restrict)
___ innovated with VR in Westfield. Execution wasn't perfect.
Brand communities contain __ who can be utilised to form relationships
(2005) mass media invites consumers to 'covet certain lifestyle and identity ideals'
(2009) The added value of brand communities stems from their network structure which creates and propagates the brand. Transcends the firm-consumer dyad.
Simple version of service dominant logic: TV and setup
(2004) Treating services as distinct and using IHIP is meaningless from a customer orientation
(2006) Retailers looking to exploit the Long Tail must focus on desigining effective active and passive search systems
CCT-3: Sociohistoric patterning of consumption - Analyses how __ ___ such as class affect consumption behaviour
(2013) Rivalry (Holden vs Ford) (PS vs Xbox) can strengthen brand community
(2015) Children as socialised as consumers in positive and negative ways by siblings.
(2006) There are ethical questions with regards to using children in market research
(2008) Children do not have fully developed cognitive skills. Under 8 cannot understand advertising agenda
(2005) Innovation in services involves collaboration with customers and suppliers.
Consumers overwhelmed by choice
Built a community around gardening, not products
(2010) Ethnography is expensive and time consuming which limits the sample size. It also suffers the Hawthorne effect.
(1962) SDL is essentially a paradigm shift, the father of whom is?
(2004) 'Private labels have unique competitive tools to constrain national brands.
__ identified that their teenage customers were interested in writing books and so incorporated this into the structure of their online community
A brand reinvents itself by recategorising itself (Subway healthy)
(1996) BCs are an indirect product of globalisation. They have replaced traditional local communities (with cultures) which were replaced by a 'ceaseless quest for personal dist..'
(1995) Brands can have multiple subgroups centred around them with different consumption values: e.g. lesbian bikers, alcoholic bikers
(2015) Features like Spotify discovery might help steer people to the long tail
(2004) Outline 'Service Dominant Logic' which sees customers as a vital component of value creation
(2009) Brands communities can only be encouraged by ceding control of the brand and its network to customers
(2003) Three areas for future of services: nature of services, scope and how they create value
Transends national identity - is common to the whole world. Global identity.
(2009) Market research processes can be achieved through crowdsourcing. E.g. Walkers create a product
(2004) Brand mythology: tell a story and become an icon e.g. Monster energy and tattoos
(1990) Skeptical that we can operationalise the concept of culture in non trivial ways
(2009) Not enough theory has considered HOW market segments should be used
(2012) Price satisfaction is more important than service quality
(2004) Describes how the internet will unock the Long Tail and that retailers will 'make everything available'
(2004) Some retailers actively exploit pester power e.g. through store placements.
(2013) Despite a wealth of quantitative consumer data from surveys, online data, etc, such methods cannot provide a culture-sensitive understanding of local consumers
(2008) The connection between consumer behaviour and company growth is complex and cannot be contained by one variable
(2011) Adolescents, through the internet, are becoming more involved in production in the marketplace (e.g. YouTube).
(2003) Core aspects of a brand should be harmonised across different regions but with room for flexibility elsewhere
Consumers too lazy to explore the long tail
__ marketing: branch of marketing that focuses on customer retention and satisfaction rather than sales
(1972) We should treat services like manufacturing
(2011) Argued that repeated exposure can affect childrens' food preferences - could be used for good
(1998) Different communications channels are used for different purposes e.g. TV--> emotional plea
(2014) Test for BC: Would the community follow the brand in a new direction. Apple watch? Yes. LFC tennis squad? No.
__ allowed off topic discussion on their community which increased its use and community feel which resulted in more discussion on key issues
(2004) The Service Dominant Logic is based on the idea that operANT resources are superior to operAND.
(2014) Brand communities possess the stability of the constant brand symbol. Not dependent on the specific social group.
(1977) Intangibility makes service fundamentally different to goods
(2011) its up to parents to educate children to become ‘discerning consumers’
(2004) Retailers fail to acknowledge children as consumers in their own right and encourage them to pester parents
___ separates itself in the streaming market by avoiding 'exclusives' (e.g. T Swift) and pursuing data-driven personalisation (Discover Weekly). Service-focused.
Controllable factors of CRM receptiveness: __ of __ and added ___
___ allowing in store customers to use ___ to unlock hidden content. User experience. Brand relationship
(2001) Subcultures provide influential meanings and practices that structure consumers' identities, actions and relationships.
Solution 2 to bad academia: Make research more ___. This will also increase the respect for the subject
(2009) Services are ill-defined in SDL. V+L focus on activities in order to be all-encompassing (across goods and services) but services have functions which is neglected.
(2008) Agrees that Long Tail alters the game but believes that internet may reinforce network effects that make block buster strategy effective

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