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Process technology (tools and devices) produce Product technology (e.g. iPhone) (1996)
People impose identity onto possessions and vice versa (1988)
Power comes from being in the right place (position/formal) not personal. (1981)
Profitability is firm-specific not based on industry. (1991)
Culture change risky because it could dishearten potentially cynical employees (1997)
Five forces. Positioning company against competition. (1979)
Theory only true if some observation could disprove it. (1972)
No difference between culture and strategy - both provide continuity and identity (1985)
Firms focus on developing the dominant design in the pre-paradigmatic stage of innovation development (1986)
Culture change is difficult because of multiple layers such as the universal culture, sub-cultures and constantly changing (1987)
Technology - computers take up jobs e.g. Snapchat worth $2bn with just 35 employees (2011)
Key to culture change is combining theory E and theory O e.g Jack Welch (2000)
Most easily manipulated people are children - until age of 8 children can't distinguish between entertainment and advertisement (2012)
Barriers to technology - uses example of new medical technology that would improve performance but was rejected because doctors lacked computer skills (2004)
Describes rational planning – preparations are made based on expectations of future challenges (1985)
CEO to average pay ratio has increased from 40 to 110 across all industries (2007)
Chandler neglected the forces of competition (2010)
Organisations are superior to markets as they can exploit human capacity (1996)
External cultures e.g. national also influence culture (1994)
Technology is 'the processes by which an organisation transforms labour, capital, materials and information into products and services of greater value' (2003)
Use example of BPR as a detrimental fad - downsizing -> job losses and low morale (1998)
Younger companies have less ingrained cultures and so are more easily changed (1985)
Founder of TPS that said it was based on scientific management
Consultants can exploit managers' vulnerability/uncertainty. Managers conversely can use consultants as scapegoats (1997)
Scientific management; efficiency. Most suitable man for each task. Enure equal division between worker and manager (1911)
National culture differences act as barriers to multinationalisation. (1980)
Note that in S&P 500 average ratio of CEO to average worker is 204 (2013)
Describe first mover advantage - innovators reap most profits (1988)
Sony were VCR innovators but out competed by JVC after pre-paradigmatic stage due to production power
Culture promotes consistency of outlook (unified motivations) and helps individual decision making. (1994)
Uselessness of prediciton - in 1980 McKinsey told AT&T that the world market for mobile phones was 900000 (2004)
Complex contracts are costly and agents can act opportunistically. (1981)
Describes risks of multinationalisation: political e.g DPRK, religious, legal, corruption. (2005)
Bounded rationality leads to transaction costs. (1981)
Said that lean production and scientific management are unrelated because lean production takes a more humanistic approach (1994)
To develop competitive advantage, firms must find an effective strategic position and fit within a market (e.g. southwest airlines) (1996)
Humans are complex. 4 consumer behaviours – economic, responsive (to stimuli), social, psychological (emotional). (1980)
Stock options provide long term incentive for managers (1990)
Brands are powerful enough to transform water, a free public good, into a high priced commodity. (2006)
Criticised Chandler for overlooking political issues e.g. Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 (broke up monopolies) (1980)
Management consists of planning, organising, coordinating, commanding and contolling (1916)
Amazon's 'mechanical Turk'. Modern Fordism (2006)
Market Politicisation - consumers voting with their dolla (2005)
Example of low cost producer that charges higher prices thus conflicting with Porter's generic strategies
Structure follows strategy - eg strategy of diversification leads to structure of multidivisional firm (1962)
Increase in CEO pay linked to increase in managerial influence and power (2002)
Described fads as simple, prescriptive, easy to copy, and legitimised by gurus (2002)
3 fallacies of strategic planning - predetermination, detachment and formalisation (1994)
Lean production is next stage of scientific management: it represents a retreat from extremes of specialisation and standardisation (2003)
Sharing of information is key to an effective supply chain (2009)
Compare deliberate and emergent planning - deliberate plans are 'realised as intended'; emergent plans are 'realised despite...intentions' (1994)
Marketers do not create needs but influence wants (2002)
Described Taylorism as INDIVIDUAL approach and Fordism as a WHOLE SYSTEM approach (1990)
Apple factory use a Tayloristic approach e.g. workers monitored through CCTV (2012)
Empirically showed that managers with a 'need for power' were more successful (1976)
In their simplest sense brands provide a guarantee of quality and reliability (2001)
Focused factory where specialised plants re designed to make a certain group of products are more efficient (1974)
Porter’s ideas not scientific (Popper) and unhelpful practically (2005)
With Hawthorne experiments found that employee engagement is a better way to motivate than financial incentives
Purpose of managerial work is to maximise employee efficiency (1995)
Chandler neglected the importance of social factors (1997)
Manager must understand new technology to maintain credibility (1996)
Principle based system of operations
Culture - either something an organisation has or is: if 'has' then more changeable than 'is' (1994)
Production line approach to service where service based firms focussed on efficiency and use a manufacturing approach e.g. McDonalds (1972)
Taylorism - Shift of power from workers, who do, to managers, who think(1997)
Social contract between business and society (1989)
3 dimensions of power (1974)
Described history of the firm (1984)
Management is ‘culturally specific’ (1993)
Most important thing in terms of competitive advantage is a firm's distinct capabilities (1993)
Discussed role of religion providing capital for many business ventures in Northern Europe (1920)
No universal marketing theory due to human complexity (1974)
Described Honda success in US markets which was assumed to be based on planning but was more based on adaptation. (1996)
Technology doubles every 2 years – first a measure but then became a driver of technological change (Intel) (1965)
Said CSR undesirable and dangerous by deflecting business from primary purpose (profit)
Strength of culture determined by stability of group and intensity of shared experiences (1984)
Humans can be ordered into ‘complex organisations’. Whole is greater than sum of parts. (1995)
Culture is a combination of artefacts, values and assumptions (1984)
Argues that emphasis on marketing over quality requires poor production quality (shift of manufacturing to 3rd world shows idea is more important than product.) (2000)
Strong culture: unites organisation but also inflexible (1994)
Taylor and Ford both ignored emotional side of workers (1999)
Believed that Chandler failed to consider potential future development of business.
Enterprise with clear sense of purpose more likely to be successful than guesswork and chance (1978)
Technology can be sustainable of disruptive (2003)
5 types of power: reward, coercive, referent legitimate, expert. (1959)
Consultants engineer new problems which they already have a solution to creating a dependency relationship with firms (2002)
Describe rise in use of stock options of S&P 500 from 1992-2000: $11bn to $119bn (2003)
AAA framework of how to internationalise: adaptation, aggregation and arbitrage
Each organisation has three cultures: operators, engineers, executives (1984)
Market to consumer's needs and desires (1960)
Society controls technological advancements through deciding whether to accept innovations e.g. Edison modelled electric lighting system on existing gas system due to familiarity
A company creates brand equity through AUTHORITY, IDENTIFICATION, and APPROVAL (2000)
Differences in governance between Britain US etc. (1999)
Note scarcity of top CEOs (2008)
Through study of microchip introduction they examined how a manager might successfully implement technological change. Methods include gradual implementation and proper training. (
Culture is intangible and thus hard to change (1996)
Motivation is dependent upon meaningfulness, responsibility and knowledge of results (i.e. not necessarily pay) (1975)
Fayol theorised about managerial work rather than what it is in reality. (2010)
Successful culture can improve productivity by 1 or 2 hours (1982)
Performance pay important as it aligns interest with organisation (1997)
Mintzberg - management as it is. Fayol – as we would wish it to be (2004)
Cheap Chinese labour becoming less viable as the country sees similar union movements to those of 1900s Britain. (2012)
CEO pay has increased due to the increased use of peer groups and benchmarking (2011)
4 types of culture: power, role, task and people (1995)
Described professionalisation - full time, formal training, standardised body of knowledge, establishment of code of ethics (1964)
Substantial change in nature of managerial work represented by a shift from vertical to horizontal power relationships (1989)
Consultants achieve economies of knowledge which have value (2007)
Firms don’t compete with firms. – supply chains compete with supply chains. (1994)
For profitability firms should invest in appropriate technologies that are easy to protect and are produced with complementary assets (1986)
Described how Ford reduced Model T production time from 8.56 hours to 2.3 minutes, and then to 1.19 minutes with a conveyer belt (1990)
Strategic planning is inflexible (1998)
Said CSR is future of business, what companies must do to survive where more behaviour is under the microscope.
Culture emerges from social interaction therefore to change requires a change of people (1988)
Brand loyalty – a brand commands trust through heritage or innovativeness and can facilitate the approval of others. (2000)
Talk about two types of uncertainty with management consultancy: institutional and transactional (2003)
Employees should be able to use their intitiative and be involved in decision making (1949)
The modern corporation is a legal institution and thus can only be justified if it furthers desirable socioeconomic goals (2002)
Possessions linked to sense of self (1988)
Hierarchical or compressed pay structure. (1999)
Over ¼ of an average worker’s day spent on emails. (2012)
Firms need to look to the future when making operating decisions and decide on two or three capabilities which they want to develop to have sustained competitiveness (1994)
Criticised Porter's model as it focusses on power and ignores cooperation (2005)
Management controls boundaries of firm (1984)
Supports Porter - model highlights role of business in creating value (2002)
Operational effectiveness is not strategy and simply leads to mutually destructive competition (1996)
Looked at introduction of ICT to an organisation. Information overload problem. (2012)
Anyone can call themselves a management consultancy. Consultants struggle to separate personal interests from job (opportunism) (1982)
Globalisation makes world a level playing field (thanks to internet, fall of communism etc) (2005)
Define culture: pattern of beliefs, shared expectations and norms that shape behaviour (1981)
long term forecasts are 'fundamentally useless' (1993)
Leaders change culture (1983)
Scientific management served as a power tool for managers over workers (1974)
Successful cultures are distinct and not easily imitated (1986)
Described 10 roles of managers: INTERPERSONAL, INFORMATIONAL, DECISIONAL (1975)
Managerial work driven by rationality, historical traditions, and research (1995)
Outside CEOs paid more than inside CEOs therefore managerial influence not prime reason for increase in pay (2004)
Culture can influence strategy through ethics, flexibility and subcultures (i.e. conflict avoidance) (1995)
Call centre assembly line - service sector efficiency (2000)
Management consultants transmit fads to enlarge the existing base of knowledge (1982)
Power of brand curtails choice, enforcing ‘grey cultural homogeneity’ (2000)
A has power over B to the extent that s/he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do (1957)
Transaction costs can be reduced through developing better supply relations e.g. Toyota (2002)
Workers seen as technological capital rather than human capital (1997)
Advertising seeks to create needs rather than fulfil them; to create new anxieties rather than allay old ones. (1978)
Honda’s experimentation not suitable for all companies and relying on chance for success is not helpful to managers. (1996)
World is semi-globalised – not level playing field. Boundaries include culture differences, administrative, geographic and economic (i.e. inequality).
Consultants 'create a niche and persuade clients that they are within it' (1995)
Technological determinism model too reductionist
Middle ground - managerial work is based on the accumulation of various theories. (2006)
Development of culture stems from leadership (1984)
CEO pay has increased due to increasing size and complexity of companies (2008)
only social responsibility of a company is to shareholder (i.e profit) (1970)
Firms that treat their supply chain as a strategic asset achieve 70% higher performance (2012) e.g. Zara
Lean production is a high risk high reward strategy as it can leave companies vulnerable to supply shocks (1988)
Specialist consultants often prove to be value for money by solving specific problems using specific expertees
Due to extreme price competition in China corners may be cut. (2008)
From 1980-2003: 6-fold increase in executive compensation and market capitalisation (2008)
Formalist economic theory is 'basically platonic - pure, timeless valid under all circumstances, and highly abstrac (2002)
Assembly line, simplification of work. Unskilled yet hard work.
Not true that product differentiation and cost reduction are mutually exclusive (1993)
Empirical evidence that established firms struggle to adapt to technological advancement (e.g. Kodak). ‘Core competencies’ become ‘core rigidities’. (2000)
Brands are designed as the interface between consumer and product e.g. Uncle Ben's (trust) (2001)
Described the deep consumer-brand relationship. Emotions such as love and passion can be evoked – detachment if the product is removed. (e.g. ‘coke=happiness’ ‘LG=life’s
Argue that competitive advantage lies with core competency (1990)
Firms need to consider the type of product they are producing when making supply chain decisions (1997)
Science undergoes a process of ‘paradigm shifts’ and progresses through these (1962)
Management performs best when it can adapt to unexpected problems (1998)
Streamlining of global supply chains means that there is increased competition through branding (2006)
As innovations develop, firms shift from design competition to price competition (e.g. lightbulb) (1978)
Introduced transaction costs. (imperfect information) (1937)
Discuss faddish cycles within management consultancy: 'adaptive emulation' (2001)
Brands become iconic by exploiting social dependencies (e.g. Nike just do it) (2006)
Criticised TCE - even post merger, opportunism will exist (1996)
Proposed a definition for corporate purpose: Rather than merely making money, it is to create and keep a customer. (1960)
Said that Taylorism served as a tool to decrease power of workers/dehumanise them (1974)
Power is not wielded by an individual or group but dispersed and subject-less (1976)
Formal power is based on position within organisation – personal power comes from individual’s unique skills. (2007)
Most successful organisations don't use formal planning (1978)
Culture can improve performance if it is aligned to the business environment (1996)
Rise in small management consultancies - low fees/use of ex-McKinsey employees (2013)
Notes emergence of universal corporate culture (1997)
Fordism - 'task cycle' of an individual worker drastically reduced - cost minimisation (1990)
McDonaldisation (homogeneity, rationality, standardisation) of society could reflect Fordism (2008)
Hierarchy of needs (1943)
Describes Toys R Us joint venture with McDonalds Japan in order to understand business in Japan.
Consultants see trends; develop rhetoric, and sell ASAP (1996)

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Created Jan 16, 2014ReportNominate
Tags:management, revision, theorist

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