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Can you name the General Management Revision 2

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Amazon's 'mechanical Turk'. Modern Fordism (2006)
Management is ‘culturally specific’ (1993)
A company creates brand equity through AUTHORITY, IDENTIFICATION, and APPROVAL (2000)
Sony were VCR innovators but out competed by JVC after pre-paradigmatic stage due to production power
Humans are complex. 4 consumer behaviours – economic, responsive (to stimuli), social, psychological (emotional). (1980)
Culture - either something an organisation has or is: if 'has' then more changeable than 'is' (1994)
Porter’s ideas not scientific (Popper) and unhelpful practically (2005)
External cultures e.g. national also influence culture (1994)
Criticised TCE - even post merger, opportunism will exist (1996)
Principle based system of operations
Culture change is difficult because of multiple layers such as the universal culture, sub-cultures and constantly changing (1987)
Successful cultures are distinct and not easily imitated (1986)
Development of culture stems from leadership (1984)
From 1980-2003: 6-fold increase in executive compensation and market capitalisation (2008)
Employees should be able to use their intitiative and be involved in decision making (1949)
Described history of the firm (1984)
Structure follows strategy - eg strategy of diversification leads to structure of multidivisional firm (1962)
Culture is intangible and thus hard to change (1996)
Supports Porter - model highlights role of business in creating value (2002)
Described professionalisation - full time, formal training, standardised body of knowledge, establishment of code of ethics (1964)
Motivation is dependent upon meaningfulness, responsibility and knowledge of results (i.e. not necessarily pay) (1975)
Most successful organisations don't use formal planning (1978)
Consultants 'create a niche and persuade clients that they are within it' (1995)
Increase in CEO pay linked to increase in managerial influence and power (2002)
National culture differences act as barriers to multinationalisation. (1980)
Example of low cost producer that charges higher prices thus conflicting with Porter's generic strategies
The modern corporation is a legal institution and thus can only be justified if it furthers desirable socioeconomic goals (2002)
Discuss faddish cycles within management consultancy: 'adaptive emulation' (2001)
Talk about two types of uncertainty with management consultancy: institutional and transactional (2003)
Social contract between business and society (1989)
Strong culture: unites organisation but also inflexible (1994)
Scientific management served as a power tool for managers over workers (1974)
Described Taylorism as INDIVIDUAL approach and Fordism as a WHOLE SYSTEM approach (1990)
Mintzberg - management as it is. Fayol – as we would wish it to be (2004)
Younger companies have less ingrained cultures and so are more easily changed (1985)
Science undergoes a process of ‘paradigm shifts’ and progresses through these (1962)
Taylor and Ford both ignored emotional side of workers (1999)
Society controls technological advancements through deciding whether to accept innovations e.g. Edison modelled electric lighting system on existing gas system due to familiarity
Performance pay important as it aligns interest with organisation (1997)
Described 10 roles of managers: INTERPERSONAL, INFORMATIONAL, DECISIONAL (1975)
Describes risks of multinationalisation: political e.g DPRK, religious, legal, corruption. (2005)
Consultants engineer new problems which they already have a solution to creating a dependency relationship with firms (2002)
Describes rational planning – preparations are made based on expectations of future challenges (1985)
Honda’s experimentation not suitable for all companies and relying on chance for success is not helpful to managers. (1996)
With Hawthorne experiments found that employee engagement is a better way to motivate than financial incentives
Stock options provide long term incentive for managers (1990)
Process technology (tools and devices) produce Product technology (e.g. iPhone) (1996)
Describe first mover advantage - innovators reap most profits (1988)
Power of brand curtails choice, enforcing ‘grey cultural homogeneity’ (2000)
Define culture: pattern of beliefs, shared expectations and norms that shape behaviour (1981)
No universal marketing theory due to human complexity (1974)
Management performs best when it can adapt to unexpected problems (1998)
Transaction costs can be reduced through developing better supply relations e.g. Toyota (2002)
Said CSR undesirable and dangerous by deflecting business from primary purpose (profit)
Hierarchy of needs (1943)
Power is not wielded by an individual or group but dispersed and subject-less (1976)
Formal power is based on position within organisation – personal power comes from individual’s unique skills. (2007)
Management consists of planning, organising, coordinating, commanding and contolling (1916)
World is semi-globalised – not level playing field. Boundaries include culture differences, administrative, geographic and economic (i.e. inequality).
Differences in governance between Britain US etc. (1999)
Cheap Chinese labour becoming less viable as the country sees similar union movements to those of 1900s Britain. (2012)
Argue that competitive advantage lies with core competency (1990)
For profitability firms should invest in appropriate technologies that are easy to protect and are produced with complementary assets (1986)
Assembly line, simplification of work. Unskilled yet hard work.
Each organisation has three cultures: operators, engineers, executives (1984)
Outside CEOs paid more than inside CEOs therefore managerial influence not prime reason for increase in pay (2004)
Brand loyalty – a brand commands trust through heritage or innovativeness and can facilitate the approval of others. (2000)
Focused factory where specialised plants re designed to make a certain group of products are more efficient (1974)
Described the deep consumer-brand relationship. Emotions such as love and passion can be evoked – detachment if the product is removed. (e.g. ‘coke=happiness’ ‘LG=life’s
Brands become iconic by exploiting social dependencies (e.g. Nike just do it) (2006)
Theory only true if some observation could disprove it. (1972)
Lean production is a high risk high reward strategy as it can leave companies vulnerable to supply shocks (1988)
Firms that treat their supply chain as a strategic asset achieve 70% higher performance (2012) e.g. Zara
Empirical evidence that established firms struggle to adapt to technological advancement (e.g. Kodak). ‘Core competencies’ become ‘core rigidities’. (2000)
Culture emerges from social interaction therefore to change requires a change of people (1988)
Anyone can call themselves a management consultancy. Consultants struggle to separate personal interests from job (opportunism) (1982)
Lean production is next stage of scientific management: it represents a retreat from extremes of specialisation and standardisation (2003)
Purpose of managerial work is to maximise employee efficiency (1995)
Strategic planning is inflexible (1998)
Hierarchical or compressed pay structure. (1999)
Describe rise in use of stock options of S&P 500 from 1992-2000: $11bn to $119bn (2003)
Over ¼ of an average worker’s day spent on emails. (2012)
Barriers to technology - uses example of new medical technology that would improve performance but was rejected because doctors lacked computer skills (2004)
3 fallacies of strategic planning - predetermination, detachment and formalisation (1994)
As innovations develop, firms shift from design competition to price competition (e.g. lightbulb) (1978)
Consultants can exploit managers' vulnerability/uncertainty. Managers conversely can use consultants as scapegoats (1997)
Empirically showed that managers with a 'need for power' were more successful (1976)
Technological determinism model too reductionist
Said that Taylorism served as a tool to decrease power of workers/dehumanise them (1974)
McDonaldisation (homogeneity, rationality, standardisation) of society could reflect Fordism (2008)
3 dimensions of power (1974)
Culture change risky because it could dishearten potentially cynical employees (1997)
Humans can be ordered into ‘complex organisations’. Whole is greater than sum of parts. (1995)
Founder of TPS that said it was based on scientific management
Technology can be sustainable of disruptive (2003)
Scientific management; efficiency. Most suitable man for each task. Enure equal division between worker and manager (1911)
Note that in S&P 500 average ratio of CEO to average worker is 204 (2013)
Consultants see trends; develop rhetoric, and sell ASAP (1996)
Technology - computers take up jobs e.g. Snapchat worth $2bn with just 35 employees (2011)
Market to consumer's needs and desires (1960)
Looked at introduction of ICT to an organisation. Information overload problem. (2012)
Technology is 'the processes by which an organisation transforms labour, capital, materials and information into products and services of greater value' (2003)
Firms don’t compete with firms. – supply chains compete with supply chains. (1994)
Brands are powerful enough to transform water, a free public good, into a high priced commodity. (2006)
Management controls boundaries of firm (1984)
4 types of culture: power, role, task and people (1995)
Culture can improve performance if it is aligned to the business environment (1996)
Management consultants transmit fads to enlarge the existing base of knowledge (1982)
Culture can influence strategy through ethics, flexibility and subcultures (i.e. conflict avoidance) (1995)
Chandler neglected the importance of social factors (1997)
Specialist consultants often prove to be value for money by solving specific problems using specific expertees
Possessions linked to sense of self (1988)
Fordism - 'task cycle' of an individual worker drastically reduced - cost minimisation (1990)
Profitability is firm-specific not based on industry. (1991)
Power comes from being in the right place (position/formal) not personal. (1981)
Sharing of information is key to an effective supply chain (2009)
Criticised Porter's model as it focusses on power and ignores cooperation (2005)
Rise in small management consultancies - low fees/use of ex-McKinsey employees (2013)
Introduced transaction costs. (imperfect information) (1937)
AAA framework of how to internationalise: adaptation, aggregation and arbitrage
Brands are designed as the interface between consumer and product e.g. Uncle Ben's (trust) (2001)
In their simplest sense brands provide a guarantee of quality and reliability (2001)
only social responsibility of a company is to shareholder (i.e profit) (1970)
Believed that Chandler failed to consider potential future development of business.
Middle ground - managerial work is based on the accumulation of various theories. (2006)
Uselessness of prediciton - in 1980 McKinsey told AT&T that the world market for mobile phones was 900000 (2004)
Market Politicisation - consumers voting with their dolla (2005)
5 types of power: reward, coercive, referent legitimate, expert. (1959)
long term forecasts are 'fundamentally useless' (1993)
Operational effectiveness is not strategy and simply leads to mutually destructive competition (1996)
Leaders change culture (1983)
Described Honda success in US markets which was assumed to be based on planning but was more based on adaptation. (1996)
Streamlining of global supply chains means that there is increased competition through branding (2006)
Described how Ford reduced Model T production time from 8.56 hours to 2.3 minutes, and then to 1.19 minutes with a conveyer belt (1990)
Compare deliberate and emergent planning - deliberate plans are 'realised as intended'; emergent plans are 'realised despite...intentions' (1994)
CEO pay has increased due to the increased use of peer groups and benchmarking (2011)
Due to extreme price competition in China corners may be cut. (2008)
Notes emergence of universal corporate culture (1997)
Firms need to consider the type of product they are producing when making supply chain decisions (1997)
Most easily manipulated people are children - until age of 8 children can't distinguish between entertainment and advertisement (2012)
Successful culture can improve productivity by 1 or 2 hours (1982)
Manager must understand new technology to maintain credibility (1996)
Production line approach to service where service based firms focussed on efficiency and use a manufacturing approach e.g. McDonalds (1972)
Enterprise with clear sense of purpose more likely to be successful than guesswork and chance (1978)
Call centre assembly line - service sector efficiency (2000)
CEO to average pay ratio has increased from 40 to 110 across all industries (2007)
Described fads as simple, prescriptive, easy to copy, and legitimised by gurus (2002)
A has power over B to the extent that s/he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do (1957)
Advertising seeks to create needs rather than fulfil them; to create new anxieties rather than allay old ones. (1978)
Note scarcity of top CEOs (2008)
No difference between culture and strategy - both provide continuity and identity (1985)
Argues that emphasis on marketing over quality requires poor production quality (shift of manufacturing to 3rd world shows idea is more important than product.) (2000)
Most important thing in terms of competitive advantage is a firm's distinct capabilities (1993)
Said that lean production and scientific management are unrelated because lean production takes a more humanistic approach (1994)
Key to culture change is combining theory E and theory O e.g Jack Welch (2000)
Firms need to look to the future when making operating decisions and decide on two or three capabilities which they want to develop to have sustained competitiveness (1994)
Bounded rationality leads to transaction costs. (1981)
Firms focus on developing the dominant design in the pre-paradigmatic stage of innovation development (1986)
Apple factory use a Tayloristic approach e.g. workers monitored through CCTV (2012)
Workers seen as technological capital rather than human capital (1997)
People impose identity onto possessions and vice versa (1988)
Technology doubles every 2 years – first a measure but then became a driver of technological change (Intel) (1965)
Culture promotes consistency of outlook (unified motivations) and helps individual decision making. (1994)
Taylorism - Shift of power from workers, who do, to managers, who think(1997)
Strength of culture determined by stability of group and intensity of shared experiences (1984)
Fayol theorised about managerial work rather than what it is in reality. (2010)
Five forces. Positioning company against competition. (1979)
Formalist economic theory is 'basically platonic - pure, timeless valid under all circumstances, and highly abstrac (2002)
Substantial change in nature of managerial work represented by a shift from vertical to horizontal power relationships (1989)
To develop competitive advantage, firms must find an effective strategic position and fit within a market (e.g. southwest airlines) (1996)
Organisations are superior to markets as they can exploit human capacity (1996)
Use example of BPR as a detrimental fad - downsizing -> job losses and low morale (1998)
Globalisation makes world a level playing field (thanks to internet, fall of communism etc) (2005)
Proposed a definition for corporate purpose: Rather than merely making money, it is to create and keep a customer. (1960)
Marketers do not create needs but influence wants (2002)
Describes Toys R Us joint venture with McDonalds Japan in order to understand business in Japan.
Not true that product differentiation and cost reduction are mutually exclusive (1993)
Said CSR is future of business, what companies must do to survive where more behaviour is under the microscope.
Through study of microchip introduction they examined how a manager might successfully implement technological change. Methods include gradual implementation and proper training. (
Complex contracts are costly and agents can act opportunistically. (1981)
Discussed role of religion providing capital for many business ventures in Northern Europe (1920)
Culture is a combination of artefacts, values and assumptions (1984)
CEO pay has increased due to increasing size and complexity of companies (2008)
Criticised Chandler for overlooking political issues e.g. Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 (broke up monopolies) (1980)
Consultants achieve economies of knowledge which have value (2007)
Managerial work driven by rationality, historical traditions, and research (1995)
Chandler neglected the forces of competition (2010)

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