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Firms need to consider the type of product they are producing when making supply chain decisions (1997)
Humans are complex. 4 consumer behaviours – economic, responsive (to stimuli), social, psychological (emotional). (1980)
Example of low cost producer that charges higher prices thus conflicting with Porter's generic strategies
Younger companies have less ingrained cultures and so are more easily changed (1985)
Performance pay important as it aligns interest with organisation (1997)
long term forecasts are 'fundamentally useless' (1993)
Brand loyalty – a brand commands trust through heritage or innovativeness and can facilitate the approval of others. (2000)
Key to culture change is combining theory E and theory O e.g Jack Welch (2000)
Lean production is next stage of scientific management: it represents a retreat from extremes of specialisation and standardisation (2003)
Process technology (tools and devices) produce Product technology (e.g. iPhone) (1996)
Cheap Chinese labour becoming less viable as the country sees similar union movements to those of 1900s Britain. (2012)
Successful cultures are distinct and not easily imitated (1986)
Described the deep consumer-brand relationship. Emotions such as love and passion can be evoked – detachment if the product is removed. (e.g. ‘coke=happiness’ ‘LG=life’s
Technology can be sustainable of disruptive (2003)
Power is not wielded by an individual or group but dispersed and subject-less (1976)
Taylor and Ford both ignored emotional side of workers (1999)
Said CSR is future of business, what companies must do to survive where more behaviour is under the microscope.
Advertising seeks to create needs rather than fulfil them; to create new anxieties rather than allay old ones. (1978)
Described history of the firm (1984)
Brands become iconic by exploiting social dependencies (e.g. Nike just do it) (2006)
Brands are designed as the interface between consumer and product e.g. Uncle Ben's (trust) (2001)
Managerial work driven by rationality, historical traditions, and research (1995)
The modern corporation is a legal institution and thus can only be justified if it furthers desirable socioeconomic goals (2002)
Barriers to technology - uses example of new medical technology that would improve performance but was rejected because doctors lacked computer skills (2004)
Said CSR undesirable and dangerous by deflecting business from primary purpose (profit)
Said that Taylorism served as a tool to decrease power of workers/dehumanise them (1974)
Argues that emphasis on marketing over quality requires poor production quality (shift of manufacturing to 3rd world shows idea is more important than product.) (2000)
Firms focus on developing the dominant design in the pre-paradigmatic stage of innovation development (1986)
Discussed role of religion providing capital for many business ventures in Northern Europe (1920)
Consultants can exploit managers' vulnerability/uncertainty. Managers conversely can use consultants as scapegoats (1997)
Described Taylorism as INDIVIDUAL approach and Fordism as a WHOLE SYSTEM approach (1990)
Operational effectiveness is not strategy and simply leads to mutually destructive competition (1996)
From 1980-2003: 6-fold increase in executive compensation and market capitalisation (2008)
Discuss faddish cycles within management consultancy: 'adaptive emulation' (2001)
Consultants achieve economies of knowledge which have value (2007)
Consultants see trends; develop rhetoric, and sell ASAP (1996)
Differences in governance between Britain US etc. (1999)
Strength of culture determined by stability of group and intensity of shared experiences (1984)
Culture can influence strategy through ethics, flexibility and subcultures (i.e. conflict avoidance) (1995)
As innovations develop, firms shift from design competition to price competition (e.g. lightbulb) (1978)
Globalisation makes world a level playing field (thanks to internet, fall of communism etc) (2005)
Most successful organisations don't use formal planning (1978)
Sony were VCR innovators but out competed by JVC after pre-paradigmatic stage due to production power
Strategic planning is inflexible (1998)
Criticised Chandler for overlooking political issues e.g. Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 (broke up monopolies) (1980)
Consultants 'create a niche and persuade clients that they are within it' (1995)
Looked at introduction of ICT to an organisation. Information overload problem. (2012)
Note scarcity of top CEOs (2008)
Rise in small management consultancies - low fees/use of ex-McKinsey employees (2013)
Transaction costs can be reduced through developing better supply relations e.g. Toyota (2002)
Each organisation has three cultures: operators, engineers, executives (1984)
Market to consumer's needs and desires (1960)
Culture is a combination of artefacts, values and assumptions (1984)
A company creates brand equity through AUTHORITY, IDENTIFICATION, and APPROVAL (2000)
Five forces. Positioning company against competition. (1979)
Described fads as simple, prescriptive, easy to copy, and legitimised by gurus (2002)
Humans can be ordered into ‘complex organisations’. Whole is greater than sum of parts. (1995)
Described how Ford reduced Model T production time from 8.56 hours to 2.3 minutes, and then to 1.19 minutes with a conveyer belt (1990)
Formalist economic theory is 'basically platonic - pure, timeless valid under all circumstances, and highly abstrac (2002)
3 dimensions of power (1974)
Management performs best when it can adapt to unexpected problems (1998)
Describes rational planning – preparations are made based on expectations of future challenges (1985)
Focused factory where specialised plants re designed to make a certain group of products are more efficient (1974)
Power of brand curtails choice, enforcing ‘grey cultural homogeneity’ (2000)
Streamlining of global supply chains means that there is increased competition through branding (2006)
Culture can improve performance if it is aligned to the business environment (1996)
External cultures e.g. national also influence culture (1994)
Profitability is firm-specific not based on industry. (1991)
Anyone can call themselves a management consultancy. Consultants struggle to separate personal interests from job (opportunism) (1982)
CEO to average pay ratio has increased from 40 to 110 across all industries (2007)
Specialist consultants often prove to be value for money by solving specific problems using specific expertees
Notes emergence of universal corporate culture (1997)
Lean production is a high risk high reward strategy as it can leave companies vulnerable to supply shocks (1988)
Assembly line, simplification of work. Unskilled yet hard work.
To develop competitive advantage, firms must find an effective strategic position and fit within a market (e.g. southwest airlines) (1996)
World is semi-globalised – not level playing field. Boundaries include culture differences, administrative, geographic and economic (i.e. inequality).
Successful culture can improve productivity by 1 or 2 hours (1982)
Enterprise with clear sense of purpose more likely to be successful than guesswork and chance (1978)
Organisations are superior to markets as they can exploit human capacity (1996)
Empirical evidence that established firms struggle to adapt to technological advancement (e.g. Kodak). ‘Core competencies’ become ‘core rigidities’. (2000)
AAA framework of how to internationalise: adaptation, aggregation and arbitrage
No difference between culture and strategy - both provide continuity and identity (1985)
Brands are powerful enough to transform water, a free public good, into a high priced commodity. (2006)
Most important thing in terms of competitive advantage is a firm's distinct capabilities (1993)
Firms need to look to the future when making operating decisions and decide on two or three capabilities which they want to develop to have sustained competitiveness (1994)
Fayol theorised about managerial work rather than what it is in reality. (2010)
Over ¼ of an average worker’s day spent on emails. (2012)
A has power over B to the extent that s/he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do (1957)
No universal marketing theory due to human complexity (1974)
Theory only true if some observation could disprove it. (1972)
Strong culture: unites organisation but also inflexible (1994)
Middle ground - managerial work is based on the accumulation of various theories. (2006)
Talk about two types of uncertainty with management consultancy: institutional and transactional (2003)
3 fallacies of strategic planning - predetermination, detachment and formalisation (1994)
Call centre assembly line - service sector efficiency (2000)
Amazon's 'mechanical Turk'. Modern Fordism (2006)
Science undergoes a process of ‘paradigm shifts’ and progresses through these (1962)
Management controls boundaries of firm (1984)
Criticised TCE - even post merger, opportunism will exist (1996)
Stock options provide long term incentive for managers (1990)
Firms that treat their supply chain as a strategic asset achieve 70% higher performance (2012) e.g. Zara
Management is ‘culturally specific’ (1993)
Describes Toys R Us joint venture with McDonalds Japan in order to understand business in Japan.
Culture - either something an organisation has or is: if 'has' then more changeable than 'is' (1994)
Honda’s experimentation not suitable for all companies and relying on chance for success is not helpful to managers. (1996)
Describes risks of multinationalisation: political e.g DPRK, religious, legal, corruption. (2005)
Apple factory use a Tayloristic approach e.g. workers monitored through CCTV (2012)
Described Honda success in US markets which was assumed to be based on planning but was more based on adaptation. (1996)
Development of culture stems from leadership (1984)
Taylorism - Shift of power from workers, who do, to managers, who think(1997)
In their simplest sense brands provide a guarantee of quality and reliability (2001)
Technological determinism model too reductionist
Power comes from being in the right place (position/formal) not personal. (1981)
Culture promotes consistency of outlook (unified motivations) and helps individual decision making. (1994)
Formal power is based on position within organisation – personal power comes from individual’s unique skills. (2007)
Supports Porter - model highlights role of business in creating value (2002)
Substantial change in nature of managerial work represented by a shift from vertical to horizontal power relationships (1989)
only social responsibility of a company is to shareholder (i.e profit) (1970)
Scientific management; efficiency. Most suitable man for each task. Enure equal division between worker and manager (1911)
Hierarchy of needs (1943)
For profitability firms should invest in appropriate technologies that are easy to protect and are produced with complementary assets (1986)
Fordism - 'task cycle' of an individual worker drastically reduced - cost minimisation (1990)
Motivation is dependent upon meaningfulness, responsibility and knowledge of results (i.e. not necessarily pay) (1975)
Criticised Porter's model as it focusses on power and ignores cooperation (2005)
Scientific management served as a power tool for managers over workers (1974)
Empirically showed that managers with a 'need for power' were more successful (1976)
Outside CEOs paid more than inside CEOs therefore managerial influence not prime reason for increase in pay (2004)
Culture change is difficult because of multiple layers such as the universal culture, sub-cultures and constantly changing (1987)
Technology - computers take up jobs e.g. Snapchat worth $2bn with just 35 employees (2011)
Argue that competitive advantage lies with core competency (1990)
Introduced transaction costs. (imperfect information) (1937)
Compare deliberate and emergent planning - deliberate plans are 'realised as intended'; emergent plans are 'realised despite...intentions' (1994)
Use example of BPR as a detrimental fad - downsizing -> job losses and low morale (1998)
Purpose of managerial work is to maximise employee efficiency (1995)
Workers seen as technological capital rather than human capital (1997)
Management consultants transmit fads to enlarge the existing base of knowledge (1982)
People impose identity onto possessions and vice versa (1988)
Possessions linked to sense of self (1988)
Manager must understand new technology to maintain credibility (1996)
Market Politicisation - consumers voting with their dolla (2005)
Said that lean production and scientific management are unrelated because lean production takes a more humanistic approach (1994)
Describe rise in use of stock options of S&P 500 from 1992-2000: $11bn to $119bn (2003)
Not true that product differentiation and cost reduction are mutually exclusive (1993)
Increase in CEO pay linked to increase in managerial influence and power (2002)
Leaders change culture (1983)
Production line approach to service where service based firms focussed on efficiency and use a manufacturing approach e.g. McDonalds (1972)
Structure follows strategy - eg strategy of diversification leads to structure of multidivisional firm (1962)
Chandler neglected the importance of social factors (1997)
Uselessness of prediciton - in 1980 McKinsey told AT&T that the world market for mobile phones was 900000 (2004)
Define culture: pattern of beliefs, shared expectations and norms that shape behaviour (1981)
Firms don’t compete with firms. – supply chains compete with supply chains. (1994)
Porter’s ideas not scientific (Popper) and unhelpful practically (2005)
5 types of power: reward, coercive, referent legitimate, expert. (1959)
Due to extreme price competition in China corners may be cut. (2008)
Bounded rationality leads to transaction costs. (1981)
With Hawthorne experiments found that employee engagement is a better way to motivate than financial incentives
Note that in S&P 500 average ratio of CEO to average worker is 204 (2013)
Most easily manipulated people are children - until age of 8 children can't distinguish between entertainment and advertisement (2012)
Principle based system of operations
Chandler neglected the forces of competition (2010)
Culture change risky because it could dishearten potentially cynical employees (1997)
Technology is 'the processes by which an organisation transforms labour, capital, materials and information into products and services of greater value' (2003)
Social contract between business and society (1989)
Described 10 roles of managers: INTERPERSONAL, INFORMATIONAL, DECISIONAL (1975)
Culture emerges from social interaction therefore to change requires a change of people (1988)
Through study of microchip introduction they examined how a manager might successfully implement technological change. Methods include gradual implementation and proper training. (
Marketers do not create needs but influence wants (2002)
Described professionalisation - full time, formal training, standardised body of knowledge, establishment of code of ethics (1964)
CEO pay has increased due to increasing size and complexity of companies (2008)
Proposed a definition for corporate purpose: Rather than merely making money, it is to create and keep a customer. (1960)
National culture differences act as barriers to multinationalisation. (1980)
Mintzberg - management as it is. Fayol – as we would wish it to be (2004)
Consultants engineer new problems which they already have a solution to creating a dependency relationship with firms (2002)
Technology doubles every 2 years – first a measure but then became a driver of technological change (Intel) (1965)
Sharing of information is key to an effective supply chain (2009)
Culture is intangible and thus hard to change (1996)
Management consists of planning, organising, coordinating, commanding and contolling (1916)
Society controls technological advancements through deciding whether to accept innovations e.g. Edison modelled electric lighting system on existing gas system due to familiarity
Founder of TPS that said it was based on scientific management
McDonaldisation (homogeneity, rationality, standardisation) of society could reflect Fordism (2008)
CEO pay has increased due to the increased use of peer groups and benchmarking (2011)
Believed that Chandler failed to consider potential future development of business.
Complex contracts are costly and agents can act opportunistically. (1981)
Describe first mover advantage - innovators reap most profits (1988)
Employees should be able to use their intitiative and be involved in decision making (1949)
Hierarchical or compressed pay structure. (1999)
4 types of culture: power, role, task and people (1995)

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