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Can you name the General Management Revision 2

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Increase in CEO pay linked to increase in managerial influence and power (2002)
Focused factory where specialised plants re designed to make a certain group of products are more efficient (1974)
Note scarcity of top CEOs (2008)
Fayol theorised about managerial work rather than what it is in reality. (2010)
Structure follows strategy - eg strategy of diversification leads to structure of multidivisional firm (1962)
Humans are complex. 4 consumer behaviours – economic, responsive (to stimuli), social, psychological (emotional). (1980)
Employees should be able to use their intitiative and be involved in decision making (1949)
Specialist consultants often prove to be value for money by solving specific problems using specific expertees
Advertising seeks to create needs rather than fulfil them; to create new anxieties rather than allay old ones. (1978)
Management performs best when it can adapt to unexpected problems (1998)
Society controls technological advancements through deciding whether to accept innovations e.g. Edison modelled electric lighting system on existing gas system due to familiarity
Technology is 'the processes by which an organisation transforms labour, capital, materials and information into products and services of greater value' (2003)
Describe first mover advantage - innovators reap most profits (1988)
Scientific management served as a power tool for managers over workers (1974)
Consultants achieve economies of knowledge which have value (2007)
Call centre assembly line - service sector efficiency (2000)
Through study of microchip introduction they examined how a manager might successfully implement technological change. Methods include gradual implementation and proper training. (
Supports Porter - model highlights role of business in creating value (2002)
Formal power is based on position within organisation – personal power comes from individual’s unique skills. (2007)
Production line approach to service where service based firms focussed on efficiency and use a manufacturing approach e.g. McDonalds (1972)
Said CSR undesirable and dangerous by deflecting business from primary purpose (profit)
only social responsibility of a company is to shareholder (i.e profit) (1970)
Social contract between business and society (1989)
Amazon's 'mechanical Turk'. Modern Fordism (2006)
Culture emerges from social interaction therefore to change requires a change of people (1988)
Uselessness of prediciton - in 1980 McKinsey told AT&T that the world market for mobile phones was 900000 (2004)
Science undergoes a process of ‘paradigm shifts’ and progresses through these (1962)
long term forecasts are 'fundamentally useless' (1993)
Differences in governance between Britain US etc. (1999)
Formalist economic theory is 'basically platonic - pure, timeless valid under all circumstances, and highly abstrac (2002)
External cultures e.g. national also influence culture (1994)
Rise in small management consultancies - low fees/use of ex-McKinsey employees (2013)
Most important thing in terms of competitive advantage is a firm's distinct capabilities (1993)
Proposed a definition for corporate purpose: Rather than merely making money, it is to create and keep a customer. (1960)
Sony were VCR innovators but out competed by JVC after pre-paradigmatic stage due to production power
Culture is a combination of artefacts, values and assumptions (1984)
Porter’s ideas not scientific (Popper) and unhelpful practically (2005)
Bounded rationality leads to transaction costs. (1981)
Not true that product differentiation and cost reduction are mutually exclusive (1993)
Firms don’t compete with firms. – supply chains compete with supply chains. (1994)
Power comes from being in the right place (position/formal) not personal. (1981)
Humans can be ordered into ‘complex organisations’. Whole is greater than sum of parts. (1995)
Taylorism - Shift of power from workers, who do, to managers, who think(1997)
To develop competitive advantage, firms must find an effective strategic position and fit within a market (e.g. southwest airlines) (1996)
Describe rise in use of stock options of S&P 500 from 1992-2000: $11bn to $119bn (2003)
Culture is intangible and thus hard to change (1996)
Principle based system of operations
Notes emergence of universal corporate culture (1997)
Lean production is a high risk high reward strategy as it can leave companies vulnerable to supply shocks (1988)
Stock options provide long term incentive for managers (1990)
Strength of culture determined by stability of group and intensity of shared experiences (1984)
Use example of BPR as a detrimental fad - downsizing -> job losses and low morale (1998)
Globalisation makes world a level playing field (thanks to internet, fall of communism etc) (2005)
Due to extreme price competition in China corners may be cut. (2008)
Said that Taylorism served as a tool to decrease power of workers/dehumanise them (1974)
Market to consumer's needs and desires (1960)
Describes rational planning – preparations are made based on expectations of future challenges (1985)
Said CSR is future of business, what companies must do to survive where more behaviour is under the microscope.
Technological determinism model too reductionist
Firms need to consider the type of product they are producing when making supply chain decisions (1997)
Culture can improve performance if it is aligned to the business environment (1996)
Technology can be sustainable of disruptive (2003)
Apple factory use a Tayloristic approach e.g. workers monitored through CCTV (2012)
Argue that competitive advantage lies with core competency (1990)
Empirically showed that managers with a 'need for power' were more successful (1976)
Consultants 'create a niche and persuade clients that they are within it' (1995)
Substantial change in nature of managerial work represented by a shift from vertical to horizontal power relationships (1989)
Successful cultures are distinct and not easily imitated (1986)
Described fads as simple, prescriptive, easy to copy, and legitimised by gurus (2002)
Middle ground - managerial work is based on the accumulation of various theories. (2006)
Market Politicisation - consumers voting with their dolla (2005)
Most successful organisations don't use formal planning (1978)
Consultants engineer new problems which they already have a solution to creating a dependency relationship with firms (2002)
Management consultants transmit fads to enlarge the existing base of knowledge (1982)
Consultants can exploit managers' vulnerability/uncertainty. Managers conversely can use consultants as scapegoats (1997)
Described the deep consumer-brand relationship. Emotions such as love and passion can be evoked – detachment if the product is removed. (e.g. ‘coke=happiness’ ‘LG=life’s
Managerial work driven by rationality, historical traditions, and research (1995)
3 dimensions of power (1974)
AAA framework of how to internationalise: adaptation, aggregation and arbitrage
Described Honda success in US markets which was assumed to be based on planning but was more based on adaptation. (1996)
Firms that treat their supply chain as a strategic asset achieve 70% higher performance (2012) e.g. Zara
Described Taylorism as INDIVIDUAL approach and Fordism as a WHOLE SYSTEM approach (1990)
Purpose of managerial work is to maximise employee efficiency (1995)
Cheap Chinese labour becoming less viable as the country sees similar union movements to those of 1900s Britain. (2012)
With Hawthorne experiments found that employee engagement is a better way to motivate than financial incentives
Technology - computers take up jobs e.g. Snapchat worth $2bn with just 35 employees (2011)
Empirical evidence that established firms struggle to adapt to technological advancement (e.g. Kodak). ‘Core competencies’ become ‘core rigidities’. (2000)
Culture change risky because it could dishearten potentially cynical employees (1997)
For profitability firms should invest in appropriate technologies that are easy to protect and are produced with complementary assets (1986)
Consultants see trends; develop rhetoric, and sell ASAP (1996)
Motivation is dependent upon meaningfulness, responsibility and knowledge of results (i.e. not necessarily pay) (1975)
Mintzberg - management as it is. Fayol – as we would wish it to be (2004)
Scientific management; efficiency. Most suitable man for each task. Enure equal division between worker and manager (1911)
Believed that Chandler failed to consider potential future development of business.
Manager must understand new technology to maintain credibility (1996)
Management is ‘culturally specific’ (1993)
Power of brand curtails choice, enforcing ‘grey cultural homogeneity’ (2000)
Founder of TPS that said it was based on scientific management
As innovations develop, firms shift from design competition to price competition (e.g. lightbulb) (1978)
Technology doubles every 2 years – first a measure but then became a driver of technological change (Intel) (1965)
Discussed role of religion providing capital for many business ventures in Northern Europe (1920)
Organisations are superior to markets as they can exploit human capacity (1996)
Chandler neglected the forces of competition (2010)
World is semi-globalised – not level playing field. Boundaries include culture differences, administrative, geographic and economic (i.e. inequality).
Described how Ford reduced Model T production time from 8.56 hours to 2.3 minutes, and then to 1.19 minutes with a conveyer belt (1990)
Introduced transaction costs. (imperfect information) (1937)
Process technology (tools and devices) produce Product technology (e.g. iPhone) (1996)
Brands are designed as the interface between consumer and product e.g. Uncle Ben's (trust) (2001)
In their simplest sense brands provide a guarantee of quality and reliability (2001)
Argues that emphasis on marketing over quality requires poor production quality (shift of manufacturing to 3rd world shows idea is more important than product.) (2000)
3 fallacies of strategic planning - predetermination, detachment and formalisation (1994)
Leaders change culture (1983)
No universal marketing theory due to human complexity (1974)
Outside CEOs paid more than inside CEOs therefore managerial influence not prime reason for increase in pay (2004)
No difference between culture and strategy - both provide continuity and identity (1985)
Described history of the firm (1984)
A has power over B to the extent that s/he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do (1957)
CEO pay has increased due to the increased use of peer groups and benchmarking (2011)
CEO pay has increased due to increasing size and complexity of companies (2008)
Transaction costs can be reduced through developing better supply relations e.g. Toyota (2002)
Barriers to technology - uses example of new medical technology that would improve performance but was rejected because doctors lacked computer skills (2004)
Enterprise with clear sense of purpose more likely to be successful than guesswork and chance (1978)
Criticised Porter's model as it focusses on power and ignores cooperation (2005)
Operational effectiveness is not strategy and simply leads to mutually destructive competition (1996)
Possessions linked to sense of self (1988)
Power is not wielded by an individual or group but dispersed and subject-less (1976)
Each organisation has three cultures: operators, engineers, executives (1984)
Culture change is difficult because of multiple layers such as the universal culture, sub-cultures and constantly changing (1987)
Theory only true if some observation could disprove it. (1972)
Key to culture change is combining theory E and theory O e.g Jack Welch (2000)
Brands are powerful enough to transform water, a free public good, into a high priced commodity. (2006)
Assembly line, simplification of work. Unskilled yet hard work.
Streamlining of global supply chains means that there is increased competition through branding (2006)
Firms focus on developing the dominant design in the pre-paradigmatic stage of innovation development (1986)
Successful culture can improve productivity by 1 or 2 hours (1982)
4 types of culture: power, role, task and people (1995)
Taylor and Ford both ignored emotional side of workers (1999)
Honda’s experimentation not suitable for all companies and relying on chance for success is not helpful to managers. (1996)
A company creates brand equity through AUTHORITY, IDENTIFICATION, and APPROVAL (2000)
Discuss faddish cycles within management consultancy: 'adaptive emulation' (2001)
Complex contracts are costly and agents can act opportunistically. (1981)
Firms need to look to the future when making operating decisions and decide on two or three capabilities which they want to develop to have sustained competitiveness (1994)
People impose identity onto possessions and vice versa (1988)
Marketers do not create needs but influence wants (2002)
5 types of power: reward, coercive, referent legitimate, expert. (1959)
Strong culture: unites organisation but also inflexible (1994)
Fordism - 'task cycle' of an individual worker drastically reduced - cost minimisation (1990)
Lean production is next stage of scientific management: it represents a retreat from extremes of specialisation and standardisation (2003)
Described 10 roles of managers: INTERPERSONAL, INFORMATIONAL, DECISIONAL (1975)
Over ¼ of an average worker’s day spent on emails. (2012)
Younger companies have less ingrained cultures and so are more easily changed (1985)
Talk about two types of uncertainty with management consultancy: institutional and transactional (2003)
Culture - either something an organisation has or is: if 'has' then more changeable than 'is' (1994)
Culture promotes consistency of outlook (unified motivations) and helps individual decision making. (1994)
Sharing of information is key to an effective supply chain (2009)
Development of culture stems from leadership (1984)
Management consists of planning, organising, coordinating, commanding and contolling (1916)
Brand loyalty – a brand commands trust through heritage or innovativeness and can facilitate the approval of others. (2000)
Compare deliberate and emergent planning - deliberate plans are 'realised as intended'; emergent plans are 'realised despite...intentions' (1994)
Five forces. Positioning company against competition. (1979)
Most easily manipulated people are children - until age of 8 children can't distinguish between entertainment and advertisement (2012)
Criticised Chandler for overlooking political issues e.g. Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 (broke up monopolies) (1980)
The modern corporation is a legal institution and thus can only be justified if it furthers desirable socioeconomic goals (2002)
National culture differences act as barriers to multinationalisation. (1980)
Performance pay important as it aligns interest with organisation (1997)
Culture can influence strategy through ethics, flexibility and subcultures (i.e. conflict avoidance) (1995)
Criticised TCE - even post merger, opportunism will exist (1996)
Brands become iconic by exploiting social dependencies (e.g. Nike just do it) (2006)
Strategic planning is inflexible (1998)
Example of low cost producer that charges higher prices thus conflicting with Porter's generic strategies
Note that in S&P 500 average ratio of CEO to average worker is 204 (2013)
CEO to average pay ratio has increased from 40 to 110 across all industries (2007)
Anyone can call themselves a management consultancy. Consultants struggle to separate personal interests from job (opportunism) (1982)
Hierarchical or compressed pay structure. (1999)
Hierarchy of needs (1943)
Workers seen as technological capital rather than human capital (1997)
Describes risks of multinationalisation: political e.g DPRK, religious, legal, corruption. (2005)
Define culture: pattern of beliefs, shared expectations and norms that shape behaviour (1981)
Describes Toys R Us joint venture with McDonalds Japan in order to understand business in Japan.
Profitability is firm-specific not based on industry. (1991)
Said that lean production and scientific management are unrelated because lean production takes a more humanistic approach (1994)
From 1980-2003: 6-fold increase in executive compensation and market capitalisation (2008)
Management controls boundaries of firm (1984)
Described professionalisation - full time, formal training, standardised body of knowledge, establishment of code of ethics (1964)
Chandler neglected the importance of social factors (1997)
Looked at introduction of ICT to an organisation. Information overload problem. (2012)
McDonaldisation (homogeneity, rationality, standardisation) of society could reflect Fordism (2008)

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