History Quiz / World Politics Midterm Review

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Can you name the World Politics Midterm Review Key terms??

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DefinitionKey TermExample(s)
Term that implies not complete chaos but the lack of a central government that can enforce rules.Situtation before WWI: there was no central body to govern the world, nor a liberal institution. Because no one was in charge, everyone was vying for power.
The threat to punish another actor if it takes a certain negative action (especially attacking one's own state or one's allies).Mutually assured destruction, YAY! Cuban Missile Crisis, anything throughout Cold War, China threatening to wage war on Taiwan if it makes bid for independence
Generally, one of the half-dozen or so most powerful states; the great power club was exclusively European until the 20th century.US: strong military, nuclear power, permanent position on UN Security Council.
a tangible or intangible good, created by the members of a group that is available to all group members regardless of their individual contributions; participants can gain by lowerDisaster relief, human rights issues, pollution, oil control (OPEC)
The use of force to make another actor take some action (rather than, as in deterrence, refrain from taking an action).1. NATO bombing of Yugoslavia to get Milosevic to withdraw forces from Kosovo. 2. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end WWII. 3. 1st Gulf War
A model that sees foreign policy decisions as flowing from a bargaining process among various government agencies that have somewhat divergent interests in the outcome ('where you US government actions? - say there's an environmental issue, EPA would be on one side while another department could be on another. Or Congress disagreeing with something or other. XP
Warfare without front lines and with irregular forces operating in the midst of, and often hidden or protected by, civilian populations.Vietnam War, War in Afghanistan, American Revolution, Iraq War
A form of nationalism whose goal is to regain territory lost to another state; it can lead directly to violent interstate conflicts.War of 1812, Franco-Prussian War (Alsace & Lorraine), anything to do with Israel and Palestine
War for control of the entire world order - the rules of the international system as a whole. Also known as world war, global war, general war, or systematic war.WWI and WWII. Duh.
The argument that regimes are most effective when power in the international system is most concentrated.Fact that there has not been a total war since the US became virtually the most powerful state in the world.
Organization that operate by reciprocal contributions and concessions among formal equal members.United Nations, European Union, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization
A state that holds a preponderance of power in the international systemSee GREAT POWER. :P
One of the states that rank somewhat below the great powers in terms of their influence on world affairs.Brazil, India, South Africa, Japan, etc.
DefinitionKey TermExample(s)
A set of rules, norms, and procedures which actors agree on - can help solve collective goods problems.Kyoto Protocol - international environmental treaty created to lower green house gas emissions (US did not agree to this). Also human rights
A decision-making model in which policy makers or lower-level officials rely largely on standardized responses or standard operating procedures.Soviets in Cuba setting up nuclear missiles, any time that the US fights guerillas because we always follow the same procedure.
A model in which decision makers calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs. (perceived, anyAmerican Revolution, Bay of Pigs Invasion, War in Iraq, etc.
a peace that resolves the underlying reasons for war; not just a cease-fire but a transformation of relationships, including elimination or reduction of economic exploitation and pGermany-Japan-US after WWII, Canada-US after War of 1812, France-Germany after WWII
A decision-making theory that holds that options are assessed by comparison to a reference point, which is often the status quo but might be some past or expected situation. The moAppeasement of Nazi Germany - giving up Sudentenland and ultimately Czechoslovakia because Great Britain and France did not want to upset the balance of power.
A theory that the largest wars result from challenges to the top position in the status hierarchy, when a rising power is surpassing (or threatening to surpass) the most powerful sNazi Germany trying to conquer all of Europe,
A follower of a version of realist theory that emphasizes the influence on state behavior of the system's structure, especially the international distribution of power.Post-WWII Germany - redistribution of power after Treaty of Versailles left Germany in weak, angry state that helped Hitler to rise to power.
An approach that stresses the importance of international institutions in reducing the inherent conflict that realists assume in an international system; the reasoning is based on Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty - loss of some nuclear arms but ultimately decreased international tensions.
A situation in which actions states take to ensure their own security (such as deploying more military forces) are perceived as threats to the security of other states.Nuclear proliferation, arms race of any sort,
Warfare by one state waged to conquer and occupy another; it originated in the Napoleonic Wars, which relied on conscription on a mass scale.Napoleonic Wars, attacking civilians or attacking factories - waging war on support of troops to shake it. See WWII again - Japan would have kept fighting unless we dropped bombs. Most likely.
Situation in which one actor's gain is by definition equal to the other's loss, as opposed to a non-zero-sum game, in which it is possible for both actors to gain (or lose).The entire Cold War. Nuclear proliferation in general (such as Iran getting nukes => would make us feel threatened
A state's right, at least in principle, to do whatever it wants within its own territory; traditionally, sovereignty is the most important international norm.Yay for violating international law - Stalinist Russia with the Great Purges, Darfur, internment camps in the US, Iraq and the Kurds, South Africa's apartheid!
The act of finding a satisfactory or 'good enough' solution to a problem.Any time you have to make a pressure decision: Cuban Missile Crisis result (still a Cold War going on and all. Better yet, putting up the blockade to stop the Soviet ships), Camp David Accords, US and Korea (after years of fighting, split of the Koreas

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